Civil War-Battle of Gettysburg- student reading assign.

The Civil War

Class notes-The Battle of Gettysburg

The Battle of Gettysburg, fought from July 1 to July 3, 1863, is considered the most important engagement of the American Civil War. After a great victory over Union forces at Chancellorsville, General Robert E. Lee marched his Army of Northern Virginia into Pennsylvania in late June 1863. On July 1st the Union army was the first to arrive at Gettysburg. Scouts were sent out to discover that the Confederate army was headed to Gettysburg also.

On July 1, the advancing Confederates clashed with the Union’s Army of the Potomac, commanded by General George G. Meade, at the crossroads town of Gettysburg. The next day saw even heavier fighting, as the Confederates attacked the Federals on both left and right. On July 3, Lee ordered an attack by fewer than 15,000 troops on the enemy’s center at Cemetery Ridge. The assault, known as “Pickett’s Charge,” managed to pierce the Union lines but eventually failed, at the cost of thousands of rebel casualties, and Lee was forced to withdraw his battered army toward Virginia on July 4.(source,

Battle of Gettysburg: Lee’s Invasion of the North

In May 1863, Robert E. Lee‘s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia had scored a smashing victory over the Army of the Potomac at Chancellorsville. Brimming with confidence, Lee decided to go on the offensive and invade the North for a second time (the first invasion had ended at Antietam the previous fall). In addition to bringing the conflict out of Virginia and diverting northern troops from Vicksburg, where the Confederates were under siege, Lee hoped to gain recognition of the Confederacy by Britain and France and strengthen the cause of northern “Copperheads” who favored peace. 

On the Union side, President Abraham Lincoln had lost confidence in the Army of the Potomac’s commander, Joseph Hooker, who seemed reluctant to confront Lee’s army after the defeat at Chancellorsville. On June 28, Lincoln named Major General George Gordon Meade to succeed Hooker. Meade immediately ordered the pursuit of Lee’s army of 75,000, which by then had crossed the Potomac River into Maryland and marched on into southern Pennsylvania.

Battle of Gettysburg Begins: July 1

Upon learning that the Army of the Potomac was on its way, Lee planned to assemble his army in the prosperous crossroads town of Gettysburg, 35 miles southwest of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. One of the Confederate divisions in A.P. Hill’s command approached the town in search of supplies early on July 1, only to find that two Union cavalry brigades had arrived the previous day. As the bulk of both armies headed toward Gettysburg, Confederate forces (led by Hill and Richard Ewell) were able to drive the outnumbered Federal defenders back through town to Cemetery Hill, located a half mile to the south. 

Seeking to press his advantage before more Union troops could arrive, Lee gave discretionary orders to attack Cemetery Hill to Ewell, who had taken command of the Army of Northern Virginia’s Second Corps after Lee’s most trusted general, Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, was mortally wounded at Chancellorsville. Ewell declined to order the attack, considering the Federal position too strong; his reticence would earn him many unfavorable comparisons to the great Stonewall. By dusk, a Union corps under Winfield Scott Hancock had arrived and extended the defensive line along Cemetery Ridge to the hill known as Little Round Top; three more Union corps arrived overnight to strengthen its defenses.

Battle of Gettysburg, Day 2: July 2

As the next day dawned, the Union Army had established strong positions from Culp’s Hill to Cemetery Ridge. Lee assessed his enemy’s positions and determined–against the advice of his defensively minded second-in-command, James Longstreet–to attack the Federals where they stood. He ordered Longstreet to lead an attack on the Union left, while Ewell’s corps would strike the right, near Culp’s Hill. Though his orders were to attack as early in the day as possible, Longstreet didn’t get his men into position until 4 pm, when they opened fire on the Union corps commanded by Daniel Sickles. 

Over the next several hours, bloody fighting raged along Sickles’ line, which stretched from the nest of boulders known as Devil’s Den into a peach orchard, as well as in a nearby wheat field and on the slopes of Little Round Top. Thanks to fierce fighting by one Minnesota regiment, the Federals were able to hold Little Round Top, but lost the orchard, field and Devil’s Den; Sickles himself was seriously wounded. Ewell’s men had advanced on the Union forces at Culp’s Hill and East Cemetery Hill in coordination with Longstreet’s 4 pm attack, but Union forces had stalled their attack by dusk. Both armies suffered extremely heavy losses on July 2, with 9,000 or more casualties on each side. The combined casualty total from two days of fighting came to nearly 35,000, the largest two-day toll of the war.

Battle of Gettysburg, Day 3: July 3

Early on the morning of July 3, Union forces of the Twelfth Army Corps pushed back a Confederate threat against Culp’s Hill after a seven-hour firefight and regained their strong position. Believing his men had been on the brink of victory the day before, Lee decided to send three divisions (preceded by an artillery barrage) against the Union center on Cemetery Ridge. Fewer than 15,000 troops, led by a division under George Pickett, would be tasked with marching some three-quarters of a mile across open fields to attack dug-in Union infantry positions. 

Despite Longstreet’s protests, Lee was determined, and the attack–later known as “Pickett’s Charge”–went forward around 3 pm, after an artillery bombardment by some 150 Confederate guns. Union infantry opened fire on the advancing rebels from behind stone walls, while regiments from Vermont, New York and Ohio hit both of the enemy’s flanks. Caught from all sides, barely half of the Confederates survived, and Pickett’s division lost two-thirds of its men. As the survivors stumbled back to their opening position, Lee and Longstreet scrambled to shore up their defensive line after the failed assault. (source

Battle of Gettysburg: Aftermath and Impact

His hopes of a victorious invasion of the North dashed, Lee waited for a Union counterattack on July 4, but it never came. That night, in heavy rain, the Confederate general withdrew his decimated army toward Virginia. Though the cautious Meade would be criticized for not pursuing the enemy after Gettysburg, the battle was a crushing defeat for the Confederacy. Union casualties in the battle numbered 23,000, while the Confederates had lost some 28,000 men–more than a third of Lee’s army. The North rejoiced while the South mourned, its hopes for foreign recognition of the Confederacy erased. 

Demoralized by the defeat at Gettysburg, Lee offered his resignation to President Jefferson Davis, but was refused. Though the great Confederate general would go on to win other victories, the Battle of Gettysburg (combined with Ulysses S. Grant‘s victory at Vicksburg, also on July 4) irrevocably turned the tide of the Civil War in the Union’s favor.

Facts about General Lee

1. born January 19, 1807

2. died October 12, 1870

3. married Mary Custis and had seven kids

4. Mary is the great granddaughter of Martha Washington, first lady

5. General Lee fell off his horse and broke both wrists and after a month’s absence returned to the command.

6. General Lee had a heart attack and actually recovered and 6 weeks later returned to active duty.

5. Lee’s father was a famous American revolution general called lighthorse harry

6. General Lee was a West Point Graduate.

7. General Lee’s last words were strike the tent!

8. After the loss at Gettysburg, General Lee wrote a letter of resignation to confederate president Jefferson Davis but Davis refused

9. Robert didn’t own slaves.

10. General Lee was 63 years of age when he died.

Read more: (credits)

Syllabus for Adobe Photoshop series

Syllabus –Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS series

By Dr. Pelham Mead


Description of Course: This is an introductory blended online course for students who wish to learn how to use Adobe Photoshop CS series. The course covers everything from the simplest tools, and how to use them, to layering and how to work with layers. Each week (13 weeks), one or more photo projects will be due by the Monday of the following week. This course is all about hands-on participation, and some discussion about obstacles in completing the weekly photo project. Students taking the course will need a copy of Adobe Photoshop CS2 or CS3. It is available free for 60 days online at Skills as well as concepts in solving photo problems will be assessed so there will be quizzes, a midterm and a written final project based on previous projects and the concepts learned.

This course is good for students who want to learn how to create quality graphics and manipulate photos.  Students must make a commitment of at least 5 hours a week to complete their photo assignments. Some assignments are short, and take only 30 minutes, and others are more complex, and will take 2 hours or more. All samples are provided in .pdf format so that they cannot be copied. Each week is a Module, and will be found in the Blackboard Documents

Instructor Information

Dr. Pelham Mead

Office: eTeachUSA online

e-mail : See Blackboard e-mail system

Note: For course related issues, please use the e-mail system in Blackboard.

Textbook and Supplemental


No Textbook is required, however if you want a more detailed description of some of the projects like the Melon Man project, you can find it in Adobe Photoshop in the Classroom series 4,5, 6, 7, or 8.

Most of the project descriptions will be done in the classroom, however if you miss the class you may be able to find a similar project on the Internet.

Module Submissions

All submissions will be via the Blackboard lockbox feature. This will apply a time stamp for your protection that your submission was in on time 12:00 midnight on each Monday. When I open your submission, Blackboard will automatically send you a receipt via e-mail that your project was received.

Topics Included in this Course


Toolbar skills:  oval, square cutters, lasso tool, magic wand tool, painting, erasing, lifting and placing objects. Working with fonts and lettering. Shadowing, bevel, and other shape additions. Shadow reduction techniques. Working with black and white photos or converting color photos to black and white. Editing and repairing old photos. Working with layers, flattening layers, and overlaying layers.

Special printing techniques, automatic tasks, fitting more than one photo on a page and setting printers for different photo paper. These are a few but not all the skills and concepts that will be taught.

The Course structure


This course runs the entire semester, including online orientation. The course is a combination of hands-on photo projects that teach certain Photoshop tools and photo editing concepts. Each week is a different module or Module and will be contained in a folder in Blackboard’s Documents section listed as Module 1 which is week one and Module 2, and so forth.  Thirteen Modules plus a midterm test and a Final written test compromise 15 weeks total.

You will be required to log on to Blackboard everyday, and sometimes several times a day, especially when you are having difficulty understanding the project. You are being evaluated on how many times you log on so feel free to log on as often as possible. If you have a question about the course in general then post your comments in the Instructor’s Office Folder. These are general questions that everyone can read and understand. For specific project related or personal comments use the Blackboard e-mail. That way your e-mail wouldn’t get lost in my regular NYIT mail.

Check the course master Calendar to know what project is due each week. When you project is finished you should use the Blackboard Assignment Section to send it to me. Do not use my personal e-mail to attach projects. It is possible sometimes that a particular .jpg photo may be too large to attach to an e-mail. In that case, try to .pdf the .jpg photo to reduce the size of the file.

As in a regular course, attendance is mandatory. If you fall behind three projects then you might want to consider withdrawing from the course. If you project comes in late on Tuesday when it is due on Monday there will be a penalty of dropping your grade by one letter grade for lateness.

Communication Tools


Since this is a Blended Online course you will have the opportunity to meet with me once a week for one hour to help you through the assignment for the week. You do not want to miss this session since I will not in most cases be giving you a step-by-step account of how to complete the photo project. I will give you specific requirements and you will have to figure them out by yourself if you do not come to the weekly class labs.

We will not be using the Chat function because of the difficulty of setting a time for everyone. You can however use chat among yourselves when working on a project at a group. There will be a few group projects for you to work on during the course.


The whiteboard can be a useful addition to chat.


Remember to use the Blackboard e-mail system so that I can tell who is sending me a message and not get it confused with my regular office e-mail.







Projects=5 pts. Each= 65 total

Quizzes= 5 pts.x3=      15 total

Discussion on line, participation=15

Final exam=5 pts.

Total= 100 pts.



Projects for the Course



Module 1-Melon head project- using cutting and pasting tools

                  Using a Mr. Melon head we cut and drag eyes, mouth, nose, ears and hat onto another canvas.


Module 2-Bear Mountain bridge project- Editing tools

                  With a photo of Bear Mountain bridge (located in New York), remove the bad parts of the photo and the cones on the road using edit skills, cloning, painting, erasing and color matching.


Module 3-Scotland Girl project- Editing, shading, erasing, cloning skills

A project that takes an hour or more in a pastel painting on a sidewalk in Edinburgh, Scotland. Mission is to remove the cracks in the sidewalk from the girls head.


Module 4-Limo Project- Editing, color matching, erasing, text skills         

                  You have a bus-limo photo and you want to remove the bus lettering and put in NYIT letters instead. Then find photos of 3 people and reduce them in size to match the limo dpi and insert them in the limo windows.



Module 5-College Banner project- Web banner skills-

In this project you will put together a Web Banner using several photos and text layered on top. Flatten the layered photo into a .jpg and you are done.


Module 6-Coyote project- drawing skills, pen and brush

This is an Adobe in the Classroom book project from Book 4 or 5. It forces you to use the pen and drawing skills in Photoshop. I have taught this dozens of times and there were some errors in the book that had to be adjusted when doing the project.


Module 7-Draw bridge project- editing, cutting and drag and drop skills

The  Amish in Pennsylvania  do not like you to take their photos, however, I caught this Amish horse and wagon entering a covered bridge. Use your erasing skills and remove them from the photo.


Module 8- Church steeple project- using the magic wand

This is the steeple of the “Fish” church in Stamford, Conn.  It is a perfect detailed project for using the Adobe Photoshop “magic wand tool.”  Students will use the magic want to fill in the pipes and stairs in the tower and then Control key, left mouse down and drag to another blank canvas of the same dpi as the original photo.


Module 9- Layer slicing with a hat- creating the ultimate 3-D effect with layer slicing

This is a fun project that creates a baseball hat into a 3-D effect by using layer slicing techniques.


Module 10- Lighthouse Project- more discrete editing skills-

This photo needs to be made lighter and improved the shadows with special skill tools.


Module 12- Lilies Project- easy replication of cut and drag tools-

This is a quick project that emphasizes the use of the clone tools.

NOTE: Modules after Module 12 are in additional to the regular assignments and considered Optional for extra credit. Do not work on Modules 13-19 unless you have permission from the instructor.


Module 13- NY City layered Project- cut and drag skills

                  I combined two projects, a banner with fill in boxes and the Gates Project seen in Central Park a few years ago where an artist places beautiful gates of orange fabric gates all over Central Park. Cutting and dragging skills apply here.


Module 14- Printing skills Project- auto and manual printing of photos different sizes

How to print more than one photo on a page. How to do proofs for photos and how to use the automatic features in printing in Photoshop.


Module 15-Venice Boats Project- editing, special paste option tool

                  This is another old Adobe Photoshop in the Classroom project in which the special paste function is used with great results of a Venice photo.


Module 16- Watermarks Project- creating watermarks on paper

                  Watermarks are fonts created in black and white that are washed out to become a letter watermark background.


Module 17- Copyrighting- how to digitally embed copyrighting

                  This is a free tool for the first time in which you can embed digital copyright material to protect your photos from being illegally used.


Module 18- Loading Brushes Project- How to do

Brushes are also like ink stamps. Many different sizes and figures can be loaded into the brush menu and used.


Module 19- Assorted small projects supplement- a few small projects combined-

Some extra bonus work available for bonus credit if you finish you projects early each week.



Civil War-The Battle of Gettysburg, class preparation

Civil War Lesson Plan

Civil War Lesson Plan Dr. Pelham Mead IIIHistory

Dec. 2011


This interactive lesson focuses on the student reading about the Battle Of Gettysburg, Pa.. Student will have an information sheet on the Battle to use as a resource. While discussing the Battle of Gettysburg some information will be provided on a blog on the internet as a teaching tool. Secondly, as a form of assessment students will participate in an educational interactive game of question and answer and checkers.


The main objective of this five-minute teaching demonstration is to show how to use interactive and student engagement techniques in a classroom using the Civil War and The Battle of Gettysburg as the topic.

  • 1-To learn some facts about the Battle of Gettysburg and it’s importance in the Civil war.
  • 2- To become familiar with General Lee and General Meade and their role in the battle.
  • 3- To establish the time line of the Battle of Gettysburg.
  • 4-To assess what the student have learned or are learning using the resource sheets on the Civil War and the Battle of Gettysburg by using a unique question and answer approach to an interactive game of checkers in Powerpoint.
  • 5-To demonstrate briefly another interactive assessment educational game called Decisions Cards for Civil War Generals.


A quick review of part of the Battle of Gettysburg

  • Game of Checkers, assessment activity (question and answer) recalling what was read and what is on the resource sheet given out.
  • Decisions –Generals Cards, another interactive essay or discussion game.


An electronic bulletin board would better provide for interactive checkers to be moved around the checkerboard using powerpoint.

A class can be divided in half and one side can challenge the other side with questions from the notes and readings about General Lee, and the Battle of Gettysburg in the Civil War.


The game of Checkers act as an assessment tool without seeming to be a test of knowledge

The Decision Cards of Generals gives students an opportunity to express themselves with real life decisions about the Battle of Gettysburg and “what if scenarios afterward.

Presented by Dr. Pelham K. Mead III, Columbia Univ. Ed.D. 1992


¡  Preprinted information sheets will be handed out.

¡  Documents posted to Blackboard

¡  Documents posted to

¡  Decision Cards for Generals printed up and handed out at the correct time.

Other Resources web site for information on the Civil War and for the Battle of Gettysburg.

General Lee’s Army “From Victory to Collapse,” author: Joseph T. Glatthaar, Free Press, 2008

Engaging Students

Engaging students it to motivate them, involve them in the presentation, lecture or discussion rather than being “sea slugs” absorbing whatever floats by.