Looking Back at the Title V federal grant at the College of Mount Saint Vincent, Riverdale, Bronx, New York 2001-2005.

by Dr. Pelham Mead III

A true story of a five year Title V federal grant at the College of Mount Saint Vincent, a small Catholic College in Riverdale, New York, 2001-2005.

Twenty years ago in May of 2001 I was hired as the Director of the Teacher Learning Center at the College of Mount Saint Vincent in Riverdale, New York, on the border of Westchester county and the Bronx on the Hudson River. The Associate Dean at the time interview me first and I was recommended by Sister Margaret who was the Department chairperson of the Education Department. Originally, the Fall before in 2000 I applied for a job as a Professor of Special Education and Sister Margaret passed my name along as a possible Director of the Title V, Hispanic Serving Institutions grant for 1.1 million dollars.

The Dean of Students previously wrote the Title V grant but when it was awarded she had taken a leave of absence to care for her son in Arizona who was in a car crash. She never returned, so the 160 page grant was never read by anyone in the College. President Richard Flynn was hired in January of 2001 and insisted that someone be hired to run the Title V grant project for five years. I was interviewed in April 2001 and after several interviews including a group interview of ten people and a final interview by the President. There was no Teacher Learning Center at the time and no office.

After I was hired there was no office for me to work in. I stayed a week in the Reading Center until they could find an office. A storage closet on the four floor of the Administration building was selected. At the time it was full of cabinets and had no desks or chairs.

My first job was to hire an office assistant. I was allowed to pick my own office assistant, so I chose a Cambodian woman who was in my Computer training class at BOCES of Nyack. Her name was Py Liv Sun. I selected her because she was a quick learner and hard worker. I needed someone I could trust and depend on to keep track of the purchase orders and financial records. Py Liv was a a perfect choice. She lived in Suffern, so she drove to my house in Nyack and left her car there and we drove in together to the College of Mount Saint Vincent for five years. Later on I hired a Teaching Assistant, Christine Servano, who was an outstanding student in my Adobe Photoshop course at BOCES.

My second big task was cleaning out the storage room so we could set up office for the new Teacher Learner Center. I called Facilities many times to remove the metal cabinets, but they never came. Py Liv and I moved the cabinets out ourselves leaving them in the hallway to be removed. Finally, Facilities removed them. Next we needed furniture, so we were told there was old furniture in the fifth floor attic we could take. There was only one elevator that went to the fifth floor attic. We found office chairs and several desks in the attic. I got a hand cart from the basement and Py Liv and I moved the tables and chairs down the elevator to our new office on the fourth floor.

The clean-up came next. The place was dusty and filthy. We had to scrub all the wall and the floor before we could sit in the office. Eventually, I got approval to hire someone to paint the walls to cover all the cracks and stains. The ceiling lights needed new bulbs and the windows needed caulking to fill the cracks. Finally, we settled in and I was able to order several computers to work with using Title V grant money. All expenses had to be approved by the College Provost before I could order anything. Our budget for the first year was $340,000 dollars. All of it had to be spent or our account would be red flagged. The grant called for five smart classrooms a year to be installed on the campus. I reached out to the VP of Finance and the Director of Facilities for help in finding classrooms to upgrade to Smart Classrooms, but I got no cooperation all summer of 2001. Every time I called the Director of Facilities he ducked out on me. For some reason he did not want to be involved in the Title V grant development.

I interviewed Professors that were still on campus in May and June of 2001 and found some supportive friends for technology. Professor Pat Grove in Biology was one of my biggest supporters and had previously pushed for technology at CMSV. Dean Bob Coleman in the Communications department was another great supporter. He told me the history of the College in relation to technology and the hiring of an outside agency to run the college computer and technology program at the cost of five million dollars. Sister Margaret was also a good friend in helping to get teachers to sign up for Instructional Technology tutoring with the Teacher Learner Center. Sue Apold was the Director of the Nursing Department at the time and she personally came down for instruction from me in the first year. I was able to help her Professors write two successful grants for the Nursing Department. Professor Kathy Flaherty won a Masters Degree plus certificate Nurse training program from the New York State Education department. I helped write all the technical specs for that program and helped teach Nurses with Master degrees who wanted a certificate to teach on the college level but did not want to take a Doctor degree to do so.

The second Nursing grant for $650,000. dollars was a technology Nursing grant from the Federal Office of Health. I had to install a MAC lab for that grant and train the teaching Professors how to use the MAC Computers. We converted two old unused classrooms into a computer lab. I helped file all the Assessment paperwork for the Nursing Professors and kept all their equipment up to date. They had to film or video tape lectures for future reference, so I filmed the lessons and showed the Professors how to use iMovie and Final Cut Pro edit the movies and see them to a server.

Back to the Teacher learner center. The Associate Dean who hired me ran the Reading center for students and was very popular, but not with the new President. He forced her to retire in a year and all of a sudden she was gone to Canada to retire. There were a lot of turnovers in the Administration especially at the VP of Finance and Comptroller positions. The VP of Finance had spent funds from the grant illegally and without permission of the new incoming President for a financial software program costing $60,000. I found about the expenditure when I did the first year Assessment report and realized that $60,000 was unaccounted for. With some research, Py Liv and I went through all the purchase orders prior to my being hired from the fall of 2000. Lo and behold we found monthly payments to a software program in Indiana and signed by the VP of Finance. I knew that being the new guy in administration I could not opposed the VP of Finance until I had more evidence. I was able to absorb the expense within the ten percent rule the first year, but eventually, I had to inform the President that the VP of Finance has spent $60,000 from the grant illegally before he or I were hired in the fall of 2000. The President confronted the VP of Finance with the copies of the purchase orders Py Liv and I found and he was fired. The Director of Facilities was also fired for refusin to cooperated with the Title V grant.

After a whole summer of planning and interviewing administrators and faculty I achieved no progress on constructing the five smart classrooms in the goals of the Title V grant, thanks to the lack of cooperation from the Director of Facilities. Finally, when all hope dimmed and the first year grant was about to expire on September 30, 2001, I went to the President and told him the Director of Facilities had blocked me all summer and prevented me from installing any smart classrooms as required by the Title V grant. I informed the President that if we did not install the smart classrooms and spent the money, we would lose the 1.1 million dollar grant from the US Department of Education. He was furious that the director was not cooperating. The President told me to do what ever it took to install the five smart classrooms that weekend before there grant expired. “Do whatever it takes,” he told me.So I hired a subcontractor that was a specialist in smart classroom installations for $25,000. Sister Mary Edward the administrator of the Biology building helped me renovate the Biology 90 seat lecture hall. We could not safely remove a giant ceiling projector without danger to the workers. Sister Mary Edward talked the college plumber, a devote Catholic, into climbing through the ceiling to reach the heavy projector and lower it down by rope to the floor. I was nervous he would get injured, but luckily all went well. Sister Mary Edward helped me plan the TV wall rack which had to be drilled through a brick wall to hold it up. We ran a LAN wire from the computer server closet for WAN access for computers. The chemistry counter was removed and an electronic giant movie screen was also installed. Sister Mary Edward got President Flynn to replace the broken plastic seats and new curtains for the faded and torn old curtains. It was a very successful smart classroom conversion thanks to her help and Professor Pat Grove.

Back in the administration building I chose rooms 410 and 412 and on the third floor 310 and 308 classrooms with fifteen foot ceilings. Room 410 had been started but never finished as a smart classroom previously. It had defective windows that were broken and cracked that had to be replaced. The LAN system was drilled through the floors to the server closet on the first floor. Later on as technology improved I installed portable wireless modems. Eventually, I copied the UCLA approach and had the wireless modems installed on the telephone poles in front of the Administration building. This saved thousands of dollars in not having to put a modem in every classroom.

I began installed year two smart classrooms the fall of 2002 to make sure we had plenty of time to do it right. Meanwhile, My first class of professors had started. The professors were too interested in what the other professors were doing than what they were learning. I had to scrap the classroom approach and switch to individual tutoring to custom design the instructional technology to each Professors needs and learning ability level. Each Professor got an hour a week for 14 weeks in which they received a stipend of $1600. This factor alone made the TLC program very popular. In addition I ordered Laptop computers to loan out to Professors to use for the semester. Most of the King brand desktop computers were broken and beyond repair in most Professor’s offices. The five million dollar fee for an outside company did not go very far. Being that I had access to funds and the Technology department did not, I was able to get their cooperation.

A third priority was to establish a TLC web site with online learning courses in Photoshop, MS Word, Powerpoint, and Access. I also taught podcasting and movie editing to advanced Professors. To keep the graduates of the TLC program active and involved, I offered monthly Grad dinners in which I brought homemade chili, Py liv brought Cambodian spring rolls and Christine brought Filipino Adobo Beef. The unique foreign meals were a big hit. I reported the TLC progress and offered lunch time catch up clinic in new programs.

Installing Blackboard was the next major priority. I had to learn the program from scratch and then teach it to all the faculty. It took help from Manhattan college to install the program. I then had to manually upload each professor’s classiest and teach them how to upload their syllabus and use the lockbox. I was the administrator for three years until Manhattan college hired a full time person.

The biggest and most difficult job was a costly installation of the Banner all-college system. Manhattan College again provided tech support. The cost of the modules was thousands o dollars and training was included for the student database, registrar, financial, admissions and accounting modules for staff. The installation was so expensive it had to be spread out over a couple of years. The Banner system completely replaced the previous Manhattan college and College of Mount Saint Vincent systems. It was a very complicated and expensive process.

Dressed up in my Columbia Doctor’s Robe for Graduation ceremonies at CMSV.



My Years at the College of Mount Saint Vincent as Director of the Teacher learner Center and Coordinator of the Title V federal grant for 1.1 million.

Dr. Pelham Mead, Director of the College of Mount Saint Vincent Teacher Learning Center 2001-2005.
Dr. Pelham Mead at CMSV graduation with Sister Mary Edward Zipf, Sisters of Charity and Biology Professor.

The College of Mount Saint Vincent Biology Building 2002

The College of Mount Saint Vincent administrative building 2002.

Communications Department. Sister Pat

My hard working assistant Mrs. Py Liv Sun at the CMSV Teacher Learning Center 2002-2005.

Professor Kathy Flannigan, Nursing Professor.

The first Smart Classroom presentation in 2002 Fall, room 210.

Dr. Mead and Kathy relaxing at the monthly TLC graduate dinner at the College of Mount Saint Vincent. Kathy was one of the first Professors to complete the TLC tutoring program.

Christine Servano, my TLC teaching Assistant

Christine the TLC teaching assistant working with a Business Professor.

Professor Arlene Moliterno teaching in a Smart Classroom 2002.

Smart Classroom with electronic movie screen, TV mounted on the wall, overhead projector and LAN access with portable Laptop computer.


Py Liv Sun and Professor of Sociology 2003.

Dr. Pelham Mead attending College ceremonies in the fall of 2001.

Professor Pat Grove, Biology in her Office 2002.

The Biology Classroom 2002.

Christine TLC teaching assistant helps Professor Moliterno.

Professor Barbara Cohen, Nursing Graduate Professor 2002.

TLC Assistant Py Liv Sun and Christine Servano working at their desks in the Teacher learning lab 2001.

Newly renovated smart classroom -Biology Lecture hall, With the help of Sister Mary Edward, Biology administrator we completed the upgrade in September 2001. The old projector was taken down and a new $5,000 projector was installed. LAN access was installed and the Chemistry counter was removed. An electronic movie screen was installed and a 37 inch TV mounted through a brick wall to the right.

Dedicated Biology Professor.

Biology Department Chairperson in 2001.

Professor Jim working with students in Biology.

Dr. Green, Provost in 2001.

Professors Kathy and ….

Three female Professors at CMSV graduation in 2001.

Professor Fran and Sister Pat talking during the line up for Graduation 2001.

Director of the TLC- Dr. Pelham Mead and Professor Kathy.

Professor Arlene Moliterno, Teaching Professor at CMSV graduation 2001.

Dean of Communications, Bob Coleman, 2001.

Professor John, College Organist and Music Professor, graduate of TLC program using a Smart Classroom 2002.

Professor teaching in a new Smart Classroom 2002.

Sister Pat teaching in a smart classroom for Communications department. Notice the TV mounted in the background.

The Nursing Annex Smart Classroom. Previously a snack room. The floor was black from years of dirt. I had it sanded and resurfaced. The walls were cracked and had to be repaired. The overhead movie projector can be seen in this photo which was installed. The entire room was repainted after repairs. Outside the room a roof leak was also repaired. This room was a major unmaking but successful in the end.

Director of Nursing and Later VP, Susan at Graduation.
Professors at CMSV graduation 2001.

Bother, Professor of Communications 2001.

College of Mount Saint Vincent Castle seen through the trees.

Fran, Department Chairperson for Communications 2001.

CMSV department TV studio 2001 before the new one was installed in 2003.

Christmas party of 2001. Sister Mary Edward celebrating in Santa outfit.

Professors Celebrate at Christmas CMSV party 2001.

President Flynn and others sing at the Christmas Party 2001.

Dean Bob Coleman relaxes during the Christmas Party of 2001.

CMSV administration building from parking lot view.

Statutes in front of the CMSV library 2001.

Chapel of CMSV from the rear of the administration building.

The Business building under construction 2004. Maryvale was upgraded to a Fine Arts labs and Communication labs and classrooms, partially with Title V funds.

Maryvale construction. Before demolition.

Maryvale construction 2004-2005.

Front porch of Administration building. Before the old porch fell down, the Sisters of Charity had a porch going from end to end of the front of the administration building.

Another view of the administration building.

Maryvale construction pipes.

Sisters of Charity cemetery at the top of the hill.

Another view of the cemetery. All Nuns that taught or lived on the grounds and Priests are buried here.

Winter view of the great lawn from the Administration building.

2002 Spring View of Castle on the College of Mount Saint Vincent campus.

Winter view of Campus with Hudson river in the background.

Finished Maryvale 2005.

Road into the College of Mount Saint Vincent. 2002.

Gazebo on the back lawn behind the castle on the CMSB campus 2002.

CMSV auditorium and gymnasium building 2002 , spring.

Biology Building 2002.

Road to St. Vincent’s Point on the other side of the RR tracks on the shores of the Hudson river. Used to be a train station here in the old days.

Blackboard menu. Blackboard was installed by Title V and administered by Dr. Pelham Mead for three years until Manhattan College took over with a full time administrator.

Angel statute on campus.

Outdoor angel in the CMSV garden

Children praying to the Mother Mary.

Angel statute on campus

CMSV college logo

Female students exercise class at CMSV

Female CMSV students working out.

Exercise room at CMSV.

Fall leaf

Castle view from the administration building.

CMSV bell in the tower

Top of the administration building over the chapel.

Castle view.

Hudson river view looking toward the Tappan Zee bridge from the tower.

View from inside the bell tower on top of the administration building.

View of the road from the bell tower.

Administration building roof.

View from the roof.

Graduation Tent for 2002 goes up.

Stages of graduation tent going up on the great lawn. CMSV 2002.

Graduation tent covers the entire great lawn.

John, College Organist and Music teacher, Py Liv Sun and Christine Servano 2003.

Dr. Pelham Mead, Py Liv Sun, Christine Servano and Professor John.

College of Mount Saint Vincent chapel organ 2002.

College organist, John plays on the organ.

Organ view in chapel.

College organist John.

President Richard Flynn 2002 graduation.

Sister Mary Edward.

Faculty procession 2002 graduation.

Faculty procession 2002, Graduation.

Faculty entering Administration building.

Faculty leads student procession.

Student process in 2002 graduation at the College of Mount Saint Vincent.

Graduation 2002

castle door on CMSV campus

Faculty ascend platform.

Construction sign 2005 graduation

Faculty gather before graduation. Fran from Communications in background sitting.

Faculty graduation 2002.

Fran, Sister Pat and Brother chat.


The White Eyes and the Native Americans

By Dr. Pelham Mead

If you country was invaded by a foreigner what would you do? Fight back of course. Supposing the invader had superior weapons and you had only bows and arrows? Such was the plight of the American Native Indians. Who were the good guys and the bad guys? That depends on who you think had the right to wipe out entire nations of American Natives. The white eyes lied to the American Indians time after time. No wonder there was no trust.

Was the Native American Indian worse than the white eyes. Taking scalps was a tradition for Native Americans, but what about hanging a person from a rope in public until their neck broke or they choked to death.

Who killed hundreds of thousands of Buffalo? Not the Native American Indians, it was the white eyes with guns that could shoot rapidly. Buffalo skins had a great market value as well as horns.

Who held the white eyes accountable for their crimes against the Native American Nations? No one did. Killing Native American Indians was like a fox hunt where the fox had no chance in hell of surviving with hunting dogs chasing them down and men on horseback armed with rifles shooting at them.

So, a Few hundred years later the Native American Indian is treated as a minority with little or no rights. Look at Brazil how they do not let the Amazon Indians own land and have no more rights than a teenager.

When there is talk about reparations for the black slaves of America, think first about the white men who stole the land away from the Native Americans to begin with before the slaves were brought to America.

The Native American Nations had wonderful cultures and practices that are fading into the air over time. What can we do? Perhaps renew their status in the American culture and give them more support to get educated and become part of this great American society. Always remember the place in History the Great Chiefs and their Nations played in our history and the Wild West.

Why are there no national holidays that celebrate Native American Holidays?

Think about the Washington Redskins football team. Is Redskin really an insult?

Do we have any teams called the white eyes or the yellow skins? Think about it.

Are there any Polish poppers, or Irish hacks, or British cavaliers, or French Frogs?


New York College of Osteopathic Medicine

Learning Outcomes Assessment 2009-2010

January 2009

Taskforce Members

John R. McCarthy, Ed.D.

Pelham Mead, Ed.D.

Mary Ann Achziger, M.S.

Felicia Bruno, M.A.

Claire Bryant, Ph.D.

Leonard Goldstein, DDS, PH.D.

Abraham Jeger, Ph.D.

Rodika Zaika, M.S.

Ron Portanova, Ph.D.




Post-Graduate Data




Table of Contents


I. Introduction and Rationale 5

II. Purpose and Design 9

III. Specifics of the Plan 11

Mission of NYCOM 11

Learning Outcomes 11

Compiling the Data 17

Stakeholders 17

IV. Plan Implementation 18

Next Steps 18

V. Conclusion 20


1. Pre-matriculation data 24

Forms 26

2. Academic (pre-clinical) course-work 47

Forms – LDB / DPC Track 49

Forms – Institute for Clinical Competence (ICC) 55

3. Clinical Clerkship Evaluations / NBOME Subject Exams 86

Forms 88

4. Student feedback (assessment) of courses/Clinical clerkship

PDA project 92

Forms 94

5. COMLEX USA Level I, Level II CE & PE,

Level III data (NBOME) 120

6. Residency match rates and overall placement rate 121


7. Feedback from (AACOM) Graduation Questionnaire 122

Forms 123

8. Completion rates (post-doctoral programs) 142

9. Specialty certification and licensure 143

10. Career choices and geographic practice location 144

11. Alumni Survey 145

Forms 146


Bibliography 152

Appendices: 153

Chart 1 Proposed Curriculum and Faculty Assessment Timeline

Institute for Clinical Competence:

Neurological Exam – Student Version Parts I & II

Taskforce Members

List of Tables and Figures

Figure 1 Cycle of Assessment 9

Figure 2 Outcome Assessment along the Continuum 15

Figure 3 Data Collection Phases 22

Table 1 Assessment Plan Guide 23


New York College of Osteopathic Medicine

Learning Outcomes Assessment Plan

February 2009


This document was developed by the NYCOM Task Force on Learning Outcomes

Assessment and was accepted by the dean in January 2009. Although a few of the assessment

tools and processes described in the document are new, most have been employed at NYCOM

since its inception to inform curriculum design and implementation and to gauge progress and

success in meeting the institution’s mission, goals and objectives.

The Learning Outcomes Assessment Plan documents the processes and measures used by

the institution to gauge student achievement and program (curricular) effectiveness. The results

of these activities are used by faculty to devise ways to improve student learning and by

administrators and other stakeholder groups to assess institutional effectiveness and inform

planning, decision-making, and resource allocation.

Certain of the measures described in later sections of this document constitute key

performance indicators for the institution, for which numerical goals have been set. Performance

on these measures has a significant effect on institutional planning and decision-making

regarding areas of investment and growth, program improvement, and policy.


Key performance indicators and benchmarks are summarized below and also on 􀁓􀁄􀁊􀁈 151


Indicator Benchmarks

 Number of Applicants Maintain relative standing among Osteopathic Medical


 Admissions Profile Maintain or improve current admissions profile based

on academic criteria (MCAT, GPA, Colleges attended

 Attrition 3% or less

 Remediation rate


2% reduction per year

 COMLEX USA scores

(first-time pass rates,

mean scores)

Top quartile

 Students entering


Maintain or improve OGME placement

 Graduates entering

Primary Care careers

Maintain or improve Primary Care placement

 Career characteristics Regarding Licensure, Board Certification, Geographic

Practice, and Scholarly achievements–TBD

I. Introduction and Rationale

At NYCOM we believe it is our societal responsibility to monitor our students’ quality of

education through continual assessment of educational outcomes. On-going program evaluation

mandates longitudinal study (repeated observations over time) and the utilization of empirical

data based on a scientific methodology.

At Thomas Jefferson University, an innovative study was implemented circa 1970, which

was ultimately titled “Jefferson Longitudinal Study of Medical Education”.1 As a result of

implementation of this longitudinal study plan, Thomas Jefferson University was praised by the

1 Center for Research in Medical Education and Health Care: Jefferson Longitudinal Study of Medical Education,

Thomas Jefferson University, 2005.


Accreditation Team for the Middle States Commission on Higher Education for “…..their

academic interest in outcome data, responsiveness to faculty and department needs and the clear

use of data to modify the curriculum and teaching environment….their use of this data has

impacted many components of the curriculum, the learning environment, individual student

development, and program planning…” (TJU, 2005).

The Jefferson Longitudinal Study of Medical Education has been the most productive

longitudinal study of medical students and graduates of a single medical school. This study has

resulted in 155 publications in peer review journals. Many were presented before national or

international professional meetings prior to their publication (TJU, 2005).

According to Hernon and Dugan (2004), the pressure on higher education institutions to

prove accountability has moved beyond the acceptance and reliance of self-reports and anecdotal

evidence compiled during the self-regulatory accreditation process. It now encompasses an

increasing demand from a variety of constituencies to demonstrate institutional effectiveness by

focusing on quality measures, such as educational quality, and cost efficiencies.

Accountability focuses on results as institutions quantify or provide evidence that they are

meeting their stated mission, goals, and objectives. Institutional effectiveness is concerned, in

part, with measuring (Hernon and Dugan, 2004):

 Programmatic outcomes: such as applicant pool, retention rates, and graduation rates.

Such outcomes are institution-based and may be used to compare internal year-to-year

institutional performance and as comparative measures with other institutions.

 Student learning outcomes: oftentimes referred to as educational quality and concerned

with attributes and abilities, both cognitive and affective, which reflect how student

experiences at the institution supported their development as individuals. Students are

expected to demonstrate acquisition of specific knowledge and skills.


At NYCOM, we recognize that our effectiveness as an institution must ultimately be

assessed and expressed by evaluating our success in achieving our Mission in relation to the

following Outcomes:

1. Student Learning / Program Effectiveness

2. Research and Scholarly Output

3. Clinical Services

The present document focuses on #1, above, viz., Student Learning / Program Effectiveness.

That is, it is intended only as a Learning Outcomes Assessment Plan. At the same time, we are

cognizant that Institutional Effectiveness/Outcomes derive from numerous inputs, or “means” to

these “ends,” including:

1. Finances

2. Faculty Resources

3. Administrative Resources

4. Student Support Services

5. Clinical Facilities and Resources

6. Characteristics of the Physical Plant

7. Information Technology Resources

8. Library Resources

We believe it is our obligation to continually assess the impact of any changes in the inputs,

processes, and outputs of this institution.

The evaluation approach in this Assessment Plan provides for on-going data collection

and analysis targeted specifically at assessing outcomes of student achievement and program

effectiveness (educational quality). Assessment of achievement and program effectiveness is

based on objective, quantifiable information (data).

As a result of the NYCOM Learning Outcome Assessment Plan’s continual assessment

cycle, the report is available, with scheduled updates, as a resource in the decision-making



The report provides outcomes data, recommendations, and suggestions intended to inform key

policy makers and stakeholders2 of areas of growth and/or improvement, together with proposed

changes to policy that strengthen both overall assessment and data-driven efforts to improve

student learning.

2 NYCOM Administration, academic committees, faculty, potential researchers, and students.


II. Purpose and Design

Well-designed plans for assessing student learning outcomes link learning outcomes,

measures, data analysis, and action planning in a continuous cycle of improvement illustrated


Figure 1 Cycle of Assessment

Ten principles guide the specifics of NYCOM’s Learning Outcomes Assessment Plan:

1. The plan provides formative and summative assessment of student learning.3

2. The primary purpose for assessing outcomes is to improve student learning.

3. Developing and revising an assessment plan is a long-term, dynamic, and collaborative


4. Assessments use the most reliable and valid instruments available.

3 Examples of the former include post-course roundtable discussions, Institute for Clinical Competence (ICC)

seminars, and data from the Course/Faculty Assessment Program. Examples of the latter include the AACOM

Graduation Questionnaire, COMLEX scores, NBOME subject exam scores, and clerkship evaluations.







of measuring


Collect Data

Review results

and use to make


regarding program





5. Assessment priorities are grounded in NYCOM’s mission, goals, and learning outcomes.

6. The assessment involves a multi-method approach.

7. Assessment of student learning is separate from evaluation of faculty.

8. The primary benefit of assessment is the provision of evidence-based analysis to inform

decision-making concerning program revision and improvement and resource allocation.

9. The assessment plan must provide a substantive and sustainable mechanism for fulfilling

NYCOM’s responsibility to ensure the quality, rigor, and overall effectiveness of our

programs in educating competent and compassionate physicians.

10. The assessment plan yields valid measures of student outcomes that provide stakeholders

with relevant and timely data to make informed decisions on changes in curricular design,

implementation, program planning, and the overall learning environment.

Outcomes assessment is a continuous process of measuring institutional effectiveness

focusing on planning, determining, understanding, and improving student learning. At

NYCOM, we are mindful that an integral component of this assessment plan is to ensure that the

plan and the reporting process measures what it is intended to measure (student achievement and

program effectiveness).


III. Specifics of the Plan

The NYCOM assessment plan articulates eleven student learning outcomes, which are

linked to both the institutional mission and the osteopathic core competencies

Mission of NYCOM

The New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of the New York Institute of

Technology is committed to training osteopathic physicians for a lifetime of learning and

practice, based upon the integration of evidence-based knowledge, critical thinking and the tenets

of osteopathic principles and practice. The college is also committed to preparing osteopathic

physicians for careers in primary care, including health care in the inner city and rural

communities, as well as to the scholarly pursuit of new knowledge concerning health and

disease. NYCOM provides a continuum of educational experiences to its students, extending

through the clinical and post-graduate years of training. This continuum provides the future

osteopathic physician with the foundation necessary to maintain competence and compassion, as

well as the ability to better serve society through research, teaching, and leadership.

Learning Outcomes

The following eleven (11) Learning Outcomes that guide this plan stem from NYCOM’s mission

(above) and the osteopathic core competencies:

1. The Osteopathic Philosophy: Upon graduation, a student must possess the ability to

demonstrate the basic knowledge of Osteopathic philosophy and practice, as well as

Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment.

2. Medical Knowledge: A student must possess the ability to demonstrate medical

knowledge through passing of course tests, standardized tests of the NBOME, post-


course rotation tests, research activities, presentations, and participation in directed

reading programs and/or journal clubs, and/or other evidence-based medicine activities.

3. Practice-based learning and improvement: Students must demonstrate their ability to

critically evaluate their methods of clinical practice, integrate evidence-based medicine

into patient care, show an understanding of research methods, and improve patient care


4. Professionalism: Students must demonstrate knowledge of professional, ethical, legal,

practice management, and public health issues applicable to medical practice.

5. Systems-based practice: Students must demonstrate an understanding of health care

delivery systems, provide effective patient care and practice cost-effective medicine

within the system.

6. Patient Care: Students must demonstrate the ability to effectively treat patients and

provide medical care which incorporates the osteopathic philosophy, empathy, preventive

medicine education, and health promotion.

7. Communication skills: Students must demonstrate interpersonal and communication

skills with patients and other healthcare professionals, which enable them to establish and

maintain professional relationships with patients, families, and other healthcare providers.

8. Primary Care: Students will be prepared for careers in primary care, including health care

in the inner city, as well as rural communities.

9. Scholarly/Research Activities: Students will be prepared for the scholarly pursuit of new

knowledge concerning health and disease. Students in NYCOM’s 5-year Academic

Medicine Scholars Program will be prepared as academic physicians in order to address


this nation’s projected health care provider shortage and the resulting expansion of

medical school training facilities.

10. Global Medicine and Health policy: Students will be prepared to engage in global health

practice, policy, and the development of solutions to the world’s vital health problems.

11. Cultural Competence: Students will be prepared to deliver the highest quality medical

care, with the highest degree of compassion, understanding, and empathy toward cultural

differences in our global society.

The NYCOM assessment plan provides for analysis of learning outcomes for two

curricular tracks and four categories of student

NYCOM has historically tracked student data across the curriculum, paying particular

attention to cohorts of students (see below), as well as NYCOM’s two curricular tracks:

a) Lecture-Based Discussion track: integrates the biomedical and clinical sciences along

continuous didactic ‘threads’ delivered according to a systems based approach;

b) Doctor Patient Continuum track: a problem-based curriculum, whose cornerstone is

small-group, case-based learning.

Current data gathering incorporates tracking outcomes associated with several subcategories of

student (important to the institution) within the 4-year pre-doctoral curriculum and the 5-year

pre-doctoral Academic Medicine Scholars curriculum. The pre-doctoral populations are defined

according to the following subcategories:

 Traditional:4

 BS/DO: The BS/DO program is a combined baccalaureate/doctor of osteopathic

medicine program requiring successful completion of a total of 7 years (undergraduate, 3

years; osteopathic medical school, 4 years).

 MedPrep: A pre-matriculation program offering academic enrichment to facilitate the

acceptance of underrepresented minority and economically disadvantaged student


4 All other students not inclusive of BS/DO, MedPrep, and EPP defined cohorts.

5 The program is funded by the New York State Collegiate Science and Technology Entry Program and the

NYCOM Office of Equity and Opportunity Programs.


 EPP (Émigré Physician Program): A 4-year program, offered by NYCOM, to educate

émigré physicians to become DOs to enable them to continue their professional careers in

the U.S.

The NYCOM assessment plan includes data from four phases of the medical education

continuum (as illustrated in Figure 2 and Figure 3): pre-matriculation, the four-year predoctoral

curriculum6, post-graduation data, and careers and practice data

Within the NYCOM Learning Outcome Assessment Plan, the Task Force has chosen the

following outcome indicators for assessment of program effectiveness at different points in the

medical education continuum:

 Pre-matriculation data, including first-year student survey;

 Academic (pre-clinical) course-work (scores on exams, etc.) – attrition rate;

 Clinical Clerkship Evaluations (3rd/4th year) and NBOME Subject Exams;

 Student feedback (assessment) of courses and 3rd and 4th year clinical clerkships and

PDA-based Patient and Educational Activity Tracking;

 COMLEX USA Level I, Level II CE & PE, and Level III data, including:

o First-time and overall pass rates and mean scores;

o Comparison of NYCOM first time and overall pass rates and mean scores to

national rankings;

 Residency match rate and placement rate (AOA / NRMP);

 Feedback from AACOM Graduation Questionnaire;

 Completion rates of Post-Doctoral programs;

 Specialty certification and licensure;

 Career choices (practice type–academic, research, etc.);

 Geographic practice locations;

 Alumni survey.

The Outcome Indicators—Detail sections of this plan (􀁓􀁄􀁊􀁈􀁖 24 􀁗􀁋􀁕􀁒􀁘􀁊􀁋 150) show the various

data sources and include copies of the forms or survey questionnaires utilized in the data

gathering process.

The NYCOM assessment plan identifies specific sources of data for each phase

Figure 2 illustrates which of the above measures are most relevant at each phase of the medical

education continuum.

6 And the five-year pre-doctoral Academic Medicine Scholars program




The NYCOM assessment plan describes the collection and reporting of data,

responsibilities for analysis and dissemination, and the linkage to continuous program

improvement and institutional planning

Compiling the Data

Discussions with departmental leaders and deans confirmed that data gathering occurs at

various levels throughout the institution. Development of a central repository (centralized

database) facilitates data gathering, data mining and overall efficiency as it relates to data

analysis, report generation, and report dissemination. This includes utilization of internal

databases (internal to NYCOM) as well as interfacing with external organizations’ databases,

including the AOA (American Osteopathic Association), AACOM (American Association of

Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine), AMA (American Medical Association), and the ABMS

(American Board of Medical Specialties).


Information from the data collection serves to inform NYCOM administration, relevant

faculty, appropriate research and academic/administrative committees, including the following:

 Curriculum Committee

 Student Progress Committee

 Admissions Committee

 Deans and Chairs Committee

 Clinical and Basic Science Chairs

 Research Advisory Group

 Academic Senate

The NYCOM assessment plan sets forth benchmarks, goals and standards of performance

The major elements of the plan are summarized in Table 1: Assessment Plan Guide:

Learning Outcomes/Metrics/Benchmarks found at the end of this chapter.


IV. Plan Implementation

As discussed earlier, most of the assessment tools and processes described in the

document have been employed at NYCOM since its inception to inform curriculum design and

implementation and to gauge progress and success in meeting the institution’s mission, goals and

objectives. Beginning in fall 2008, however, assessment efforts have been made more

systematic; policies, procedures, and accountabilities are now documented and more widely


The Office of Program Evaluation and Assessment (OPEA), reporting to the Associate

Dean for Academic Affairs is responsible for directing all aspects of plan refinement and


Next steps

1. Develop a shared, central repository for pre-matriculation, pre-doctoral, and postgraduate

data (see Figure 3). Time Frame: Academic Year 2010-2011

Centralized database: Development of a (shared or central) repository

(database) utilized by internal departments of NYCOM. WEAVEonline is

a web-bases assessment system, utilized by numerous academic

institutions across the country, for assessment and planning purposes.

Utilizing this program facilitates centralization of data. The central

database is comprised of student data categorized as follows:

Pre-matriculation Data includes demographics, AACOM pre-matriculation survey, academic

data (GPA), and other admissions data (MCAT’s, etc.).

Data is categorized according to student cohort as previously written and

described (see item III. Specifics of the Plan on pages 13-14).


Pre-doctoral Data includes academic (pre-clinical) course work, course grades, end-ofyear

grade point averages, the newly implemented, innovative Course /

Faculty assessment program data (described in Section 4), ratings of

clinical clerkship performance, performance scores on COMLEX USA

Level I and Level II CE & PE, descriptors of changes in academic status

(attrition), and AACOM Graduation questionnaires.

Post-graduate/Career Data includes residency match rate, residency choice, hospitals of

residency, geographic location, chosen specialty, performance on

COMLEX Level III, geographic and specialty area(s) of practice

following graduation, licensure, board certification status, scholarly work,

professional activities/societies, faculty appointments, type(s) of practice

(academic, clinical, research).

This database supports and assimilates collaborative surveys utilized by

internal departments in order to capture requested data (see item III.

Specifics of the Plan on pages 13-14) essential for tracking students during

and after post-graduate training. Specific data (e.g., COMLEX Level III,

board certification, and licensure) is provided by external databases,

through periodic reporting means, or queries from NYCOM, therefore the

database provides for assimilation of this external data, in order to

incorporate into institutional reporting format.

2. Establish metrics. Time Frame: Academic Year 2010-2011

Benchmarks and Reporting: Conduct a retrospective data analysis in

order to establish baseline metrics (see Compiling the Data on page 17).


Following development of these metrics, institutional benchmarks are

established. Benchmarks align with Institutional Goals as written above.

Reporting of data analysis occurs on an annual basis. An annual

performance report is compiled from all survey data and external sources.

Timeframe for reporting is congruent with end of academic year. Updates

to report occur semi-annually, as additional (external) data is received.

Data reporting includes benchmarking against Institutional Goals

(mission), in order to provide projections around effectiveness of learning

environment, quality improvement indicators, long-range and strategic

planning processes, and cost analysis/budgetary considerations.

Report dissemination to key policy makers and stakeholders, as previously

identified (see Stakeholders on page 17) in addition to other staff, as

deemed appropriate for inclusion in the reporting of assessment analysis.

V. Conclusion

The impact on student learning of such things as changes in the demographics of medical school

applicants, admissions criteria, curricula, priorities, and methods of delivery of medical education

deserve careful discussion, planning, and analysis before, during, and after implementation. This

plan facilitates change management at three points:

o Planning, by providing evidence to support decision-making;

o Implementation, by establishing mechanisms for setting performance targets and

monitoring results, and


o Evaluation, by systematically measuring outcomes against goals and providing evidence

of whether the change has achieved its intended objectives.

At NYCOM, accountability is seen as both a requirement and a responsibility. As healthcare

delivery, pedagogy, and the science of medicine constantly change, monitoring the rigor and

effectiveness of the learning environment through assessment of student learning outcomes

throughout the medical education continuum becomes paramount.


Figure 3 Data Collection Phases

Pre-doctoral Data










Learning Outcomes7 Data Collection Phases8 Assessment Methods Metrics9 Development of


Students will:

Demonstrate basic knowledge of OPP


Demonstrate medical knowledge

Demonstrate competency in practicebased

learning and improvement

Demonstrate professionalism and

ethical practice

Demonstrate an understanding of

health care delivery systems

Demonstrate the ability to effectively

treat patients

Demonstrate interpersonal and

communication skills

Be prepared for careers in primary


Be prepared for the scholarly pursuit

of new knowledge

Be prepared to engage in global

health practice, policy, and solutions

to world health problems

Be prepared to effectively interact

with people of diverse cultures and

deliver the highest quality of medical


• Pre-matriculation

• Pre-doctoral

• Post-graduate

• Career

• Didactic Academic


• LDB Curriculum

• DPC Curriculum

• Formative / Summative

Experiences: Patient

Simulations (SP’s /


• Student-driven Course,

Clerkship, and Faculty


• Clinical Clerkship


• PDA-Based Patient and

Education Tracking

• Surveys

• Standardized Tests

• Alumni Feedback

Vis a Vis:

• Admissions Data

(Applicant Pool


• Course Exams

• End-of-year pass rates

• Coursework

• Analysis of Residency

Trends Data

• Standardized Tests

Subject Exams

• COMLEX 1 & II Scores

• Analysis of Specialty


• Analysis of geographic

practice area

• Academic Attrition


• Remediation rates

• Graduation and postgraduate


• External surveys

• Applicant Pool

• Admissions Profile

• Academic Attrition


• Remediation rates

(pre-clinical years)


Scores I & II (1st

time pass rate /

mean score)

• Number of

graduates entering

OGME programs

• Graduates entering

Primary Care (PC)11

• Career Data:

Licensure (within

3 years);




Practice Area;



7 Complete detail of Learning Outcomes found in III., pages 11-13.

8 See Figure 3, page 22.

9 List of Metrics is not all-inclusive.

10 See complete detail of benchmarks—pages 5 & 151.

11 Primary Care: Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Pediatrics.

Table 1 – Assessment Plan Guide: Learning Outcomes / Data Sources / Metrics


Outcome Indicators – Detail

1. Pre-matriculation data

Data gathered prior to students entering NYCOM, and broken down by student

cohort, which includes the following:

Traditional, MedPrep, and BS/DO students

 AACOM pre-matriculation survey given to students;

 Total MCAT scores;

 Collegiate GPA (total GPA-including undergraduate/graduate);

 Science GPA;

 College(s) attended;

 Undergraduate degree (and graduate degree, if applicable;

 Gender,;

 Age;

 Ethnicity;

 State of residence;

 Pre-admission interview score.

Additional data is gathered on the MedPrep student cohort and incorporates the


 Pre-matriculation lecture based exam and quiz scores;

 Pre-matriculation DPC (Doctor Patient Continuum) based facilitator assessment

scores and content exam scores;


 ICC (Institute for Clinical Competence) Professional Assessment Rating (PARS)


Émigré Physician Program students

 TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) score;

 EPP Pre-Matriculation Examination score;

 Medical school attended;

 Date of MD degree;

 Age;

 Ethnicity;

 Country of Origin.


Specific forms/questionnaires utilized to capture the above-detailed information include the


 MedPrep 2008 Program Assessment

 MedPrep Grade Table

 NYCOM Admissions Interview Evaluation Form

 Application for Émigré Physicians Program (EPP)

 AACOM Pre-matriculation survey (first-year students)

 NYCOM Interview Evaluation Form – Émigré Physicians Program

Samples of the forms/questionnaires follow


MedPrep 2008 Program Assessment

Successful completion of the MedPrep Pre-Matriculation Program takes into consideration the

following 3 assessment components:

1. Lecture-Discussion Based (LDB)

2. DPC (Doctor Patient Continuum)

3. ICC (Institute for Clinical Competence)

A successful candidate must achieve a passing score for all 3 components. Strength in one

area will not compensate for weakness in another.

1. The first component assesses the Lecture-Discussion Based portion of the MedPrep Pre-

Matriculation Program. It is comprised of 3 multiple choice quizzes and 1 multiple choice exam.

 Histology

 Biochemistry

 Physiology

 Genetics

 Physiology


 Pharmacology

 Pathology

 Microbiology

 Clinical Reasoning Skills

Each of the three quizzes constitutes 10% of an individuals overall LDB score and the final exam

(to be conducted on June 27) constitutes 70% of an individuals overall LDB score (comprising

100%) in the Lecture-Discussion portion of the program.

2. The second is based upon your performance in the DPC portion of the MedPrep Pre-

Matriculation Program. There will be a facilitator assessment (to be conducted on June 26),

which will comprise 30% of an individual’s grade and a final written assessment which will be

70% of an individual’s overall DPC score.

** Note – Both the Lecture-Discussion Based and DPC passing scores are calculated as

per NYCOM practice:

 Average (mean) minus one standard deviation

 Not to be lower than 65%

 Not to be higher than 70%


3. The third component is the ICC encounter designed to assess your Doctor Patient

Interpersonal skills. This assessment is evaluated on the PARS scale described to you in the

Doctor Patient Interpersonal Skills session on June 12, by Dr. Errichetti.

After the program ends, on June 27th, all three components of the assessment will be compiled

and reviewed by the MedPrep Committee. The director of admissions, who is a member of the

committee, will prepare notification letters that will be mailed to you within two weeks.

Please note:

The written communication you will receive ONLY contains acceptance information. NO

grades will be distributed. Exams or other assessments (with the exception of the Lecture-

Discussion Based quizzes, which have already been returned) will not be shared or returned.

Please DO NOT contact anyone at NYCOM requesting the status of your candidacy. No

information will be given on the phone or to students on campus.

Thank you for your participation in the MedPrep Pre-Marticulation Program. The faculty

and staff have been delighted to meet and work with you. We wish you success!


Bonnie Granat


Last Name, First Name

Quiz #1


(10% of




Quiz #2


(10% of


LDB Score)

Quiz #3


(10% of




LDB Final



(70% of

Overall LDB


Overall LBD


(Exam and












Applicant______________________________________________________ Date____/_____/____




































Comments on Applicant _____________________________________________________





14. List all Colleges attended (Undergraduate, Graduate, Professional – US and Home Country) List in chronological order

Institution Name Location Dates of Major

Attendance Subject

Degree granted

or expected (Date)

Medical Specialty (if any) ___________________ No. of years in practice _________

15. Have you had any U.S. military experience ? Yes ( ) No ( )

If yes, was your discharge honorable? Yes ( ) No ( )

16. List employment in chronological order, beginning with your current position:

Title or Description Where Dates Level of Responsibility

17. Work/daytime telephone number________________________

area code phone

18. How do you plan to finance your NYCOM education? Personal funds ________ Loans

19. Were you ever the recipient of any action for unacceptable academic performance or conduct

violations (e.g. probation, dismissal, suspension, disqualification, etc.) by any

college or school? Yes ( ) No

If yes, were you ever denied readmission? Yes ( ) No

20. Have you ever been convicted of a misdemeanor or felony (excluding parking violations)? Yes ( ) No(

If your answer to #19 or #20 is yes, please explain fully:

21. Evaluation Service used: Globe Language Services ______ Joseph Silny & Assocs. ______

World Education Services ______ IERF _____

*22. TOEFL Score(s): ________________________________


Scores Cannot Be Older Than 2 YEARS

If you plan to take or retake the TOEFL, enter date: _____/_____/ mo.


(NYCOM’s TOEFL Code is #2486; copies cannot be accepted)

( )

( )




All evaluations must be received directly from the evaluation service and are subject to approval by the New York

College of Osteopathic Medicine.

Personal Comments: Please discuss your reasons for applying to the EPP program.

Selection of candidates is competitive; achieving a minimum, passing TOEFL Score

does not automatically guarantee an interview.

I certify that all information submitted in support of my application is complete and correct to the best of my knowledge.

Date: Signature: ______________________________________


New York College of Osteopathic Medicine

Of New York Institute of Technology

Office of Admissions/ Serota Academic Center Room 203

Northern Blvd.

Old Westbury, NY 11568-8000















Applicant:___________________________________ Date:________________





1. Oral Comprehension

Ability to understand questions, content


2. Personal Presentation

Appropriate response, ability to relate to



3. Verbal Expression

Clarity, articulation, use of



4. Overall Impression

Unique experiences, employment ,
















2. Academic (pre-clinical) course-work

Data captured during NYCOM’s pre-clinical 4-year pre-doctoral program and 5-year

Academic Medicine Scholars program which includes the following:

Curricular Tracks: Lecture Based-Discussion / Doctor Patient Continuum

 Pre-clinical course pass/failure rate as determined by class year (year 1 and year

2) and overall at end of year 2 (tracking each class and in aggregate for two


 Failure rates of (components) Nervous System course or Behavior course;

 Course grades (H/P/F);

 Exam scores;

 Scores (pass/fail rate) on Core Clinical Competency OSCE exams;

 Professionalism Assessment Rating Scale (PARS)

 Students determined as pre-clinical course dismissals (and remediated);

 Students determined double course failure (and remediated);

 Failure rates due to cognitive and/or OMM lab portions of course

 Repeat students (aligned with Learning Specialist intervention)

 Changes in academic status (attrition-as identified above);

 End-of-year class rankings.


Specific forms/questionnaires utilized to capture the above-detailed information include the


 Introduction to Osteopathic Medicine / Lecture-Based Discussion

 Doctor-Patient Continuum (DPC) – Biopsychosocial Sciences I

Grading and Evaluation Policy

 DPC – Clinical Sciences II – Grading Policy

 Assessing the AOA Core Competencies at NYCOM

 Institute for Clinical Competence (ICC) Professionalism Assessment

Rating Scale (PARS)

 SimCom-T(eam) Holistic Scoring Guide

 Case A – Dizziness, Acute (scoring guides)

Samples of the forms/questionnaires follow


Introduction to Osteopathic Medicine / Lecture-Based Discussion

Grading and Evaluation

1. At the conclusion of this course, students will receive a final cognitive score and a final OMM laboratory


2. Both a student’s final cognitive score and a student’s final OMM laboratory score must be at a

passing level in order to pass this course.

3. Cognitive Score

a. A student’s cognitive score is comprised of the following two components:

i. Written Examinations and Quizzes pertaining to course lectures and corresponding

required readings, cases, course notes, and PowerPoint presentations

ii. Anatomy Laboratory Examinations and Quizzes

b. The weighting of the two components of the final cognitive score is as follows:

Summary of Cognitive Score Breakdown

Cognitive Score Component % of Final Cognitive Score

Written Examinations and Quizzes 75%

Anatomy Laboratory Examinations and



Total Cognitive Score 100%

c. Written Examinations and Quizzes

i. There will be three written examinations and four written quizzes in this course.

ii. The written examinations and quizzes will consist of material from all three threads

(Cellular and Molecular Basis of Medicine, Structural and Functional Basis of Medicine,

Practice of Medicine).

iii. Up to 25% of the written exam and quiz material will come from directed readings.

iv. For the purpose of determining passing for this course, the written examinations will be

worth 90% of the final written score and the quizzes will be worth 10% (2.5% each) of the

final written score. This weighting is illustrated in the following table:

Summary of Written Exam/Quiz Score Breakdown

Written Exam/Quiz # % of Final Written Score

Written Exam #1 25%

Written Exam #2 30%

Written Exam #3 35%

Total Written Exam Score 90%

Written Quiz #1 2.5%

Written Quiz #2 2.5%

Written Quiz #3 2.5%

Written Quiz #4 2.5%

Total Written Quiz Score 10%

Total Written Score 100%

d. Anatomy Laboratory Examinations and Quizzes

i. There will be two Anatomy laboratory examinations in this course

ii. There will be Anatomy laboratory quizzes in this course, conducted during Anatomy

laboratory sessions.

iii. For the purpose of determining passing for this course, each Anatomy lab examination


will be worth 45% of students’ final Anatomy lab score and all Anatomy lab quizzes

combined will be worth 10% of students’ final Anatomy lab score. This weighting is

illustrated in the following table:

Summary of Anatomy Lab Exam/Quiz Score Breakdown

Anatomy Lab Exam/Quiz # % of Final Anatomy Score

Anatomy Lab Exam #1 45%

Anatomy Lab Exam #2 45%

Anatomy Lab Quizzes 10%

Total Anatomy Lab Exam/Quiz Score 100%

4. OMM Laboratory Score

a. A student’s OMM laboratory score in this course is comprised of an OMM laboratory examination

and laboratory quizzes, as follows:

i. There will be one OMM laboratory practical examination in this course

ii. There will be two OMM laboratory practical quizzes in this course conducted during OMM

laboratory sessions

iii. There will be a series of OMM laboratory written quizzes in this course conducted during

OMM laboratory sessions.

b. The weighting of the components of the OMM laboratory final score is as follows: For the purpose

of determining passing for this course, the OMM laboratory practical examination will be worth 70%

of the final OMM laboratory score, the OMM laboratory practical quizzes will be worth 20% (10%

each) of the final OMM laboratory score, and the OMM laboratory written quizzes will be worth 10%

(all OMM lab written quizzes combined) of the OMM laboratory score. This weighting is illustrated

in the following table:

Summary of OMM Laboratory Exam/Quiz Score Breakdown

OMM Laboratory Exam/Quiz % of Final OMM Laboratory Score

OMM Laboratory Practical Exam 70%

OMM Laboratory Practical Quiz #1 10%

OMM Laboratory Practical Quiz #2 10%

OMM Laboratory Written Quizzes (all quizzes



Total OMM Laboratory Score 100%

5. Examinations and quizzes may be cumulative.

6. Honors Determination

a. For the purpose of determining who will be eligible to receive a course grade of Honors (“H”), the

final cognitive score and final OMM laboratory score will be combined in a 75%/25% ratio,


b. Using the formula noted above, students scoring in the top 10% (and who have not taken a makeup

exam within the course or remediated the course) will receive a course grade of Honors.




Grading and Evaluation Policy:

The examinations and evaluations are weighed as follows:

Evaluation Criteria: Percent of Grade

Content Examination 55%

Component Examinations 25%

Facilitator Assessment 20%

Content Examination: There will a mid-term exam and an end of the term exam, each weighted equally. The

examinations will cover the learning issues submitted by the case-study groups. Questions will be based on the

common learning issues (covered by all groups) and learning issues specific to individual groups (unique issues).

Component Exams: Distribution of the component exams will be as follows:

 Exams based on Anatomy lectures and labs = 20%

 Graded assignments offered by problem set instructors, which might include quizzes, position papers,

and/or other exercises = 5%

Facilitator Assessment: Facilitators will meet individually with students twice during the term to evaluate their

performance. The first evaluation will be ‘formative’ only, i.e., to advise students of their progress and will not be

recorded for grade. The end of the term evaluation will be used to assess the student’s progress/participation in the

group and other class related activities. Students will also complete Self-Assessment Forms to supplement the

evaluation process.

The grading of this course is on a “PASS/FAIL/HONORS” basis.

1) Students will be evaluated each Term using the multiple components as described above.

2) Each year at the end of the 1st Term:

a) All students will be assigned an interim grade of I (Incomplete);

b) Each student will be informed of his/her final average, a record of which will be maintained in the office of

the DPC Academic Coordinator and the Director of the DPC program.

3) Students who earn less than a 1st-Term average of 70%, or a content exam score of <65%, will be officially

informed that their performance was deficient for the 1st Term. The student, in consultation with the Course

Coordinator, will present a plan designed to resolve the deficiency. This information will also be forwarded to

the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs for tracking purposes.

4) Students with a 1st-Term average <70%, or a content exam score of <65%, will be allowed to continue with the

class. However, in order to pass the year the student must achieve a final yearly average (1st- and 2ndterm)

of 70% or greater with a content exam average (for the two Terms) of 65% or greater.

5) All students who meet the requirements for passing the year (see 4) will then be awarded the grade of P (Pass)

or H (Honors) for each of the two Terms.


6) Students who fail the year (see 4) will be awarded a grade of I (Incomplete) and will be permitted (with

approval of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs) to sit for a comprehensive reassessment-examination.

The reassessment exam will be constructed by the course faculty and administered by the Course Coordinator.

The exam may include both written and oral components. Successful completion of the reassessment

examination will result in the awarding of a grade of P for the two Terms. Failure of the comprehensive

reassessment exam will result in the awarding of a grade of F (Fail) for the two terms, and a recommendation to

the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs that the student be dismissed from the College.

7) Students whose failure of the year (i.e. overall yearly average <70%) can be attributed to low facilitator

assessment scores present a special concern. The student has been determined, by his/her facilitators, to be

deficient in the skills necessary to effectively interact with patients and colleagues. This deficiency may not be

resolvable by examination. Such failures will be evaluated by the Director of the DPC program, the Associate

Dean of Academic Affairs and/or the Committee on Student Progress (CSP) to determine possible remediation

programs or to consider other options including dismissal.



Grading Policy:

1. The grading of this course is on a “PASS/FAIL/HONORS” basis. Grades will be determined by performance

in the three components of the course, OMM, Clinical Skills, and Clinical Practicum, as follows:

Evaluation Criteria: Percent of Grade

OMM 40%

Clinical Skills 40%

Clinical Practicum 20%

In both the OMM and Clinical Skills components of the course, student evaluations will encompass written

and practical examinations. In order to pass the course, both the written and practical examinations in OMM

AND Clinical Skills must be passed. Students who fail to achieve a passing score in either Clinical Skills or

OMM will be issued a grade of “I” (Incomplete). Such students will be offered the opportunity to remediate

the appropriate portion of the course. Re-evaluation will be conducted under the supervision of the DPC

faculty. Successful completion of the re-evaluation examination, both written and practical, will result in the

awarding of a grade of P (Pass). Failure of the comprehensive reassessment exam will result in the

awarding of a grade of U (Unsatisfactory) for this course.

2. Grading of the OMM component will be evaluated according to the following criteria:

Evaluation Criteria: Percent of Grade

OMM written (weighted) 50%

OMM practical (average) 50%

3. Grading of the Clinical Practicum component will be evaluated according to the following criteria:

Evaluation Criteria: Percent of Grade

Attendance and Participation 15%

Case Presentation 35%

Clinical Mentor Evaluation 50%


4. Grading of the Clinical Skills component will be evaluated according to the following criteria:

Evaluation Criteria: Percent of Grade

Class participation/assignments 5%

ICC participation/assignments 10%

Timed examination #1

– Practical portion 20%

– Written portion 5%

Timed examination #2

– Practical portion 20%

– Written portion 5%

Timed Comprehensive examination

– Practical portion 25%

– Written portion 10%

Pre-clinical Years: Years I and II DPC Track


Assessing the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Core Competencies at

New York College of Osteopathic Medicine (NYCOM)

A. Background

In recent years, there has been a trend toward defining, teaching and assessing a number

of core competencies physicians must demonstrate. The Federation of State medical Boards

sponsored two Competency-Accountability Summits in which a “theoretical textbook” on good

medical practice was drafted to guide the development of a competency-based curriculum. The

competencies include: medical knowledge, patient care, professionalism, interpersonal

communication, practice-based learning, and system-based practice. The AOA supports the

concepts of core competency assessment and added an additional competency: osteopathic

philosophy and osteopathic clinical medicine.

Arguably it is desirable to begin the process of core competency training and assessment

during the pre-clinical year. Patient simulations, i.e. using standardized patients and robotic

simulator, allow for such training and assessment under controlled conditions. Such a pre-clinical

program provides basic clinical skills acquisition in a patient-safe environment. NYCOM has

responded to this challenge by creating a two-year “Core Clinical Competencies” seminar that

requires students to learn and practice skills through various patient simulations in the Institute

For Clinical Competence (ICC). In this seminar the ICC assesses a sub-set of the above

competencies taught in the lecture-based and discussion-based clinical education tracks.

The following is a list of the competencies assessed during the pre-clinical years at

NYCOM, and reassessed during the third year (osteopathic medicine objective structured

clinical examination) and fourth year (voluntary Clinical Skills Capstone Program). It should be

noted that there is a fair amount of skills overlap between the competencies, for example, the

issue of proper communication can be manifested in a number of competencies.

B. Core Clinical Competencies

1. Patient Care: Provide compassionate, appropriate effective treatment, health promotion


 Data-gathering: history-taking, physical examination (assessed with clinical skills


 Develop differential diagnosis

 Interpret lab results, studies

 Procedural skills, e.g. intubation, central line placement, suturing, catheterization

 Provide therapy

2. Interpersonal and communication skills: Effective exchange of information and collaboration

with patients, their families, and health professionals.


 Communication with patients and their families across a spectrum of multicultural

backgrounds (assessed with the Professionalism Assessment Rating Scale)


 Health team communication

 Written communication (SOAP note, progress note)

3. Professionalism: Commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities and ethical



 Compassion, respect, integrity for others

 Responsiveness to patient needs

 Respect for privacy, autonomy

 Communication and collaboration with other professionals

 Demonstrating appropriate ethical consideration

 Sensitivity and responsiveness to a diverse patient population including e.g. gender,

age, religion, culture, disabilities, sexual orientation.

4. Osteopathic Philosophy and Osteopathic Clinical Medicine: Demonstrate, apply knowledge

of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT); integrate osteopathic concepts and OMT into

medical care; treating the person, and not just the symptoms


 Utilize caring, compassionate behavior with patients

 Demonstrate the treatment of people rather than the symptoms

 Demonstrate understanding of somato-visceral relationships and the role of the

musculoskeletal disease

 Demonstrate listening skills in interaction with patients

 Assessing disease (pathology) and illness (patient’s response to disease)

 Eliciting psychosocial information

C. Assessment of Core Competencies

The ICC utilizes formative assessment to evaluate learner skills and the effectiveness of

NYCOM’s clinical training programs. Data on student performance in the ICC is tracked from

the first through the fourth year. The ICC satellite at St. Barnabas assesses students during their

clerkship years as well as interns and residents in a number of clinical services. It uses a variety

of methods to assess competencies:

1. Written evaluations

 Analytic assessment – skills checklists that document data-gathering ability

 Global-holistic rating scales to assess doctor-patient communication (Professionalism

Assessment Rating Scale) and health team communication (SimCom-T)

 SOAP note and progress note assessment

2. Debriefing / feedback – a verbal review of learner actions following a patient simulation

program provided by standardized patients and instructors as appropriate.


Core Clinical Competencies 590 (MS 1)

Core Clinical Competencies 690 (MS 2)

The courses provide a horizontal integration between clinical courses provided by the LDB and

DPC programs (small group discussion and demonstration) and the OMM department. It

provides practice with simulated patients (some variation in this aspect as noted below),

formative assessment, end-of-year summative assessment and remediation.


MS 1 Program – SP Different program, same standardized examination


 SP program: training with formative assessment (see next bullet for formative assessment


 End of year OSCE assessing history-taking (checklists designed for each SP case), PE (see

attached physical examination criteria) and interpersonal communication (see attached

program in doctor-patient communication “Professionalism Assessment Rating Scale)

 Hours: 13.5 / year (including OSCE)


 Clinic visits to substitute for SP encounters

 End of year OSCE (same as LDB)

 Hours: Should be equivalent to the number of SP hours in the LDB program

NOTE: The purpose of the OSCE is to assess the clinical training of both the LDB and DPC

programs. It is assumed the LDB and DPC faculty will work on this OSCE together with the

OMM department.

MS 1 Program – Patient Simulation Program


 Same program in basic procedures for both LDB and DPC students as outlined in the

syllabus distributed during the curriculum committee

 Hours: 5 hours / year


MS 2 Program – SP

LDB and DPC – same program, different approaches, same standardized exam

 SP program: training with formative assessment (see next bullet for formative assessment


 End of year OSCE assessing history-taking (checklists designed for each SP case), PE (see

attached physical examination criteria) and interpersonal communication (see attached

program in doctor-patient communication “Professionalism Assessment Rating Scale)

 Hours: 13.5 hours / year (including OSCE)

 NOTE: It is assumed that the LDB and DPC program schedules will vary but that the

content will be equivalent

MS 2 Program – Patient Simulation Program

LDB and DPC – same program, same standardized exam

 Students work in the same group throughout the year

End of year OSCE assessing medical team communication using the SimCom-T rating scale


 Group grade assigned for the OSCE (reflecting the spirit of the SimCom-T rating scale)

 Hours: 11 / year (including OSCE)

2. Attendance

 All activities and exams are mandatory.

 Make ups are done at the discretion of the ICC

NOTE: Make ups will be done as close to an activity as possible because delaying them, e.g. to

the end of the year, will incur additional training expenses (e.g. re-training a SP for a case played

months earlier) for the ICC.

3. Grading and remediation

 Pass / fail

 Grading is based upon:

o Attendance

o Participation

o End-of-year OSCE (standards to be set)


ICC Hours


Clinical Practice OSCE Total


LDB 8 SP exercises @1.5 hours each

12 hours per student

5 patient simulation program exercises @ 1 hours


5 hours per student

End-of-year SP OSCE

1.5 hours per student

(approximately 6.25 days)

13.5 hours


5 hours

(Pat Sim)

Total = 18.5

DPC Clinic experience to substitute for SP exercises

 Students will receive information re:

communication and PE competencies

5 patient simulation program exercises @ 1 hours


5 hours per student

0 hours


5 hours

Pat Sim

Total = 5


Clinical Practice OSCE Total




8 SP exercises @1.5 hours each

12 hours per student

6 patient simulation program exercises, plus ACLS

10 hours per student

End-of-year SP OSCE

1.5 hours per student

(approximately 6.25 days)

End-of-year Pat Sim OSCE

1 hour per student

(approximately 5 days)

13.5 hours


11 hours

(Pat Sim)

Total = 24.5


© 2007 NYCOM Do not reproduce or distribute without permission 9/4/07

Institute For Clinical Competence (ICC)

Professionalism Assessment Rating Scale (PARS)

Dear Students:

As part of your professional development, standardized patients (SPs) in the ICC will be

evaluating your interpersonal communication with them using the Professionalism Assessment

Rating Scale (PARS).

This scale evaluates two types of interpersonal communication, both important to quality health


􀂃 Patient Relationship Quality – Rapport, empathy, confidence and body language.

􀂃 Patient Examination Quality – Questioning, listening, information exchanging and careful and

thorough physical examination.

Arguably patients (real or simulated) are in the best position to assess your interpersonal

communication with them because you are directly relating to them during an intimate, face-toface,

hands-on encounter. They are in the best position, literally, to observe your eye contact,

demeanor and body language because they are in the room with you. We would recommend you

take their feedback seriously, but perhaps “with a grain of salt.”

The term standardized patient is to some degree a misnomer – SPs can be standardized to

present the same challenge and the same medical symptoms to each student, but they cannot be

standardized to feel the same way about you and your work with them compared to other

students. This is true in life as well as clinical work – some people will like you better than others,

and patients are people! You may communicate with one patient the way you do with the next,

but receive slightly different ratings. This is to be expected. Unlike the analytic checklists we use

to document if you asked particular questions or performed certain exams correctly, there are no

dichotomous / “right or wrong” communication ratings. Patients are people who may tune into

different things during an encounter. We think this slight variation in observation is an asset that

will help you understand that patients are individuals who must be approached as individuals.

Another word about the ratings you will receive – the ratings are not absolute numbers that

constitute an unconditional assessment of your communication skills. Some days you may be

better than other days. We use the ratings numbers (1-8 holistic scale) to chart progress over

time. We do see improvements during the first two years of the typical student’s training but the

ratings are used to track your progress as much as to structure a conversation with the SP, or

faculty member, during debriefing. We would recommend you take responsibility during SP

debriefing and ask them questions about the work you just did.

The holistic 1 – 8 scale is broken down into two parts: Ratings of 1 – 4 are considered “lower

quality” communication, i.e. what might be considered acceptable at a novice or trainee level, but

less acceptable for an experienced professional. Ratings of 5 – 8 are considered “higher quality”

communication, i.e. more professional-quality communication regardless of the training or

experience level.



Professionalism Assessment Rating Scale (PARS)

Standardized patients will rate “to what degree” you demonstrated relationship quality and

examination quality on the following nine factors:


To what degree did the student …

Lower Higher

Quality Quality

1 Establish and maintain rapport 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2 Demonstrate empathy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 Instill confidence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

4 Use appropriate body language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


To what degree did the student …

Lower Higher

Quality Quality

5 Elicit information clearly, effectively 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

6 Actively listen 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

7 Provide timely feedback / information / counseling 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

8 Perform a thorough, careful physical exam or


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Less experienced, More

or unprofessional professional

The following pages are a guide to the PARS, giving examples of “lower quality” and

“higher quality” communication.



1 Establish and maintain rapport

Establish and maintain a positive, respectful collaborative working relationship with the patient.

Lower Quality

1 2 3 4

Higher Quality

5 6 7 8

Overly familiar.

􀂃 “Hi Bill, I’m John. How are you doing


Appropriate address, e.g.

􀂃 “Hi Mr. Jones, I’m Student-doctor Smith. Is it

OK if I call you Bill?”

No agenda set. Set agenda, e.g.

No collaboration with the patient, i.e. carries

out the exam without patient consent or


􀂃 “We have ___ minutes for this exam. I’ll take a

history, examine you…..etc.”

Collaborative mindset

􀂃 “Let’s figure out what’s going on.”

􀂃 “We’re going to work out this problem together.”

Took notes excessively, i.e. spent more time

taking notes than interacting.

Spent more time interacting with the patient than

taking notes.

Began physically examining patient without

“warming” patient up, asking consent, etc.

Asked consent for obtaining a physical

examination, e.g.

􀂃 “Is it OK for me to do a physical exam?”

Did not protect patient’s modesty, e.g.

􀂃 Did not use a drape sheet

Respected patient’s modesty at all times e.g.

􀂃 Used a drape sheet when appropriate

􀂃 Did not direct patient to get dressed after


􀂃 Letting patient cover up follow an examination.

􀂃 Left door open when examining patient.

Talked “down” to patient, did not seem to

respect patient’s intelligence.

Seemed to assume patient is intelligent.

Rude, crabby or overtly disrespectful. Never rude, crabby; always respectful.

Dress, hygiene problems:

􀂃 Wore distracting perfume/cologne.

Dressed professionally, i.e. in a clean white coat,

clean clothes, etc.

􀂃 Poor hygiene, e.g. uncleanly, dirty nails,

body odor, did not wash hands, etc.

􀂃 Touched hair continually

􀂃 Unprofessional dress, e.g. wore jeans,

facial jewelry (e.g. tongue or nose studs),

overly suggestive or revealing garments

Seemed angry with the patient.

Seemed to like the patient.



2 Demonstrate empathy

Demonstrate both empathy (compassion, understanding, concern, support) and inquisitiveness

(curiosity, interest) in the patient’s medical problem and life situation.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


No expressions of concern about patient’s

condition or situation.

Expressed concern about patient’s condition or

situation, e.g.

􀂃 “That must be painful.”

􀂃 “I’m here to try to help you.”

Failed to acknowledge positive behavior /

lifestyle changes the patient has made.

Reinforced behavior/lifestyle changes the patient

has made, e.g. “That’s great you quit smoking.”

Failed to acknowledge suggested behavior /

lifestyle changes might be difficult.

Acknowledged that suggested behavior/lifestyle

changes might be difficult.

Empathic expression seemed insincere,


Empathic expressions seemed genuine.

Detached, aloof, overly “business-like,” robotic in


Compassionate and caring, “warm.”

Seeming lack of compassion, caring.

Accused patient of being a non-compliant, e.g.

􀂃 “Why don’t you take better care of yourself?”

􀂃 “You should have come in sooner.”

Positive reinforcement of things patient is doing

well, e.g.

􀂃 “That’s great that you stopped smoking.”

􀂃 “I’m glad you are taking your medication on a

regular basis.

INQUISITIVENESS – An aspect of empathy is inquisitiveness, the ability to attempt to

understand the patient, both medically and personally.

Focused on symptoms, but not the patient, i.e.

did not explore how the medical problem /

symptoms affect the patient’s life.

Tried to understand how the medical problem /

symptoms affect the patient’s life, or vice versa.

􀂃 “How is this affecting your life?”

􀂃 “Tell me about yourself.”

Failed to explore activities of daily living. 􀂃 “Describe a typical day in your life.”

􀂃 “Tell me about your stress.”

Failed to explore patient’s response to diagnosis

and / or treatment.

Inquires as to patient’s response to diagnosis and

/ or treatment

Failed to explore barriers to behavior / lifestyle


Explored barriers to behavior / lifestyle change.



3 Instill confidence

Instilling confidence that the medical student or doctor is able to help and treat the patient.

Lower Quality

1 2 3 4

Higher Quality

5 6 7 8

Conveyed his / her anxiety, e.g. Conveyed an appropriately confident demeanor,


􀂃 Made eye contact

􀂃 By avoiding eye contact

􀂃 Laughing or smiling nervously

􀂃 Sweaty hand shake

Made statement such as:

􀂃 “This is making me nervous.”

􀂃 “This is the first time I’ve ever done this.”

􀂃 “I don’t know what I’m doing.”

Apologized inappropriately to the patient. E.g.

􀂃 “I’m sorry, but I have to examine you.”

􀂃 Shook hands firmly, etc.

Overly confident, cocky.

Never cocky, appropriately humble without

undermining the patient’s confidence.

When making suggestions, used tentative

language, e.g.

􀂃 “Maybe you should try…”

􀂃 “I’m not sure but …”

When making suggestions, used authoritative

language, e.g.

􀂃 “What I suggest you do is…”

Made excuses for his/her lack of skill or

preparation by making statements such as:

Offered to help the patient or get information if he

/ she could not provide it by saying, e.g.

􀂃 “I’m just a medical student.”

􀂃 “Let me ask the attending physician”

􀂃 “They didn’t explain this to me.”

􀂃 “Do you know what I’m supposed to do next?”

􀂃 “I don’t know but let me find out for you.”



4 Use appropriate body language

The ability to use appropriate gestures, signs and body cues.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Overly casual posture, e.g. leaning against

the wall or putting feet up on a stool when

interviewing the patient.

Professional posture, i.e. carried himself / herself

like an experienced, competent physician.

Awkward posture, e.g.

• Stood stiffly when taking a history

• Stood as if he / she was unsure what to do

with his / her body.

Natural, poised posture.

Uncomfortable or inappropriate eye contact

e.g. stared at the patient too long and / or

never looked at the patient.

Used appropriate eye contact.

Avoided eye contact when listening.

Made eye contact when listening, whether eye

level of not.

Stood or sat too close or too distant from the


Maintained an appropriate “personal closeness”

and “personal distance.”

Turned away from the patient when listening.

Maintained appropriate body language when

listening to the patient.



5 Elicit information clearly, effectively

Effectively ask questions in an articulate, understandable, straightforward manner.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Used closed-ended, yes / no questions

exclusively, e.g.

Used open-ended questions to begin an inquiry,

and closed-ended questions to clarify, e.g.

􀂃 “How many days have you 􀂃 “Tell me about the problem.”

been sick?” 􀂃 “What do you do in a typical day?”

􀂃 “Ever had surgery?” 􀂃 “How is your health in general?”

􀂃 “Any cancer in your family?”

Used open-ended questions / non-clarifying

questions exclusively.

Used open-ended questions to begin an inquiry,

and closed-ended questions to clarify.

Student’s questions were inarticulate, e.g.

mumbled, spoke too fast, foreign accent

problems, stuttered*, etc.

* NOTE: Consider stuttering a form of inarticulation for

rating purposes, i.e. do not make allowances for


Student was articulate, asked questions in an

intelligible manner.

Asked confusing, multi-part or overly complex

questions, e.g.

􀂃 “Tell me about your past medical

conditions, surgeries and allergies.”

Asked one question at a time, in a straight-forward


􀂃 “Tell me about your allergies.”

Asked direct questions, e.g.

Asked leading questions, e.g.

􀂃 “No cancer in your family, right?”

􀂃 “No surgeries?” 􀂃 “Do you have any cancer in your family?

􀂃 “You only have sex with your wife, right?” 􀂃 “Any surgeries?”

􀂃 “Are you monogamous?”

Jumped from topic to topic Organized interview.

in a “manic,” disjointed or

disorganized way.

Stayed focused, asked follow up questions before

moving to another topic.

Asked questions in a robotic way, Asked questions in a conversational way, i.e.

listened to the response, and then asked another


i.e. as if reading from a prepared


Constantly cut off patient, i.e. did

not let patient finish sentences.

Allowed patient to finish sentences and thoughts

before asking the next question.



6 Actively listen

Both listen and respond appropriately to the patients’ statements and questions.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Asked questions without listening to the

patient’s response.

Asked questions and listened to patient’s


No overt statements made indicating he / she

was listening.

Said, e.g. “I’m listening.”

Turned away from the patient when listening.

Maintained appropriate body language when

listening to the patient.

Kept asking the same question(s) because

the physician didn’t seem to remember what

he / she asks.

If necessary, asked the same questions to obtain

clarification, e.g.

􀂃 “Can you tell me again how much you smoke?”

􀂃 “I know you told me this, but when was the last

time you saw your doctor?”

Wrote notes without indicating he / she was


When writing indicated he / she is listening, e.g.

􀂃 “I have to write down a few things down when

we talk, OK?”

Did not seem to be listening, seemed


Attentive to the patient.

Kept talking, asking questions, etc. if the

patient was discussing a personal issue, a

health concern, fear, etc.

Was silent when necessary, e.g. if the patient was

discussing a personal issue, a health concern,

fear, etc.


7 Provide timely feedback / information / counseling

Explain, summarize information (e.g. results of physical exams, provides patient education

activities, etc.), or provide counseling in a clear and timely manner.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Did not explain examination procedures, e.g.

just started examining the patient without

explaining what he / she was doing.

Explained procedures, e.g.

􀂃 “I’m going to check your legs for edema.”

􀂃 “I’m going to listen to your heart.”

Did not provide feedback at all, or provided

minimal feedback

Periodically provided feedback regarding what he /

she heard the patient saying.

􀂃 “It sounds like your work schedule makes it

difficult for you to exercise.”

􀂃 “I hear in your voice that your family situation is

causing you a lot of stress.”

Did not summarize information at all. Periodically summarized information.

􀂃 “You had this cough for 3 weeks, it’s getting

worse and now you’ve got a fever. No one is

sick at home and you haven’t been around

anyone who is sick.”

Provided empty feedback or unprofessional

feedback, e.g.

Feedback was meaningful, useful and timely.

􀂃 “OK…..OK…..OK…..OK…”

􀂃 “Gotcha..gotcha…gotcha,..”

􀂃 “Great ” “Awesome” “Cool”

Examined the patient without providing

feedback about the results of the exam.

Provided feedback about results of the physical


􀂃 “Your blood pressure seems fine.”

Refused to give the patient information he /

she requested, e.g.

“You don’t need to know that.”

“That’s not important.”

Give information to the patient when requested, or

offered to get it if he / she couldn’t answer the

patient’s questions.

Used medical jargon without explanation, e.g. Explained medical terms.

􀂃 “What you experienced was a myocardial


􀂃 “What you experienced is a myocardial

infarction, meaning a heart attack.”

Ended the exam abruptly.

Let the patient know what the next step was,

provided closure.

No closure, no information about the next


􀂃 “Let’s review the exam and your health…”




8 Conduct a thorough, careful physical exam or treatment

Conduct physical exams and / or treatment in a thorough, careful manner vs. a tentative or

superficial manner.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Conducted a superficial examination, e.g. Conducted a careful examination, e.g.

􀂃 Avoided touching the patient 􀂃 Examined on skin when appropriate

􀂃 Touched patient with great tentativeness

Hurried through the exam. Used the full amount of time allotted to examine

the patient.

Avoided inspecting (looking at) the patient’s

body / affected area.

Thoroughly inspected (looked at) the affected

area e.g. with gown open.

Consistently palpated, auscultated and / or

percussed over the exam gown.

Consistently palpated, auscultated and / or

percussed on skin.

Exam not bi-lateral (when appropriate). Bi-lateral exam (when appropriate).

Rough exam, e.g. Conducted a smooth exam from beginning to

􀂃 Started, stopped, re-started the exam. end.

􀂃 Fumbled with instruments

Did not look to see what patient’s expressions

were during an examination in order to assess


Looked for facial expressions to assess pain.

Did not thoroughly examine the site of the

chief complaint, e.g.

Thoroughly examined the site of the chief


􀂃 Did not examine heart and / or lungs if

chief complaint was a breathing problem



9 Conduct the examination in an organized manner

Overall conduct the exam in an organized, systematic way vs. a disorganized or unsystematic


Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

No clear opening, e.g. Clear opening, e.g.

􀂃 Did not set an agenda 􀂃 Set an agenda and followed it

􀂃 Abruptly began the exam 􀂃 Began the exam after a proper introduction

Medical interview not organized – history

jumped from topic to topic

Organize the medical interview vs. jumping from

topic to topic

No clear closure, e.g. Clear closure, e.g.

􀂃 Did not summarize information gathered

during the history and physical


􀂃 Summarized information gathered during the

history and physical examination

􀂃 Did not ask patient “Any more questions?” 􀂃 Asked patient “Any more questions?”

􀂃 Did not clarify next steps 􀂃 Clarified next steps


SimCom-T(eam) Holistic Scoring Guide

The SimCom-T is a holistic health care team communication training program and rating scale. The nine-factor scale of SimCom-T

rates team members’ performance as a unit, i.e. individual team member performance should be considered a reflection upon the

entire team.

Rate each factor individually.

Ratings should be global, i.e. reflect the most characteristic performance of the team vs. individual incidents.

The following pages are a guide to SimCom-T, providing behavioral examples representative of each score for the SimCom-T


Score Performance Level Description – The team…

1 Limited ….consistently demonstrates novice and / or dysfunctional team attributes

2 Basic ….inconsistently operates at a functional level

3 Progressing ….demonstrates basic and average attributes

4 Proficient ….proficient and consistent in performance

5 Advanced ….experienced and performing at a significant expert level

CNE Not applicable ….A factor could not be evaluated for some reason

Competency Lower




1 Leadership establishment and maintenance 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

2 Global awareness 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

3 Recognition of critical events 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

4 Information exchange 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

5 Team support 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

6 External team support 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

7 Patient support 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

8 Mutual trust and respect 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

9 Flexibility 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

10 Overall Team Performance 1 2 3 4 5 CNE


1. Leadership Establishment and Maintenance

Team members both establish leadership and maintain leadership throughout.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Leader not


▪ Roles not assigned

▪ No discussion

regarding role


▪ Unable to identify


▪ Many leaders

▪ No clear role


▪ Leadership not

explicit throughout


▪ Leadership not


throughout the event

▪ Role switching

without leader


▪ Leader explicitly


▪ Roles defined

▪ Leadership explicitly

identified and


▪ Roles defined and


▪ Leader delegates


Examples ▪ Team operating


without a leader

▪ Team members

taking on similar roles

and role switching


▪ Team members

unsure of who is

responsible for

different tasks

▪ Leader timid and

does not take charge

▪ Team member roles

unclear and/or


▪ A team member asks,

“Who is running the

code?” and another

says, “I am,” but does

not take communicate



▪ Team members are

assigned roles but do

not take on the


▪ Team members

select a leader

▪ A team member

volunteers to handle

the situation

▪ Roles clearly defined

by team members

and/or leader

▪ Leadership and roles

are established very

early in the event and

is maintained

throughout the event

▪ Clarity of leadership

and roles is evident

throughout the event

and with the team



2. Global Awareness

Team members monitor and appropriately respond to the total situation, i.e. the work environmental and the patient’s condition.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Does not monitor the

environment and


▪ Does not respond to

changes in the

environment and


▪ Monitoring and

response to changes

in the environment

and patient rarely


▪ Fixation errors

▪ Monitoring and

response to the

environment and

patient are not evident

throughout the event

▪ Monitors the

environment and


▪ Respond to changes

in the environment

and patient

▪ Consistently monitors

the environment and


▪ Consistently respond

to changes in the

environment and


Examples ▪ There is no summary

of procedures, labs

ordered, or results of


▪ Team is task oriented

and does not

communicate about

the event

▪ Event manager loses

focus and becomes

task oriented

▪ There is no clear

review of the lab

results and/or

summary of


▪ Leader says, “Team,

lets review our

differential diagnosis

and labs,” and team

does not respond to

the leader.

▪ Some of the team

members discuss

among themselves

results and possible


▪ Leader says, “Team,

lets review our

differential diagnosis

and labs,” and team

reviews the situation.

▪ Event manager

remains at the foot of

the bed keeping a

global assessment of

the situation

▪ Leader announces

plan of action for the



3. Recognition of Critical Events

Team promptly notes and responds to critical changes in the patient’s status and / or environment.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Does not monitor or

respond to critical

deviations from steady


▪ Fails to recognize or

acknowledge crisis

▪ “Tunnel Vision”

▪ Fixation errors are

consistently apparent

▪ Team reactive rather

than proactive

▪ Critical deviations

from steady state are

not announced for

other members

▪ Monitors and

responds to critical

deviations from steady


▪ Recognizes need for


▪ All team members

consistently monitors

and responds to

critical deviations from

steady state

▪ Anticipates potential


▪ Practices a proactive

approach and attitude

▪ Recognizes need for


▪ “Big Picture”

Examples ▪ Patient stops

breathing, and team

does not recognize

the situation

throughout the event

▪ Patient is pulseless,

and no CPR is started

throughout the event

▪ Patient stops

breathing, and team

does not recognize

this situation for a

critical time period

▪ Patient is pulseless,

and no CPR is started

for a critical time


▪ ▪ Leader says, “Team,

lets review our

differential diagnosis,

are there any

additional tests that

we should request?”

▪ “John, the sats are

dropping, please be

ready, we might have

to intubate.”

▪ “Melissa, the blood

pressure is dropping.

Get ready to start the

2nd IV and order a

type and cross.”


4. Information Exchange

Patient and procedural information is exchanged clearly.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Communication

between team

members is not


▪ Requests by others

are not acknowledged

▪ No feedback loop

▪ No orders given

▪ Vague


between team


▪ Not acknowledging

requests by others

▪ Feedback loop left


▪ Orders not clearly


▪ Communication

between team and

response to requests

by others inconsistent

▪ Feedback loops open

and closed

▪ Orders not directed to

a specific team


▪ Team communicates

and acknowledges

requests throughout

the event

▪ Feedback loops


▪ Explicit



throughout the event

▪ Team acknowledges


▪ Closed loop


throughout event

Examples ▪ No summary of


▪ No additional

information sought

from the team


▪ Event manager says,

“I need a defibrillator,

we might have to

shock this patient,”

and no team member

acknowledges the

order. The request

was not given

explicitly to a team


▪ One team member

says to another in a

low voice, “We need

to place a chest tube,”

but the event

manager does not

hear the


▪ Event manager

requests a

defibrillator, but not

explicitly to a

particular team

member; several

team members

attempt to get the


▪ Jonathan says to

event manager, “We

need to place a chest

tube.” Event manager

responds, “OK, get

ready for it.”

▪ Leader says, “Team,

lets summarizes what

has been done so


▪ Leader says, “Mary

please start an IV.”

Mary responds,

“Sorry, I do not know

how, please ask

someone else to do


▪ Event manager

summarizes events.

▪ Event manager seeks

additional information

from all team


▪ Event manager says,

“Peter, I want you to

get the defibrillator,

we might have to

shock this patient.”

Peter responds, “Yes,

I know where it is and

I’ll get it.”


5. Team Support

The team works as a unit, asking for or offering assistance when needed vs. team members “going it alone.”

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ No assistance or help

asked for or offered

▪ Team members act


▪ No recognition of


▪ Team members

watching and not


▪ Team members take

over when not


▪ Mistakes not

addressed to the


▪ Negative feedback

▪ Assistance is offered

when needed only

after multiple requests

▪ Team recognizes

mistakes and


addresses them

▪ Team member(s)

ask(s) for help when


▪ Assistance provided

to team member(s)

who need(s) it

Examples ▪ During a shoulder

dystocia event, the

critical situation is

recognized, but no

help is requested or

attempts to resolve

situation on their own

▪ Wrong blood type

delivered and

administered, an no

backup behaviors to

correct the mistake

▪ Team member


medication without

consulting the event


▪ Charles knows that

the patient is a

Jehovah Witness and

does not let the team

know when a T&C is


▪ Team does not

communicate that

he/she doesn’t know

how to use a

defibrillator and

attempts to do it

anyways and fails.

▪ ▪ ▪ During a shoulder

dystocia event, the

critical situation is

recognized, and event

manager calls for help

▪ Wrong blood type

delivered, attempt

made by team

member to administer

the blood but another

team member

recognizes the

mistake and stops the

transfusion before it


▪ Team member

consults with the

event manager before




6. External Team Support

Work team provides “external team” (family members and / or other health care professionals) with information and support as


Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Team fails to

recognize or interact

with other significant

people who are

present during the


▪ Team recognizes

other significant

people who are

present during the

encounter but

ignores to interact

with them

▪ Team inconsistently

interacts with other

significant people who

are present during the


▪ Team interacts with

other significant

people who are

present during the


▪ Team effectively

interacts with other

significant people who

are present during the


Examples ▪ Team fails to interact

with a distraught

family member and/or


▪ Team fails to interact

appropriately with a

distraught family


▪ Team does not

cooperate with a


▪ ▪ ▪


7. Patient Support

Work team provides the patient and significant others with information and emotional support as needed.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Team fails to interact

with patient if


▪ Team fails to show

empathy or respect

for a patient

(conscious or


▪ Team fails to provide


information when

requested to do so

▪ Teams interaction

with patient is

minimal and when

done so is lacking in

respect or empathy

▪ Team inconsistently

shows empathy or

respect for a patient

(conscious or


▪ Team inconsistently

provides information

when requested to do


▪ Team shows empathy

toward patient

▪ Team provides


information when

requested to do so

▪ Team demonstrates

consistent and

significant respect

and empathy for


▪ Appropriate

information is

provided consistently

Examples ▪ Team deals with an

unconscious patient

with a lack of respect,

e.g. by joking about

his / her condition

▪ Charles knows that

the patient is a

Jehovah Witness and

does not let the team

know when a T&C is


▪ ▪ ▪ Charles lets the

leader know that the

patient is a Jehovah

Witness and that she

refused blood



8. Mutual Trust and Respect

The team demonstrates civility, courtesy and trust in collective judgment.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Team exhibits e.g.

rudeness, overt


anger or overt doubt

or suspicion toward

each other

▪ Few team members

exhibit rudeness,

overt distrust, anger

or suspicion toward

each other

▪ Team inconsistently

demonstrates respect,

rudeness, distrust or

anger toward each


▪ Team exhibits e.g.

civility, courtesy, and

trust in collective


▪ Team is significantly

respectful of each


▪ Praise when


Examples ▪ Angry, stressed event

manager says to team

member, “I can’t

believe you can’t

intubate the patient.

What’s the matter with


▪ Team member says

to another, “You don’t

know what you’re

doing-let me do it for


▪ Event manager

recognizes a chest

tube is needed, and

barks, “Michelle, I

want you to put in a

chest tube, I want you

to do it now, and I

want you to do it right

on your first attempt.”

▪ Leader overbearing

and intimidating

▪ ▪ Stressed but

composed leader

recognizes a team

member cannot

intubate the patient

and offers assistance

▪ Team member says

to another, “Are you

OK? Let me know if I

can help you.”

▪ Event manager

recognizes a chest

tube is needed and

says, “Michelle, this

patient needs a chest

tube-can you put it in


▪ Leader is clear, direct,

and calm.

▪ Team members will

thank each other

when appropriate.


9. Flexibility

The team adapts to challenges, multitasks effectively, reallocates functions, and uses resources effectively; team self correction.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Team rigidly adheres

to individual team


▪ Inefficient resource

allocation / use

▪ Minimal adaptability

and/or hesitation to

changing situations

▪ Team can adapt to

certain situations, but

not all

▪ Generally very flexible

▪ Multi-tasks effectively

▪ Reallocates functions

▪ Uses resources


▪ Team adapts to



▪ Engages selfcorrection

Examples ▪ Ambu-bag not

working, and no

reallocation of

resources established

▪ Team members stay

in individual roles,

failing to support each

other e.g. by failing to

recognize fatigue of

those giving CPR

▪ Patient’s hysterical

family member

disrupts the team and

team continues

providing care,

ignoring disruptive


▪ ▪ ▪ Ambu-bag not

working, and an

airway team member

gives mouth-to-mouth

with a mask and

event manager asks

another team member

to retrieve a working


▪ Team members

alternate giving CPR,

recognizing fatigue of

those giving CPR

▪ Patient’s hysterical

family member

disrupts the team and

a team manages the

situation, e.g.

removes, counsels, or

reassures the family



10. Overall Team Performance

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Consistently

operating at a novice

training level

▪ Demonstrates

inconsistent efforts to

operate at a

functional level

▪ Inconsistently

demonstrates below

and average


▪ Demonstrates


cohesiveness as a

team unit;

▪ Performs proficiently

▪ Consistently operates

at an experienced

and professional

level; performs as




▪ Team requires

training at all levels;

unable to function


▪ Team needs training

at multiple levels to



▪ Team needs focused

training to function


▪ Team can function

independently with


▪ Team functions



Case A – Dizziness, Acute

Student ___________________________ Student ID _________ SP ID _________

History Scoring: Give students credit (Yes) if they ask any of the following questions and / or SPs

give the following responses. If question(s) not asked or response(s) not give, give no credit (No).


1 ONSET, e.g. “When did dizziness start?”

• “The dizziness started last night when I was cleaning up after dinner.”

2 PAST MEDICAL HISTORY OF PROBLEM, e.g. “Ever had this problem


􀂃 “I almost passed out once in restaurant a few months ago. The EMT

truck came and checked me out and they thought I was dehydrated

from exercising. I had just come from the gym.”

3 QUALITY, e.g. “Describe the dizziness.”

• “Every few minutes or so I get the feeling the room is spinning and I

feel a little nauseous, then it goes away and I feel OK. Then it starts all

over again.”

4 AGGRAVATING, e.g. “What makes the dizziness worse?”

􀂃 “Standing up with my eyes open makes me feel dizzy.”

5 PALLIATIVE, e.g. “What makes the dizziness better?”

􀂃 “Closing my eyes and laying down makes the dizziness better.”

6 HEAD INJURIES, e.g. “Have you bumped or injured your head?”

• “No head injuries.”

7 PAST MEDICAL HISTORY, e.g. “How is your health in general?”

􀂃 “In general I’ve been very healthy.”

8 MEDICATIONS, e.g. “Are you taking any medications for this problem or

anything else?”

􀂃 “I’m not taking anything. I thought of taking Dramamine but I wasn’t

sure it would help.”

9 DIET, e.g. “What do you eat in a typical day?”

􀂃 “A regular diet, toast and coffee in the morning, usually take out for

lunch, Chinese, a pizza or sub, something like that, and a regular meal

at night.”

10 TOBACCO USE, e.g. “Do you smoke?”

• “I used to smoke ó a pack a day, but now I’m down to 4 or 5,

sometimes a couple more if I’m stressed.”

11 ADLs, e.g. “How is this affecting your life?”

􀂃 “I couldn’t go to work today.”


Case A – Dizziness, Acute


􀂃 COLUMN 1: NO CREDIT: If any box is checked, exam was done “incorrectly” or

“incompletely.” Checked “Incorrect Details” box records reason(s) why.

􀂃 COLUMN 2: FULL CREDIT: If “Correct” box is checked, exam was done “Correctly /


􀂃 COLUMN 3: NO CREDIT: If “Not Done” box is checked, exam was not attempted at all.

Physical Examination Checklist 1








12 Perform fundoscopic examination

􀂃 Did not ask the patient to fix their gaze at point in

front of them.

􀂃 Exam room not darkened.

􀂃 Otoscope used instead of ophthalmoscope

􀂃 “Left eye-left hand-left eye” or “right eye-right

hand -right eye rule” not followed.

􀂃 Exam not bilateral.

13 Assess Cranial Nerve II – Optic – Assess Visual

Fields by Confrontation

􀂃 Examiner not at approximate eye-level with

patient, and / or no eye contact.

􀂃 Examiner’s hands not placed outside of patient’s

field of vision.

􀂃 Did not ask “Tell me when you see my fingers.”

􀂃 Did not test both upper and lower fields, and / or


14 Assess Cranial Nerves II and III – Optic and

Oculomotor: Assess direct and consensual


􀂃 Did not shine a light obliquely into each pupil

twice to check both the direct reaction and

consensual reaction.

􀂃 Did not assess bilaterally.

15 Assess Cranial Nerves II and III – Optic and

Oculomotor: Assess near reaction and near


􀂃 Did not test in normal room light.

􀂃 Finger, pencil, etc. placed too close or too far

from the patient’s eye.

􀂃 Did not ask the patient to look alternately at the

finger or pencil and into the distance.


Case A – Dizziness, Acute


􀂃 COLUMN 1: NO CREDIT: If any box is checked, exam was done “incorrectly” or

“incompletely.” Checked “Incorrect Details” box records reason(s) why.

􀂃 COLUMN 2: FULL CREDIT: If “Correct” box is checked, exam was done “Correctly /


􀂃 COLUMN 3: NO CREDIT: If “Not Done” box is checked, exam was not attempted at all.









16 Assess Cranial Nerve III – Oculomotor: Assess


􀂃 Did not ask the patient to follow his / her finger or

pencil as he / she moves it in toward the bridge of

the nose.

17 Assess Cranial Nerve III, IV and VI – Oculomotor,

trochlear and abducens: Assessing extraocular

muscle movement

􀂃 Examiner did not assess extra-ocular muscle

movements in at least 6 positions of gaze using,

for example, the “H” pattern.

􀂃 Did not instruct patient to not move the head

during the exam.

18 Assess Cranial Nerve VIII – Acoustic / Weber test

􀂃 Did not produce a sound from tuning fork, e.g. by

not holding the fork at the base

􀂃 Did not place the base of the tuning fork firmly on

top middle of the patient’s head.

􀂃 Did not ask the patient where the sound appears

to be coming from.

19 Assess Cranial Nerve VIII – Acoustic / Rinne test

􀂃 Did not produce a sound from tuning fork, e.g. by

not holding the fork at the base

􀂃 Did not place the base of the tuning fork against

the mastoid bone behind the ear.

􀂃 Did not ask patient to say when he / she no longer

hears the sound, hold the end of the fork near the

patient’s ear and ask if he / she can hear the


􀂃 Did not tap again for the second ear.

􀂃 Did not assess bilaterally.

20 Assess Gait

􀂃 Did not ask patient to walk, turn and come back to

look for imbalance, postural, asymmetry and type

of gait (e.g. shuffling, walking on toes, etc.)

21 Perform Romberg Test

􀂃 Did not direct patient to stand with feet together,

eyes closed, for at least 20 seconds without


􀂃 Did not stand in a supportive position, e.g. behind

patient or with hand behind patient.


Case A – Dizziness, Acute


To what degree did the student …

Lower Higher

Quality Quality

1 Establish and maintain rapport 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2 Demonstrate empathy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 Instill confidence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

4 Use appropriate body language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


To what degree did the student …

Lower Higher

Quality Quality

5 Elicit information clearly, effectively 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

6 Actively listen 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

7 Provide timely feedback / information / counseling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

8 Perform a thorough, careful physical exam or


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


3. Clinical Clerkship Evaluations / NBOME Subject Exams

Data compiled from 3rd/4th year clerkships includes:

 Student Performance Evaluations from specific hospitals (attending/supervising

physicians, and/or residents) based upon the 7 core Osteopathic Competencies.

Data is broken down further by student cohort: traditional, BS/DO, and Émigré

and is quantified according to curricular track (Lecture Discussion-Based and

Doctor Patient Continuum);

 NBOME Subject Exam scores for each of the (6) core clerkships and OMM.

Core clerkships include:

a) Family Medicine

b) Medicine


d) Pediatrics

e) Psychiatry

f) Surgery

NBOME Subject Exam statistics are shared with 3rd year students as a frame of

reference to determine their performance relative to their NYCOM peers. These

data also serve as a general guide for COMLEX II CE preparation and


 Students provide feedback on their clinical experiences during their clerkships,

via the “PDA project”:

a) The PDA is a tool utilized for monitoring clerkship activities. The

DEALS (Daily Educational Activities Logs Submission) focuses on

educational activities, while the LOG portion focuses on all major

student-patient encounters. A rich data set is available for comparing

patient encounters and educational activities across all sites for all



b) PDA data is used as a multimodal quality assessment tool for curricular

exposure as well as OMM integration across all hospitals (including

“outside” clerkships) for Patient Encounters and Educational Activities.

 Reports from student focus groups—these reports are based upon in-person group

interviews by a full-time NYCOM Medical Educator and feedback is analyzed in

order to ensure consistency in clerkship education and experiences, as well as for

program improvement indicators.


Specific forms/questionnaires utilized to capture the above-detailed information include the


 Clinical Clerkship Student Performance Evaluation

Samples of the forms/questionnaires follow




Northern Boulevard -– Old Westbury, NY 11568-8000

Tel.: 516-686-3718 – Fax: 516-686-3833

(*) Only ONE form, with COMPOSITE GRADE & COMMENTS should be sent to the Hospital’s Office of

Medical Education


COURSE # _______________________________(For NYCOM Purpose


STUDENT: _____________________,_______________Class Year:


Last First

ROTATION(Specialty)_____________________________ROTATION DATES:

____/____/____ ____/____/____



EVALUATOR: _________________________________________ TITLE:


(Attending Physician / Faculty Preceptor)

A. Student logs by PDA  REVIEWED (at least 10 patients)  NOT REVIEWED

B. Student’s unique “STRENGTHS” (Very Important –To be incorporated into the

College’s Dean’s Letter)








C. Student’s LIMITATIONS (areas requiring special attention for future professional growth)





D. For items below CIRCLE the most appropriate number corresponding to the

following rating scale:

Exceptional=5 Very Good = 4 Average = 3 Marginal = 2 1 = FAILURE N/A OR no opportunity to observe

CORE COMPETENCY (See definitions on reverse side) RATING

Patient Care 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

Medical Knowledge 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

Practice-Based Learning & Improvement 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

Professionalism 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

System-Based Practice 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

Interpersonal and Communication Skills 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine 5 4 3 2 1 N/A


Evaluator Signature:____________________________________________________ Date:


Student Signature: ____________________________________________________ Date:


(Ideally at Exit Conference)

(*) DME Signature: _________________________________________________ Date:


Please Return to:  Hospital’s Office of Medical Education


The Seven Osteopathic Medical Competencies

Physician Competency is a measurable demonstration of suitable or sufficient

knowledge, skill sets, experience, values, and behaviors, that meet established

professional standards, supported by the best available medical evidence, that are in

the best interest of the well-being and health of the patient.

Patient Care: Osteopathic patient care is the ability to effectively determine and

monitor the nature of a patient’s concern or problem; to develop, maintain, and to

bring to closure the therapeutic physician-patient relationship; to appropriately

incorporate osteopathic principles, practices and manipulative treatment; and to

implement effective diagnostic and treatment plans, including appropriate patient

education and follow-up, that are based on best medical evidence.


Medical Knowledge: Medical Knowledge is the understanding and

application of biomedical, clinical, epidemiological, biomechanical, and social and

behavioral sciences in the context of patient-centered care.

Practice-Based Learning & Improvement: Practice-Based learning

and improvement is the continuous evaluation of clinical practice utilizing evidence-based

medicine approaches to develop best practices that will result in optimal patient care


Professionalism: Medical professionalism is a duty to consistently demonstrate

behaviors that uphold the highest moral and ethical standards of the osteopathic profession.

This includes a commitment to continuous learning and the exhibition of personal and social

accountability. Medical professionalism extends to those normative behaviors ordinarily

expected in the conduct of medical education, training, research, and practice.

System-Based Practice: System-based practice is an awareness of and

responsiveness to the larger context and system of health care, and the ability to effectively

identify and integrate system resources to provide care that is of optimal value to individuals

and society at large.

Interpersonal & Communication Skills: Interpersonal and

communication skills are written, verbal, and non-verbal behaviors that facilitate

understanding the patient’s perspective. These skills include building the physician-patient

relationship, opening the discussion, gathering information, empathy, listening, sharing

information, reaching agreement on problems and plans, and providing closure. These skills

extend to communication with patients, families, and members of the health care team.

Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine: Osteopathic philosophy is a holistic

approach that encompasses the psychosocial, biomedical, and biomechanical aspects of both

health and disease, and stresses the relationship between structure and function, with

particular regard to the musculoskeletal system.

Definitions Provided by the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners



4. Student feedback (assessment) of courses / Clinical clerkship / PDA project

 Data received on courses and faculty through the newly implemented, innovative

Course / Faculty Assessment program (see below-NYCOM Student Guide for

Curriculum and Faculty Assessment). Students (randomly) assigned (by teams)

to evaluate one course (and associated faculty) during 2-year pre-clinical

curriculum. Outcome of student-team assessment is presented to Curriculum

Committee, in the form of a one-page Comprehensive Report;

 Clerkship Feedback (quantitative and “open-ended” feedback) provided through

“Matchstix” (web-based feedback program): this information is shared with

NYCOM Deans and Clinical Chairs, Hospital Director’s of Medical Education

(DMEs), Hospital Department Chairs and Clerkship Supervisors. Also, the

information is posted on the “web” to assist and facilitate 2nd year students

choosing 3rd year Core Clerkship Sites (transparency). This data is also utilized

via two (2) year comparisons of quantitative data and student feedback shared

with NYCOM Deans & Chairs, as well as Hospital DMEs;

 Clerkship Feedback via PDA: quantitative and open-ended (qualitative) feedback

on all clerkships is collected via student PDA submission. The information is

utilized as a catalyst for clerkship quality enhancement. This data-set is used as a

multimodal quality assessment tool for curricular exposure as well as OMM

integration across all hospitals (including “outside” clerkships) for Patient

Encounters and Educational Activities;


 Reports from student focus groups—these reports are based upon in-person group

interviews by a full-time NYCOM Medical Educator and feedback is analyzed in

order to ensure consistency in clerkship education and experiences, as well as for

program improvement indicators;


Specific forms/questionnaires utilized to capture the above-detailed information include the


 NYCOM Student Guide for Curriculum and Faculty Assessment

 Clerkship (site) feedback from Clerkship students

 Clinical Clerkship Focus Group Form

 4th Year PDA Feedback Questionnaire

 Student End-of-Semester Program Evaluations (DPC)

 DPC Program Assessment Plan

 Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (OMM) Assessment Forms

Samples of the forms/questionnaires follow



Site Feedback

Rotation: Surgery


This is an anonymous feedback form. No student identification data is transmitted.

Questions marked with * are mandatory.

Section I. Please respond to each statement in this section according to the following



1* There were adequate learning opportunities (teaching patients, diversity of pathology and

diagnostic procedures)

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

2* There were opportunities to practice osteopathic diagnosis and therapy

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

3* There was adequate supervision and feedback (e.g., reviews of my H&P, progress notes and

clinical skills)

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

4* I had the opportunity to perform procedures relevant for my level of training

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

5* I was evaluated fairly for my level of knowledge and skills

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

6* Attending physicians and/or house staff were committed to teaching

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

7* Overall, I felt meaningfully engaged and well integrated with the clinical teams (e.g., given

sufficient patient care responsibilities)

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree


8* The DME and/or clerkship director was responsive to my needs as a student

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

9* There were adequate library resources at this facility

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

10* A structured program of directed readings and/or journal club was a component of this


Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

11* The lectures were appropriate for this rotation (e.g., quality, quantity and relevance of


Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

12* Educationally useful teaching rounds were conducted on a regular basis.

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

13* This rotation reflected a proper balance of service and education

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

14* This rotation incorporated a psychosocial component in patient care

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

15* Overall, I would recommend this rotation to others

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

Section II. Psychomotor skills

Indicate the number you performed on an average week during this rotation for each of

the following:

16* History and Physicals


17* Osteopathic structural examinations

18* Osteopathic Manipulative Treatments

19* Starting IVs

20* Venipunctures

21* Administering injections

22* Recording notes on medical records

23* Reviewing X-Rays

24* Reviewing EKGs

25* Urinary catherizations

26* Insertion and removal of sutures

27* Minor surgical procedures (assist)

28* Major surgical procedures (assist)

29* Care of dressings and drains


30* Sterile field maintenance

Section III

31* Comment on unique STRENGTHS and Positive Features of this rotation

32* Comment on the LIMITATIONS and Negative Features of this rotation

33* Comment on the extent in which the Learning Objectives for the rotation were met (e.g.,

specific topics/patient populations to which you were or not exposed)

Section IV. Please list your clinical instructors with whom you had substantial contact

on this rotation and provide a general rating of their effectiveness as Teachers using the

scale below.



For example – John Smith – 4

34* List clinical instructors and rating in the box below

To submit your feedback, enter your password below and then click on Submit Feedback button

Submit Feedback



Focus Groups on Clinical Clerkships




The student’s comments on the clinical rotations are as follows:

(Name of Clerkship)




4th Year PDA Feedback Questionnaire

1. Clinic Site

2. Rotation

3. Date

4. There were adequate learning opportunities

5. There were opportunities to practice Osteopathic diagnosis & therapy

6. I was evaluated fairly for my level of knowledge and skills

7. Attending physicians and/or house staff were committed to teaching

8. Overall, I felt meaningfully engaged and well integrated with the clinical teams

9. The DME and/or clerkship director was responsive to my needs as a student

10. This rotation reflected a proper balance of service and education

11. Overall, I would recommend this clerkship to others


13. Strengths/Positive Features of Rotation

14. Limitations/Negative Features of Rotation

15. List and Rate Clinical Instructors


Student End-of-Semester Program Evaluations

The DPC Student End-of-Semester Program Evaluation is an assessment of

each course that occurred during the semester and the corresponding faculty




1. Please write in your year of graduation here: .

2. Enclosed you will find a blank scantron sheet.

3. Please make sure that you are using a #2 pencil to fill in your answers.

4. Please fill in the following Test Form information on the Scantron Sheet:

 DPC Class 2011 – Bubble in Test Form A

 DPC Class 2012 – Bubble in Test Form B

5. No other identifying information is necessary.

6. Please complete each of the following numbered sentences throughout

this evaluation using the following responses:

A. Excellent – couldn’t be better

B. Good – only slight improvement possible

C. Satisfactory – about average

D. Fair – some improvement needed

E. Poor – considerable improvement needed

7. There are spaces after each section in which you can write comments.

(When making comments, please know that your responses will be shared with DPC faculty,

Dept. chairs, and deans, as part of ongoing program evaluation.)




Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

1. This course, overall is A B C D E

2. My effort in this course, overall is A B C D E

3. The case studies used in small

group are A B C D E

4. My preparation for each group

session was A B C D E

5. Other available resources for use in

small group are A B C D E

6. Facilitator assessments are A B C D E

7. Self assessments are A B C D E

8. Content Exams – midterm and final

are A B C D E

9. The group process in my group can

be described as A B C D E

10. The wrap-ups in my group were A B C D E

11. The quality of the learning issues

developed by my group was A B C D E

Overall comments on Case Studies


Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

12. The monthly student hours are A B C D E

Overall Comments On The Student Hour



Please circle your group number/the name of your group facilitator(s).

Group Facilitators

A Dr. _____________________ and Dr. _______ ______________

B Dr. _____________________ and Dr. ________ ______________

C Dr. _____________________ and Dr. ______________________

D Dr. _____________________ and Dr. _______________________

Please bubble in your response to each of the following items:


Agree Agree Disagree Strongly


13. Maintained appropriate directiveness 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

14. Supported appropriate group process 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

15. Supported student-directed learning 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

16. Gave appropriate feedback to group 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

17. Ensured that learning issues were

Appropriate 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

18. Overall, these facilitators were

effective 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

Overall Facilitator Comments

(Comments on individual facilitators are welcome)



A. Course Evaluation:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

19. These sessions, overall were A B C D E

20. My effort in these sessions, overall

was A B C D E

21. The organization of these sessions

was A B C D E

22. Handouts in general were A B C D E

Problem Sets/Discussion Sessions Comments

(Please comment as to whether problem sets were too many, too few, too involved.)



B. Presenter Evaluation:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

23. The Problem Set topic on

was A B C D E

24. The instructor,

, for the problem set named

in #23 was


25. The Problem Set topic on

was A B C D E

26. The instructor,

, for the problem set named

in #25 was


27. The Problem Set topic on

was A B C D E

28. The instructor,

, for the problem set named

in #27 was


29. The Problem Set topic on

was A B C D E

30. The instructor,

, for the problem set named

in #29 was


31. The Problem Set topic on

was A B C D E

32. The instructor,

, for the problem set named

in #31 was


Problem Sets/Discussion Sessions Comments

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)



A. Course Evaluation:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

33. This component, overall was A B C D E

34. My effort in this component was A B C D E

35. My preparation for each lab session

was A B C D E

36. Organization of the component was A B C D E

37. Quizzes were A B C D E

38. Resource Hour / Reviews were A B C D E

Anatomy Component Comments



B. Teaching Evaluation:

Please bubble in your response to each of the following items:


Agree Agree Disagree Strongly


39. The faculty were available to answer

questions in the lab 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

40. The faculty Initiated student

discussion 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

41. The faculty were prepared for each

lab session 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

42. The faculty gave me feedback on how

I was doing 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

43. The faculty were enthusiastic about

the course 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

44. Overall, the instructors were effective 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

Anatomy Component Comments

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)




A. Course Evaluation:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

45. This component, overall was A B C D E

46. My effort in this component was A B C D E

47. My preparation for each lab session

was A B C D E

48. Organization of the component was A B C D E

49. Examinations were A B C D E

50. Handouts/PowerPoints were A B C D E

51. I would rate my physical exam and

history taking skills at this time to



Overall Comments on Clinical Skills Component / Individual Labs

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)



B. Teaching Evaluation:

Please bubble in your response to each of the following items:


Agree Agree Disagree Strongly


52. The faculty were available to answer

questions in the lab 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

53. The faculty initiated student

discussion 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

54. The faculty were prepared for each

lab session 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

55. The faculty Gave me feedback on

how I was doing 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

56. The faculty were enthusiastic about

the course 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

57. Overall, the instructors were effective 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

Overall Comments on Clinical Skills Component / Individual Labs

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)



A. Course Evaluation:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

58. This component, overall was A B C D E

59. My effort in this component was A B C D E

60. My preparation for each lab session

was A B C D E

61. Organization of the component was A B C D E

62. Presentations / Lectures were A B C D E

63. Handouts were A B C D E

64. Quizzes were A B C D E

65. Practical exams were A B C D E

66. Resource Hour / Reviews were A B C D E

Overall Comments on OMM Component / Individual Labs

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)



B. Teaching Evaluation

Please bubble in your response to each of the following items:


Agree Agree Disagree Strongly


67. The faculty were available to answer

questions in the lab 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

68. The faculty Initiated student

discussion 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

69. The faculty were prepared for each

lab session 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

70. The faculty gave me feedback on how

I was doing 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

71. The faculty were enthusiastic about

the course 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

72. Overall, the instructors were effective 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

Overall Comments on OMM Component / Individual Labs

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)



A. Course Evaluation:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

73. This component, overall was A B C D E

74. My effort in this component was A B C D E

75. My preparation for each lab session

was A B C D E

76. Organization of this component was A B C D E

77. The helpfulness/usefulness of the

ICC standardized patient

encounters was


78. The helpfulness/usefulness of the

ICC robotic patient encounters was A B C D E

79. Are Clinical Skills laboratory

exercises appropriate for the ICC?

[A] YES [B] NO

A YES B NO – – –

Overall Comments on the ICC Component

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)



80. I participated in Clinical Practicum this semester: [A] YES [B] NO

If you answered NO to this question, you have finished this evaluation, if you answered YES,

please continue this questionnaire until the end. Thank you.

A. Course Evaluation

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

81. This component, overall was A B C D E

82. My effort in this component was A B C D E

83. My preparation for each lab session

was A B C D E

84. Organization of this component was A B C D E

85. The helpfulness/usefulness of the

Clinical Practicum was A B C D E

86. The organization of the case

presentations was A B C D E

87. Are Clinical Skills laboratory

exercises appropriate for the

Clinical Practicum?

A YES B NO – – –

Please bubble in your response to each of the following items:



Agree Disagree Strongly


88. The case presentation exercise was a

valuable learning experience 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

Overall Comments on Clinical Practicum Course



B. Mentor Evaluation:

Please bubble in your response to each of the following items:


Agree Agree Disagree Strongly


89. The preceptor was available to

answer my questions 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

90. I was supported in my interaction

with patients 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

91. Student-directed learning was

supported 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

92. I had appropriate feedback 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

93. Overall, this preceptor/site was

effective 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

Preceptor Name _______________________

Overall Comments on Clinical Practicum Mentor

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)


DPC: Program Assessment Plan

I. Pre matriculated Evaluation – What determines that an applicant will pick the DPC


 Comparison of the students who chose the LDB program vs. the DPC program with

regard to the following outcome measures:

 GPA scores (overall, science)

 MCAT scores

 Gender

 Age

 Race

 College size

 College Geographic location

 Prior PBL exposure

 OMM understanding

 Research Background

 Volunteer Work

 Employment Experience

 Graduate Degree

 Scholarships/Awards

II. Years at NYCOM – How do we evaluate if the DPC program is accomplishing its goals

while the students are at NYCOM?

 Comparison of Facilitator Assessments for each term, to monitor student growth

 Comparison of Clinical Practicum Mentor Evaluations from Term 2 and Term 3, to

evaluate the student’s clinical experience progress

 Comparison of Content exam scores from terms 1 through 4.

 Comparison of entrance questionnaire (administered during first week of medical

school) responses to corresponding exit questionnaire administered at the end of year


 Evaluation of the Student DPC End-of-Term Evaluations

 Comparison of the following measures to those outcomes achieved by the students in

the LDB program:

 OMM scores


DPC: Program Assessment Plan

 Anatomy scores

 ICC PARS scores

 ICC OSCE scores

 Summer research

 Summer Volunteerism

 Research effort (publications, abstracts, posters, presentations)

 Shelf-exams

 COMLEX I, II, III scores and pass rate

 Fellowships (Academic, Research)

III. Post Graduate Training Practice – What happens to the DPC student once they leave

NYCOM? How to they compare to those students who matriculated through the LDB


 Comparison of the following measures to those outcomes achieved by the students in

the LDB program:

 Internships

 Residencies

 Fellowships

 Specialty (medicine)

 Specialty board certifications

 AOA membership

 AMA membership

 Publications

 Research

 Teaching


OMM Assessment Forms



5. COMLEX USA Level I, Level II CE & PE, and Level III data (NBOME)

a) First-time and overall pass rates and mean scores;

b) Comparison to national averages;

c) Comparison to college (NYCOM) national ranking.

Report provided by Associate Dean for Academic Affairs


6. Residency match rates and overall placement rate

Data compiled as received from the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) and

the National Residency Match Program (NRMP).

Report provided by Associate Dean for Clinical Education


7. Feedback from (AACOM) Graduation Questionnaire

Annual survey report received from AACOM comparing NYCOM graduates

responses to numerous questions/categories (including demographics, specialty

choice, overall perception of pre-doctoral training, indebtedness, and more) to nationwide

osteopathic medical school graduating class responses.


Specific forms/questionnaires utilized to capture the above-detailed information include the


 AACOM Survey of Graduating Seniors

Samples of the forms/questionnaires follow




















8. Completion rates (post-doctoral programs)

Percent of NYCOM graduates completing internship/residency training programs.

Report provided by Office of Program Evaluation and Assessment


9. Specialty certification and licensure

Data compiled from state licensure boards and other specialty certification

organization (board certification) on NYCOM graduates.

Report provided by Office of Program Evaluation and Assessment


10. Career choices and geographic practice location

Data includes practice type (academic, research, clinical, and so on) and practice

location. Data obtained from licensure boards, as well as NYCOM Alumni survey.

Report provided by Office of Program Evaluation and Assessment


11. Alumni Survey

Follow up survey periodically sent to alumni requesting information on topics

such as practice location, specialty, residency training, board certification and

so on.


Specific forms/questionnaires utilized to capture the above-detailed information include the


 Alumni Survey

Samples of the forms/questionnaires follow









________________________________ _______________________________ _______________________









What specialty do you practice most

frequently? (Choose one)

 Allergy and Immunology

 Anesthesiology

 Cardiology

 Colorectal Surgery

 Dermatology

 Emergency Medicine

 Endocrinology

 Family Practice

 Gastroenterology

 Geriatrics

 Hematology

 Infectious Diseases

 Internal Medicine

 Neruology

 Neonatology

 Nephrology

 Neurology

 Nuclear Medicine

 Obstetrics & Gynecology

 Occupational Medicine

 Ophthalmology

 Oncology

 Otolaryngology

 Orthopedic Surgery

 Psychiatry

 Pediatrics

 Plastic/Recon. Surgery

 Physical Medicine/Rehab

 Pathology

 Pulmonary Medicine

 Radiology

 Rheumatology

 Surgery (general)

 Thoracic Surgery

 Radiation Therapy

 Urology

 Other (Please specify)


Current military status (if applicable):

 Active Duty

 Inactive reserve

 Active Reserve

What is the population of the

geographic area of your practice?

(Choose one)

 5,000,000 +

 1,000,000 – 4,999,999

 500,000 – 999,999

 250,000 – 499,999

 100,000 – 249,999

 50,000 – 99,999

 25,000 – 49,999

 10,000 – 24,999

 5,000 – 9,999

 Less than 5,000

How would you describe this

geographic area? (Choose one)

 Inner City

 Urban

 Suburban

 Small Town – Rural

 Small town – industrial

Other ______________________

What functions do you perform in

your practice? (check all that apply)

 Preventive care/patient education

 Acute care

 Routine/non-acute care

 Consulting

 Supervisory/managerial responsibilities

 Research

 Teaching

 Hospital Rounds

What best describes the setting in

which you spend the most time ?

 Intensive Care Unit of Hospital

 Inpatient Unit of Hospital (not ICU/CCU)

 Outpatient Unit of Hospital

 Hospital Emergency Room

 Hospital Operating Room

 Freestanding Urgent Care Center

 Freestanding Surgical Facility

 Nursing Home or LTC Facility

 Solo practice physician office

 Single Specialty Group practice physician


 Multiple Specialty Group practice physician


 University Student Health facility

 School-based Health center

 HMO facility

 Rural Health Clinic

 Inner-city Health Center

 Other Community Health Center

 Other Freestanding Outpatient facility

 Correctional facility

 Industrial facility

 Mobile Health Unit

 Other (Please specify)


Do you access medical information

via the internet ?

 Never

 Sometimes

 Often

What percent of your time is spent in primary

care? (family medicine or gen. internal medicine)

 0%

 1 – 25%

 25 – 50%

 50 – 75%

 75 – 100%

What percent of your practice is outpatient?

 0%

 1 – 25%

 25 – 50%

 50 – 75%

 75 – 100%


Do you engage in any of the following

activities? (check all that apply)

 Professional organization

leadership position

 Volunteer services in the


 School or team physician

 Free medical care

 Leadership in church,


 Local government

 Speaking on medical

topics to community


How many CME programs or other

professional training sessions did you

attend last year?

 none

 1-5

 5-10

 10-15

 more than 15

Have you ever done any

of the following?

 Author or co-author

a professional paper

 Contribute to an article

 Direct a research project

 Participate in clinical


 Present a lecture at a

professional meeting or

CME program

 Serve on a panel

discussion at a

professional meeting

How often do you read

medical literature regarding

new research findings?

 Rarely

 Several times a year

 Monthly

 Weekly

 Daily

How frequently do you apply

osteopathic concepts into

patient care?

 Never

 Rarely

 Often

 Always

In your practice do you employ any of

the following?

(check all that apply)

 Structural examination or


considerations in


 Indirect OMT techniques

 High Velocity OMT

 Myofascial OMT

 Cranial OMT

 Palpatory diagnosis

Please indicate how important each of the following skills

has been in your success as a physician, and how well

NYCOM prepared you in that skill.

Biomedical science knowledge base

Clinical skills

Patient educator skills

Empathy and compassion for patients

Understanding of cultural differences

Osteopathic philosophy

Clinical decision making

Foundation of ethical standards

Ability to communicate with other health care providers

Ability to communicate with patients and families

Knowing how to access community resources

Ability to understand and apply new medical information

Understanding of the payor/reimbursement system

How important to my practice


Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

How well NYCOM prepared me


Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak


Ability to search and retrieve needed information

Manipulative treatment skill

Ability to use medical technology

Diagnostic skill

Skill in preventive care

Understanding of public health issues & the public health



Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak 

Please return to:

NYCOM of NYIT, Office of Alumni Affairs

Northern Boulevard, Serota Bldg., Room 218

Old Westbury, New York 11568


fax to (516) 686-3891 or (516) 686-3822

as soon as possible.

Thank you for your cooperation!


NYCOM Benchmarks

1-Applicant Pool

Benchmark: To maintain relative standing among Osteopathic Medical Colleges based on

the number of applicants.

2-Admissions Profile

Benchmark: Maintain or improve current admissions profile based on academic criteria such

as MCAT, GPA, or Colleges attended.

3-Academic Attrition Rates

Benchmark: To maintain or improve our current 3% Academic Attrition rate

4-Remediation rates (pre-clinical years)

Benchmark: A 2% a year reduction in the students remediating in pre-clinical years.


Benchmark: Top quartile in the National Ranking of 1st time pass rate and Mean Score.

6-Students entering Osteopathic Graduate Medical Education (OGME)

Benchmark: Maintain or improve the current OGME placement.

7-Graduates entering Primary Care (PC) 12

Benchmark: Maintain or improve the current Primary Care placement.

8-Career Data -Licensure (within 3 years, post-graduate), Board Certification , Geographic

Practice, and Scholarly achievements.

Benchmark: TBD

12 Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Pediatrics



Gonnella, J.S., Hojat, M., & Veloski, J.J. Jefferson Longitudinal Study of Medical Education.

Retrieved December 17, 2008, from http://jdc.jefferson.edu/jlsme/1

Hernon, P. & Dugan, R.E. (2004). Outcomes Assessment in Higher Education. Libraries

Unlimited: Westport, CT





©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

1 Assess Cranial Nerve I

– Olfactory

Examiner checks for

patient’s sense of smell by,

e.g. coffee, soap,

peppermint, orange peels,


2 Assess Cranial Nerve II

– Optic: Assessing Visual

Fields by Confrontation

􀂃 Examiner stands at

approximate eye-level

with patient, making eye


􀂃 Patient is then asked to

return examiner’s gaze

e.g. by saying “Look at


􀂃 Examiner starts by

placing his / her hands

outside the patient’s field

of vision, lateral to head.

􀂃 With fingers wiggling (so

patient can easily see

them) the examiner

brings his / her fingers

into the patient’s field of


Hands diagonal

Or, hands horizontal

􀂃 Examiner must ask the patient “Tell me when you see my


􀂃 Assess upper, middle and lower fields, bilaterally.



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

3 Assess Cranial Nerve II –

Optic: Accessing Visual


􀂃 For ICC purposes,

handheld Rosenbaum

Pocket Screener (eye


􀂃 NOTE: Use handheld

Snellen eye chart if

patient stand 20’ from

the chart

􀂃 Ask patient to cover one

eye while testing the

other eye

􀂃 Rosenbaum eye chart

is held in good light

approximately 14” from


􀂃 Determine the smallest

line of print from which

patient can read more

than half the letters

􀂃 The patient’s visual

acuity score is recorded

as two numbers, e.g.

“20/30” where the top

number is the distance

the patient is from the

chart and the bottom

number is the distance

the normal eye can

read that line.

􀂃 Repeat with the other




©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

4 Assessing Cranial Nerves II and III

– Optic and Oculomotor:

Assessing direct and Consensual


􀂃 Examiner asks the patient to look into the

distance, then shines a light obliquely into

each pupil twice to check both the direct

reaction (pupillary constriction in the same

eye) and consensual reaction (pupillary

constriction in the opposite eye).

􀂃 Must be assessed bilaterally.

5 Assessing Cranial Nerves II and III – Optic

and Oculomotor: Assessing Near Reaction

and Near Response

􀂃 Assessed in normal room light, testing one

eye at a time.

􀂃 Examiner holds a finger, pencil, etc. about

10 cm. from the patient’s eye.

􀂃 Asks the patient to look alternately at the

finger or pencil and then into the distance.

􀂃 Note pupillary constriction with near focus.

Close focus

Distant focus



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

6 Assessing Cranial Nerve III

– Oculomotor: Assessing Convergence

􀂃 Examiner asks the patient to follow his / her

finger or pencil as he / she moves it in

toward the bridge of the nose to within about

5 to 8 centimeters.

􀂃 Converging eyes normally follow the object

to within 5 – 8 cm. of the nose.

7 Assessing Cranial Nerve III, IV and VI

– Oculomotor, Trochlear And Abducens:

Assessing Extra Ocular Muscle Movement

􀂃 Examiner assesses muscle movements in at

least 6 positions of gaze by tracing, for

example, an “H pattern” with the hand and

asking the patient to follow the hand with

their eyes without turning the head.



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

8 Assessing Cranial Nerve V

– Trigeminal (Sensory) Ophthalmic Maxillary

Examiner assesses sensation in 3


􀂙 Ophthalmic

􀂙 Maxillary

􀂙 Mandibular

􀂃 Examiner may use fingers,

cotton, etc. for the


􀂃 Assess bilaterally.


9 Assessing Cranial Nerve V

– Trigeminal (Motor)

􀂃 Examiner asks the patient to

move jaw his or her jaw from

side to side


􀂃 Examiner palpates the

masseter muscles and asks

patient to clinch his / her teeth.

􀂃 Note strength of muscle





©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

10 Assessing Cranial

Nerve VII – Facial:

Motor Testing

Examiner asks patient to

perform any 4 of the

following 6 exams:

􀂃 Raise both eyebrows

􀂃 Close eyes tightly,

then try to open

against examiner’s


􀂃 Frown

􀂃 Smile

􀂃 Show upper and lower


􀂃 Puff out cheeks

Note any weakness or


Raise eyebrows Opening eyes against resistance

Frown Smile

Show teeth Puff cheeks



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509


Assess Cranial Nerve VIII

– Acoustic

Weber test – for


􀂃 Use a 512 Hz or 1024

Hz turning fork.

􀂃 Examiner starts the fork

vibrating e.g. by tapping

it on the opposite hand,

leg, etc.

􀂃 Base of the tuning fork

placed firmly on top of

the patient’s head.

􀂃 Patient asked “Where

does the sound appear

to be coming from?”

(normally it will be

sensed in the midline).



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

12 Assessing Cranial Nerve

VIII – Acoustic

Rinne test – to compare

air and bone conduction

􀂃 Use a 512 Hz or 1024

Hz turning fork.

􀂃 Examiner starts the fork

vibrating, e.g. by

tapping it on the

opposite hand, leg, etc.

􀂃 Base of fork placed

against the mastoid

bone behind the ear.

􀂃 Patient asked to say

when he / she no longer

hears the sound

Mastoid Bone

􀂃 When sound no longer

heard, examiner moves

the tuning fork (without

re-striking it) and holds

it near the patient’s ear

and ask if he / she can

hear the vibration.

􀂃 Examiner must vibrate

the tuning fork again for

the second ear.

􀂃 Bilateral exam.

NOTE: (AC>BC): Air

conduction greater than

bone conduction.




©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

13 Assessing Cranial Nerve VIII –

– Gross Auditory Acuity

􀂃 Examiner asks patient to

occlude (cover) one ear.

􀂃 Examiner then whispers

words or numbers into nonoccluded

ear from

approximately 2 feet away.

􀂃 Asks patient to repeat

whispered words or


􀂃 Compare bilaterally.


􀂃 Examiner asks patient to

occlude (cover) one ear.

􀂃 Examiner rubs thumb and

forefinger together next to

patient’s non-occluded ear

and asks the patient if the

sound is heard.

􀂃 Compare bilaterally.



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

14 Assessing Cranial Nerve IX

and X – Glossopharyngeal

and Vagus: Motor Testing

􀂃 First, examiner asks the

patient to swallow.


􀂃 Next, patient asked to say

‘aah’ and examiner

observes for symmetrical

movement of the soft

palate or a deviation of the


􀂃 OPTIONAL: Use a light

source to help visualize

palate and uvula.

NOTE: sensory component of

cranial nerves IX and X is

testing for the “gag reflex”

Saying “Aah”



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

15 Assessing Cranial Nerve XI

– Spinal Accessory:

Motor Testing

􀂃 Examiner asks the patient to

shrug his / her shoulders up

against the examiner’s

hands. Apply resistance.

􀂃 Note strength and

contraction of trapezius


􀂃 Next, patient asked to turn

his or her head against

examiner’s hand. Apply


􀂃 Observe the contraction of

the opposite sternocleidomastoid


􀂃 Assess bilaterally.



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

16 Assessing Cranial Nerve

XII – Hypoglossal:

Motor Testing

􀂃 First, examiner inspects

patient’s tongue as it

lies on the floor of the


􀂃 Note any asymmetry,

atrophy or


􀂃 Next, patient asked to

protrude the tongue.

􀂃 Note any asymmetry,

atrophy or deviations

from the midline.

􀂃 Finally, patient asked to

move the tongue from

side to side.

􀂃 Note any asymmetry of

the movement.

Inspect tongue Protruding Tongue

Side to Side Movement



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

17 Assessing Lower Extremities –

Motor Testing

With patient in supine position, test


􀂃 Test flexion of the hip by placing

your hand on patient’s thigh, and

ask them to raise his / her leg

against resistance.

􀂃 Test extension of the hip by

having patient push posterior

thigh against your hand




©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

18 Assessing Lower Extremities –

Motor Testing

With patient in seated position, test


􀂃 Test adduction of the hip by

placing hands firmly between the

knees, and asking them to bring

the knees together

􀂃 Test abduction of the hip by

placing hands firmly outside the

knees, and asking patient to

spread their legs against




©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

19 Assessing Upper Extremities –

Motor Testing

􀂃 Examiner asks patient to pull (flex)

and push (extend) the arms against

the examiner’s resistance.

􀂃 Bilateral exam.



20 Assessing Lower Extremities –

Motor Testing

􀂃 Examiner asks the patient to pull

(flex) and push (extend) the legs

against the examiner’s resistance.

􀂃 Bilateral exam.





©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

21 Assessing Lower Extremities –

Motor Testing

􀂃 Examiner asks patient to dorsiflex

and plantarflex the ankle against


􀂃 Compare bilaterally



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

22 Assessing the Biceps Reflex

􀂃 Examiner partially flexes patient’s


􀂃 Strike biceps tendon with reflex

hammer (pointed or flat end) with

enough force to elicit a reflex, but not

so much to cause patient discomfort.

OPTIONAL: Examiner places the thumb

or finger firmly on biceps tendon with the

pointed end of reflex hammer only.

􀂃 Reflexes must be assessed


􀂃 Examiner must produce a reflex for



23 Assessing the Triceps Reflex

􀂃 Examiner flexes the patient’s arm at

the elbow, and then taps the triceps

tendon with reflex hammer.

􀂃 Reflexes must be assessed


􀂃 Examiner must produce a reflex for




©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

24 Assessing the Brachioradialis


􀂃 With the patient’s hand resting

in a relaxed position, e.g. on a

table, his / her lap or supported

by examiner’s arm, the

examiner strikes the radius

about 1 or 2 inches above the

wrist with the reflex hammer.

􀂃 Reflexes must be assessed


􀂃 Examiner must produce a reflex

for credit.



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

25 Assessing the Patellar Tendon Reflex

􀂃 First, patient asked to sit with their legs

dangling off the exam table.

􀂃 Reflexes assessed by striking the

patient’s patellar tendon with a reflex

hammer on skin.

􀂃 Reflexes must be assessed bilaterally.

􀂃 Examiner must produce a reflex for



􀂃 Examiner can place his / her hand on

the on patient’s quadriceps, but this is


􀂃 Patient’s knees can be crossed.



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

25 Assessing the Achilles


􀂃 Examiner dorsiflexes the

patient’s foot at the ankle

􀂃 Achilles tendon struck with

the reflex hammer on skin,

socks completely off

(removed at the direction

of the examiner).

􀂃 Reflexes must be

assessed bilaterally.

􀂃 Examiner must produce a

reflex for credit.



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

26 Assessing the Plantar, or Babinski,


􀂃 Examiner strokes the lateral aspect of

the sole from the heel to the ball of

the foot, curving medially across the

ball, with an object such as the end of

a reflex hammer.

􀂃 On skin, socks completely off

(removed at the direction of the


􀂃 Assessment must be done bilaterally

􀂃 Note movement of the toes (normally

toes would curl downward).



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

27 Assessing Rapid

Alternating Movements

Pronate Supinate

Examiner must do all three

assessments for credit:

􀂃 Examiner directs the

patient to pronate and

supinate one hand

rapidly on the other.

Touching Thumbs Rapidly 􀂃 Patient directed to

touch his / her thumb

rapidly to each finger

on same hand,


Slapping Thighs Rapidly

􀂃 Patient directed to slap

his / her thigh rapidly

with the back side of

the hand, and then with

the palm side of the

hand, bilaterally.



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

29 Assessing Finger-to-Nose


􀂃 Examiner directs the patient to touch

the examiner’s finger with his or her

finger, and then to place his or her

finger on their nose.

􀂃 Examiner moves his / her finger

randomly during multiple movements.



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

30 Assessing Gait

Examiner asks patient to perform the


Walk, turn and come back

􀂃 Note imbalance, postural asymmetry,

type of gait (e.g. shuffling, walking on

toes, etc.), swinging of the arms, and

how patient negotiates turns.

Heel-to-toe (tandem walking)

􀂃 Note an ataxia not previously obvious

Shallow knee bend

􀂃 Note difficulties here suggest

proximal weakness (extensors of

hip), weakness of the quadriceps (the

extensor of the knee), or both.



©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

31 Performing the Romberg Test

􀂃 Examiner directs the patient to stand

with feet together, eyes closed for

at least 20 seconds without support.

􀂃 During this test, examiner must stand

behind the patient to provide support

in case the patient loses his / her


32 Testing for Pronator Drift

􀂃 Examiner directs the patient to stand

with eyes closed, simultaneously

extending both arms, with palms

turned upward, for at least 20


􀂃 During this test, examiner must stand

behind the patient to provide support

in case the patient loses his / her




©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509


1 Sensory Testing

􀂃 First, examiner

demonstrates what

sharp vs. dull means by

brushing the patient

with a soft object, e.g. a

cotton ball or smooth

end of tongue

depressor, and a semisharp

object, e.g.

broken end tongue


􀂃 Examiner performs this

test on arms and legs

bilaterally by randomly

brushing the patient’s

arms and legs with the

soft and semi-sharp

objects, e.g. a cotton

ball, semi-sharp object,


􀂃 Patient directed to keep

his / her eyes closed

during the examination

as he or she identifies

sharp vs. dull on skin.

􀂃 Bilateral exam, upper

and lower extremities.



John R. McCarthy, Ed.D. Associate Director, Clerkship Education

Pelham Mead, Ed.D. Director, Faculty Development

Mary Ann Achziger, M.S. Associate Dean, Student Affairs

Felicia Bruno, M.A. Assistant Dean, Student Administrative

Services/Alumni Affairs/Continuing Education

Claire Bryant, Ph.D. Assistant Dean, Preclinical Education

Leonard Goldstein, DDS, PH.D. Director, Clerkship Education

Abraham Jeger, Ph.D. Associate Dean, Clinical Education

Rodika Zaika, M.S. Director, Admissions

Ron Portanova, Ph.D. Associate Dean, Academic Affairs



The Future of the College, Secondary and Elementary Classroom 2020+.

Due to the coronavirus Education in College and other levels will never be the same. Protection against the coronavirus and future pandemic viruses will require Social Distancing and the wearing of face masks to prevent spreading of a virus from one student to another or to the teacher. I have a solution for Elementary, Secondary and College schools to still have classrooms with live students instead of complete online courses. The average Secondary school grades 7-12 usually has 32 student except in some States it may rise to 45 in a classroom to one teacher. To allow for social distancing in the future the number of students in a classroom is going to have to drop from 32 to half that amount or 16 students.

This change would impact the Teacher contracts and agreements with the teacher Unions. Instead of having 8 classes a day of which teachers teach five, the new norm will be twice that number or 16 short classes a day. Short classes would be twenty minutes long instead of the usual 50 minutes. Teachers will have to teach ten short classes a day. Department chairpersons who use to be excused for teaching several classes a day would have to return to a full teaching regiment of 16 classes a day.

Online in school classes can be made available to help make the new curriculum easier to apply. Music auditoriums are the largest room in most schools next to the gyms. In auditoriums student could sit every other seat for social distancing with their own laptop or iPad and log on to the online course they were assigned for that period.

Lunch or cafeteria would have to change to allow social distancing . Every other seating might not work, so chairs might have to be placed in hallways near the cafeteria. Schools in warm climates could have an expanded outdoor picnic area with plenty of extra permanent seating installed.

Online course can supplement in class courses with support and guidance after school at home.

In College money walks and money talks. College Presidents will be tempted to go the all class online route to save massive amounts of money, while at the same time charging tuition to students who log on from home. Dormitories could become problem as the students at UCSD have complained, “why should they pay for a dorm or apartment when they can log on from home? At the NY College of Osteopathic medicine where I worked as. Director of Faculty Development and Assessment they had streaming for all lectures. The lucky thing is that only had two lectures going on at the same time. If a University were to apply instant streaming of all lectures and classrooms the cost would be prohibited due to the need for massive computer server storage space. The down side of streaming other than cost is that the students did not come to the lectures and instead remained at home with a cup of coffee and a donut. The administration at the NY College of Osteopathic medicine could not figure out how to get the students to attend the lectures. The solution was simple. Stop streaming the lectures and handing out of lecture notes in advance. Online course can be bought from third party companies or developed over time with the existing faculty. The problem there is intellectual property rights. Does the Professor had full rights to the classes and curriculum they write and teach or does the University or College have the full property rights to the recorded video copies of the lectures? That depends on the employment contract the Professors sign when they are hired. If they agree to give the University or College full legal rights to replay a Professor’s lectures for eternity than the Professor has no rights. Online courses save Colleges and Universities millions of dollars by not having to provide classroom space or pay a live professor to teach the course.

Some Universities provide a Professor at the beginning of the course and at the end for the final exam and the rest of the course is online. Blackboard is an online administrative system that I was certified and trained in that makes online teaching easy with computer testing, online grading reporting, lock boxes to record when an assignment is handed in onetime and the full curriculum can be posted in advance. Some textbook companies will provide the full text of their books to be uploaded to Blackboard for students to read and not have to pay for an expensive textbook.

Obviously the human interaction between student and teacher is going to suffer. There might be a decline in Teachers due to the new non personal online teaching approach? One big glitch is what happens when the servers go down? No server, no internet, no classrooms broadcast. Hacking will be a major problem and colleges, schools and universities will have to learn how to protect their online systems.

E-mailing a professor is always going to be risky if the student can upload a virus or deliver a link or app that tracks a Professors keyboard. Protected institution e-mails are the only way to prevent this.

Will the online system come the fall of 2020 be good? Probably not because schools have not had the time to train their teachers how to teach online. Early Kindergarten and first grade students will need software that is good for their age level. Who is to pay for these iPads or laptops, the district or college or the student. Many students come from poor families that cannot afford an iPad. They will need financial assistance to secure an iPad and the training how to use one on cds or dvds.

The shorter class time is actually a plus for student with a short attention span. It makes teaching more concentrated. Teachers tend to blab a lot and this will teach them to be concise. Online projects must be completed in 20 minutes.

Physical Education is more essential than ever as an outlet from being cooped up all day and for character development. Online instruction is not a good venue for character development. Good sportsmanship carries over into adult life and provides guidelines for interaction with others in sports. Learning to lose as well as win and profit from losses to eventually win says a lot about Physical Education. We live in an age of overeating students who are so obese they cannot do many things like run or hike. They run out of breath when walking or riding a bike. They are made fun of by their peers. Physical Education will teach students what they cannot learn on a computer. Live body practice is a great way to teach a person’s muscles how to coordinate a skill or sport. Just watching on a computer is not the same. Muscles have memory and the more you repeat a skill, the better you become using that skill.

This is only the beginning of the discussion. Next time the mathematics of setting up a school master schedule with 20 minute classes and 16 sections a day.

Dr. Pelham Mead, June 2020


Written by Dr. Pelham K. Mead (C) 2017, Protected by the Western Writers Association. No portion digital or written may be reproduced from this movie script which is the sole property of Dr. Pelham Mead III.

graduates CMSV
Student Graduates

Introduction. This is a story about a slightly autistic young man named Ralph Loggins who wins the Conn. state Power ball lottery using a formula he learned from a Brazilian scientist. I dedicate this movie to my slightly autistic grandson Evan Rivers. This is a story of a slightly autistic young man who wins $300 million dollars in the Power ball lottery and how he learns to turn his life around and give to others more than money.

ACT ONE- THE POWERBALL LOTTERY SCENE 1- INT.-RALPH LOGGINS HOME IN DANBURY, CONN. -DAY. Ralph Loggins is a tall lanky thin young man with a whisper of a small mustache, and dark, straight hair with a deep base voice. Ralph is bi-racial, with a black father, and a white mother. He was born slightly autistic.


RALPH LOGGINS (21), AUTISTIC Mom can you take me to Seven-Eleven to buy some Powerball lottery tickets? No one has won the jackpot in months, and the drawing is worth 400 million.

Jill is Ralph’s mother, and she is a white woman who’s father was a public school teacher. Jill is 5’7” tall with brunette hair and slightly heavy for her frame.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS (46) MOM Ralph you know no one ever wins the Super-ball lottery. The Odds are against you, and you are wasting your hard earned Supermarket salary money you saved.

RALPH LOGGINS Mom, it is the Powerball lottery, not the Super-ball Lottery.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Oh, well, what ever? Super or Powerball they all seem the same to me. 2.

RALPH LOGGINS You know mom that I have been working on a formula for over a year that can project what numbers might be picked. I have all the winning numbers for the Powerball back to the year 2,000 which I downloaded from the internet.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS How much have you saved to buy your Powerball lottery tickets Ralph?

RALPH LOGGINS I have $50 or $60 dollars mom.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Wow, that is the most you have ever saved. Maybe you will win? Get in the car, and I will be downstairs in a minute after I feed the dog, Peaches.


OK, Mom.



Jill and Ralph get in the family car and drive to the 7-11 store.


JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS So, how many Powerball tickets are you going to buy Ralph? Didn’t I tell you to wear pants? It is 29 degrees out in January, and you are wearing shorts.

RALPH LOGGINS You know I cannot stand wearing pants. The cloth rubs agains my legs and drives me crazy. I cannot focus or concentrate with the feel of my pant legs on my legs. You know mom, it is my autistic thing.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS You are going to catch a cold without pants in the winter Ralph. (MORE) 3.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS (CONT’D) Sometimes I forget that your tactile issues force you to wear shorts. Here is the 7-11 store. I will wait in the car for you.

RALPH LOGGINS Thanks Mom. I wouldn’t take long. I have all the sets of numbers written out to give to the store clerk.

Ralph gets out of the car and goes into the 7-11 store. The store clerk is an older white man with a beard.

7-11 STORE CLERK (40) Yes, what can I do for you young man?

RALPH LOGGINS I want to, (stutters) I want to buy twenty Powerball tickets please. Here are the numbers I want. (Hands clerk a piece of paper with numbers written down for 20 combinations)

7-11 STORE CLERK Thanks, here are the cards to mark your 20 choices. When you are done give me the cards back, and $40.00 Please.

RALPH LOGGINS OK, I will do that. (Minutes later) Here you are sir.

7-11 STORE CLERK Thanks. That will be $40.00. Two Twenty dollar bills, great. Here are your receipts. Good luck. Hope you win.

RALPH LOGGINS Yeah, I have been planning on winning. Bye. (Leaves the store and gets in his car). OK, mom I am done, and I hope my formula works making me a rich person.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Are you going to share your winnings with your family Ralph? 4.

RALPH LOGGINS Maybe. I hadn’t thought about it. I just want to win, so I don’t have to work in a supermarket all my life because I am autistic.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Well good for you Ralph. Let’s go get some pizza.



Jennifer is just a year younger than Ralph with a dark complexion and curly hair. She is a very athletic young woman and quite talkative. She is a college student attending Western Connecticut State College.


JENNIFER LOGGINS (20) SISTER Well it is Saturday Ralph, and the Powerball lottery drawing is tonight at 10:59 pm. Are you sure you are going to win Ralph?

RALPH LOGGINS I worked on all the probabilities, and if I get the Powerball right, than the other white ball numbers will have a better chance of winning. I borrowed the ideas from a Brazilian Mathematician named Renato Gianella, who developed a template for predicting the winning numbers on a lottery like the Powerball Lottery with two different tanks of balls, one for the five numbers and one tank for the Super ball number.

JENNIFER LOGGINS What are you going to do with millions of dollars if you win Ralph?

RALPH LOGGINS I want to become a superhero like Superman or Captain America, or batman or the hulk. 5.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Really Ralph? They are comic book characters, and not real.

RALPH LOGGINS They are real to me.

JENNIFER LOGGINS So you want to fly like Super-man? Or have a shield like Captain America? (Chuckling).

RALPH LOGGINS Well no, I don’t like heights, but I want to be famous for saving peoples lives. I don’t want to be a supermarket clerk all my life just because I am autistic.

JENNIFER LOGGINS You don’t have to be a super-hero to get people to like you Ralph.

Tom is the third child in the Loggins family, and the youngest. He has brown skin, and wears an afro hair style to make a statement that he is black. He is a smart, straight A student, and tall and thin like his sister and brother.

TOM LOGGINS (18) Hey guys what’s up? Ralph are you going to win the Powerball lottery tonight? I need some new sneakers (laughing).

RALPH LOGGINS You all laugh now, but wait until after I win and you wouldn’t be laughing anymore. I know I can do this. I worked on the numbers again, and again, every night for the past few years. I need to take my medicine to calm down.

FADE OUT. Later that night the entire Loggins family is sitting in front of the television watching the Powerball drawing.


TV ANNOUNCER (45) Good evening ladies and gentlemen and here is the Powerball drawing for Jan. 18, 2016. First number up is 9. The second white ball is number 40.

(MORE) 6.

TV ANNOUNCER (45) (CONT’D) And the third white ball up is 41. The fourth number up is 53 and the last white ball up is 58. Now we draw from a different tank for the Red Powerball which is 11. The multiplier number is 2. So the numbers are 9,40,41, 53, 58 and the red Powerball is 11. Good luck and good night.

RALPH LOGGINS I knew that there would be a pair in the 40’s and I picked 40 and 41. I am not sure if I picked the 11 red Powerball with that choice. I had to look at my cards. Yes, I have 11 red Powerball picked and 40 and 41 are on that card. What are the other numbers again?

Editor’s Note: These are the real numbers in Conn. That were Recorded for Jan. 18, 2017. In reality no one claimed the prize that week.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Number 9 Ralph, do you have number 9?

JENNIFER LOGGINS 53 and 58 are the other numbers Ralph.

RALPH LOGGINS Let me see, 9, yes and 50, 53 and 58 right, oh my God. Mom look at this, so I don’t make a mistake.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Ok, you have the red ball 11, and that is good. Now let me see 9, yes, 40 and 41 yes, and 53, and 58, oh no, I mean yes, yes. Greg read this I think I am going to faint.

TOM LOGGINS Did he get it? New sneakers, new sneakers. Yes.

FADE OUT. Bill is ten years older than his wife Jill. He is a proud black man 5’ 10” tall, a graduate of Delaware University on a Lacrosse scholarship. He is clean shaven with dark skin, and short dark hair with dark eyes. He works for the State of 7.

Conn., helping Learning Disabled Adults cope with their lives. His father was a Superintendent of Schools in Yorktown, New York and is now retired.

FADE IN: Bill Loggins is a tall black man with short hair and a clean shaven face.

BILL LOGGINS (57) FATHER Let me see that card. You must all be blind. Jennifer what are the numbers again?

JENNIFER LOGGINS 9,40, 41, 53, 58 and Powerball 11 times 2. Wow.

BILL LOGGINS Yes, each number checks out. (Shouting) You did it Ralph you did it. I can’t believe this is happening. Now what do we do?

Check it again Jill. My vision is blurring. Oh my God, can it be true? Good bye bills.

RALPH LOGGINS I told everyone I had a great formula for predicting the Powerball lottery, and no one believed me. See, I was right. Now if I could stop scratching. Maybe I need another pill?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Yes Ralph, you were right, and we all apologize for doubting you. Now what do we do Bill? Do we go down to 7-11 with the winning card?

BILL LOGGINS I looked it up and we have to bring the winning ticket to the home office Rocky hill Connecticut. The cash prize is $170 million. Ralph could take $5,666,667 before federal taxes. After federal taxes he would get $4,250,000 a year for 30 years. The Cash lump settlement would drop from $170 million to 103 million. After taxes of $25,750,000 he would get 77 million 250 thousand cash total. That is a lot of Pepsi. 8.

RALPH LOGGINS I guess that makes me a rich man, uh dad?

BILL LOGGINS Yes, Ralph you are going to be a very rich man.

RALPH LOGGINS Does this mean I wouldn’t ever have to work again in the dirty supermarket?

BILL LOGGINS That is up to you Ralph.

TOM LOGGINS Does this mean I get a pair of Jordan air sneakers that cost $130 each? (Laughing).

JENNIFER LOGGINS Really Tom? Cut it out.

BILL LOGGINS I have a lawyer friend, I think we need to see to figure out what we should do Jill.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Ralph, Jennifer, and Tom, you all have to promise not to tell anyone until we claim the prize money, and take legal steps to protect the money. If any money grubbers get our telephone number of address they will be haunting us to death.

BILL LOGGINS Your mother is right. We all have to keep our mouths shut until after we claim the money. Your Mom, and I have to talk to a lawyer how to protect ourselves and be smart how we invest the money.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Maybe we can catch up on our medical bills now?

(MORE) 9.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS (CONT’D) Everyone go watch TV, and dad and I will let you know what we are going to do tomorrow when we talk to the lawyer.


Later that night in bed.


JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS (CONT’D) Bill you realize we signed a form with the state of Connecticut when Ralph graduated from high school to be Ralph’s legal guardians because he is autistic and may not be able to support himself. I know Ralph, he thinks now that he has won millions that he can just go out, and spend it when ever he wants. He had no idea that crooks will come out of the woodwork to take his money away. All his friends in school will be asking for money.

The phone will ring off the hinges.

Mark my word.

BILL LOGGINS What are we going to do Jill?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS We are going to have your lawyer friend explain how we can invest Ralph’s winnings at the same time prevent him from withdrawing money at random. If he goes around with hundreds of dollars in his pocket he is going to get mugged or worse. You know him. Being autistic he has no concept how to save money or even the value of money. He earns less than a hundred dollars a week at the supermarket working part-time each week. Now he has millions. The TV stations are all going to want to interview him, and when they find out he is autistic, they are going to have a field day with autistic topics.

BILL LOGGINS Go to sleep Jill. We will take it one day at a time. 10.


Good nite.



The following day Jill Loggins and Bill Loggins meet with Bill’s friend, Adam Pinkowitz Attorney at Law.

FADE IN: Adam is wearing a three piece grey suit and blue tie. He is slightly bald with a greying mustache and dark rimmed glasses.

ADAM PINKOWITZ (51) ATTORNEY Come on in Bill and Jill. Congratulations, I hear from Bill you struck it rich in the Powerball lottery with your son Ralph. Tell me how I can help you.

BILL LOGGINS Adam, we need some legal advice and council. Our 21 year old autistic son Ralph has won the Powerball Lottery for 170 million dollars.

ADAM PINKOWITZ That is amazing. Are you positive that he has the winning numbers?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS We double checked, and triple checked the winning numbers against his ticket and he has all the numbers and the Powerball with a 2 times extra.

ADAM PINKOWITZ Well, this is exciting. I have never represented a Powerball lottery winner before. Normally, I would accompany you to the general offices to present the winning ticket along with Ralph to sign for the winning amount. Have you considered taking the 30 year payout of the lump sum payout? How much is the lump sum Bill? Do you know. 11.

BILL LOGGINS Yeah, I looked it up on the internet and the lump sum is 170 million. Taxes are about 25% . I am not sure about the rest.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Bill, and I are the legal guardians of Ralph because he is autistic, and in the Connecticut vocational training program for children of special needs. We are legally responsible for Ralph’s winnings. Being autistic he had no concept of the value of money or how to spend or save it. It will be up to us as his parents to come up with a plan or system to control what he can spend, and to insure he invests in the future for himself. We also have large medical bills from my recent stomach cancer threat, Jennifer’s liver sickness, and Ralph’s doctor bills which we cannot pay. These winnings will help us to pay off our bills, and perhaps buy a new car, and a new house?

ADAM PINKOWITZ I suggest we set up a portfolio of bonds and stocks to earn interest annually to keep Ralph’s winnings making more money for him. At the same time a portion of the money should be put in a trust for Ralph to draw from with your signature for monthly expenses that are deemed appropriate. I can have my para-legal set up the paperwork which you can sign along with Ralph as soon as you receive the check for the lump sum or yearly payment.

BILL LOGGINS I think we are going to go with the lump sum, so that we can meet all our bills, and have fluid access to money to purchase a new house and car.

ADAM PINKOWITZ Have you spoken with Ralph about your plans yet? 12.

BILL LOGGINS No, not yet because we are not sure how he will take it. Legally, he is old enough to make his own decisions, but being autistic that is not realistic. Knowing Ralph, he could be giving anyone hundreds of dollars if someone him for it. He wants to be liked, and has very few real friends.

ADAM PINKOWITZ I understand. Well, let’s set a date to take Ralph to the General office in Rocky Hill, and fill out the paperwork to claim the prize. After that we will take the check and deposit it in a special protected account which we will give Ralph a debit card to purchase things from his account which we will keep low just in case of fraud by someone other than Ralph. The large amount of the lump sum we will put into a bonds and stock market account with Chase and that will produce interest annually for the portfolio. You and Bill will be able to sign for any withdrawals from the portfolio when you find a house you want to buy and or a car. You do not have to have Ralph’s permission because you are his legal guardians. Did I make everything Clear?

BILL LOGGINS Great. Let’s go next Monday to the Lottery claim office and file the paperwork. I also want to protect Ralph from the media and money mongers, and we will depend upon you to keep his personal information secret.




The Loggins family assembles at the Powerball General Offices 13.

in Rocky Hill, Connecticut along with their attorney Adam Pinkowitz.


ADAM PINKOWITZ Good to see you guys again. Is this Ralph? Hello, Ralph. (Shaking Ralph’s hand).



ADAM PINKOWITZ I am going to tell the administrators that we are here to claim the January 18, 2017, Powerball prize. Hello Miss? My name is Adam Pinkowitz, attorney at law, and I represent the Loggins family, particularly Ralph Loggins who won the January 18 Powerball lottery in Conn., For 170 Million dollars.

LOTTERY SECRETARY (30) Yes Mr. Pinkowitz, let me call Mr. West out from his office. He is one of our Lottery Administrators. It will take just a minute. Hello Mr. West, we have some people out here to claim the January 18 Powerball lottery.

Minutes later.

Ronald is a short heavy man wearing a white dress shirt and green tie.

RONALD D. WEST (50) LOTTERY ADMINISTRATOR Good morning everyone. I’m Mr. West and you are here for a Powerball lottery claim I understand?

ADAM PINKOWITZ Yes, My name is Adam Pinkowitz, attorney at law and this is Mrs. Jill Loggins, Mr. Bill Loggins, and Mr. Ralph Loggins their son. Ralph is 21 years of age turning 22 in December. Jennifer Loggins and Tom Loggins are also here to support their brother Ralph. 14.

RONALD D. WEST Wonderful, well everyone come into my office and I will get a few extra chairs for you. (In the Office) Well, Ralph Loggins I understand you are the winner. Are you over 18 years of age Mr. Loggins?

RALPH LOGGINS Yes, I am 21. Here is my birth certificate my mother gave me.

RONALD D. WEST OK. That is good. Let’s see the receipt you have so we can match it with the winning numbers on January 18, 2017.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Ralph, give Mr. West the receipt for your winning card.

RALPH LOGGINS Here you are.

RONALD D. WEST OK, let me see, 9, 40, 41, 53, 58 they all check out, and the red Powerball number of 11 is also correct. 2 is the amount to compute the powerball amount. Congratulations Ralph you are now a millionaire. We have some paperwork to finish to process claiming the 170 million dollar pay out. Have you decided on a lump sum payment or a yearly payment over 30 years? You would get $6,745,000 per year for 30 years or a lump sum net payment of $117,317,250 after taxes of 6.99 Percent in Connecticut.

ADAM PINKOWITZ The Loggins family has informed me that Ralph wants the lump sum settlement.

RONALD D. WEST Ralph if you will sign here, and here, and if your parents will also sign as witnesses here and here on the form.

(MORE) 15.

RONALD D. WEST (CONT’D) This should take about a week to process, and we will inform you when to come in to collect your winning settlement. We will keep your personal information private to prevent fraud and con artists from harassing you. We also strongly advise you to deposit the check immediately, and do not share any information with your friends or colleagues to protect your privacy. When you collect the check there will be TV coverage at the time, but that is all we require.

If you wish to meet with any TV reports outside of this office that is your choice. Thank you for coming and congratulations. I will see you next week.

The Loggins family and attorney Ronald D. West leave the Powerball general offices and get in their cars.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Ralph, you are a millionaire. We will collect the check next week. Dad will explain tonight how we will save your money and set up a debit card for you to use to buy things. Anything over $100 you have to first discuss with me or dad to approve.

RALPH LOGGINS Can I buy a car mom?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Yes, it you can pass the State driving test and the written test.




JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS The day has come. The presentation will be in fifteen minutes inside the Powerball lottery general offices. Ralph I want you to take a deep breath, and do no get excited when they give you the giant check. (MORE) 16.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS (CONT’D) It is only for display for the TV station filming the event. The real check will be the normal size. You will have to sign for it as well as your dad, and I have to sign since we are your legal guardians.

RALPH LOGGINS I understand Mom, I understand. No meltdowns, no meltdowns. My leg is beginning to shake.

BILL LOGGINS Ralph straighten you tie. Let’s go into the building now. Try to relax. Remember count to 10,[ and take a deep breath to control your anxiety.

RONALD D. WEST Welcome Loggins family. It is good to see you again. We have your check all ready for you soon after we do a little promo with the TV camera, and the giant four foot check for $77,250,000. A TV reporter will interview you Ralph for just a few minutes, and then we are done. You can sign the forms first along with your parents.

RALPH LOGGINS When do I get the money?


RONALD D. WEST Just sign here, here, and here, Ralph, and Mr. and Mrs. Loggins you sign here, here, and here. Great, let’s step into the TV studio for the formal presentation.

STUDIO PRODUCER (50) LOTTERY ADMINISTRATOR OK, everyone, relax and stand behind the giant check. Ralph Loggins you stand on the left and Mr. West you hold the right side of the check. The rest of the family stand behind the check.

(MORE) 17.

STUDIO PRODUCER (50) LOTTERY The TV studio lights are going to be bright, so try not to look at them. Are we ready? Camera, ready. Shoot.

RONALD D. WEST We are here today to present to Mr. Ralph Loggins a Powerball lottery check for $77,250,000 after federal taxes.

TV REPORTER SALLY SERVIN (29) Well, congratulations Mr. Ralph Loggins. Tell me Ralph what are you going to do with 77 million dollars?

RALPH LOGGINS I want to become a superhero.(Smiling).

TV REPORTER SALLY SERVIN (Laughing) Really, Ralph, a Superhero like Superman or Captain America in the comic books?




Oh my God!

BILL LOGGINS Ralph, really?

JENNIFER LOGGINS That’s my brother Ralph, Super Hero, (laughing).

TOM LOGGINS Super dude Ralph. That sounds great.

TV REPORTER SALLY SERVIN Ok, camera cut. Thank you very much Loggins family, and enjoy your millions.

RONALD D. WEST Here is your check Ralph. Congratulations. Perhaps your father should hold it for you. Good bye, and have a great day. 18.

BILL LOGGINS Jill get the kids in the car fast. There are reporters everywhere outside. Ralph keep the superhero stuff cool for now, OK?

RALPH LOGGINS Yes, Dad. Did I do something wrong?

BILL LOGGINS No, get in the car. We are out of here.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Ralph why did you tell that TV reporter you wanted to be a Superhero? Super-hero aren’t real Ralph, they are fiction in comic books. Don’t you understand that.

RALPH LOGGINS I just want people to like me Mom.

BILL LOGGINS I can’t believe you told the TV reporter that you wanted to be a Super-hero Ralph. Now everyone is going to make fun of you and us.

The Loggins family drives out of the driveway quickly leaving the TV camera trucks behind them.





JENNIFER LOGGINS Mom the phone is ringing again. Should I pick it up?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS No, let it ring. It is probably another con artist trying to get money out of us. 19.

BILL LOGGINS How long is this phone constantly ringing going to continue Jill?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS What do you suggest we do Bill?

BILL LOGGINS Change the phone, and have it unlisted. This is driving me insane. It is like the whole world is calling us to borrow money.

Ring (Phone rings again)

RALPH LOGGINS Phone Dad, should I get it?

BILL LOGGINS No, let it ring Ralph. I will call the phone company and have our phone number changed and unlisted today.


That Sunday at Transfiguration Church.

FADE IN: Pastor Greene is a short brunette Episcopalian Priest who wears rimless glasses and a gold cross around her neck.

PASTOR ELLEN GREENE (60) TRANSFIGURATION CHURCH Good to see you today Jill Loggins and family. I have been trying to call you, but your phone does not pick up.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Since Ralph won the Powerball lottery, everyone in the world is calling us around the clock. We had to have the phone number changed, and unlisted finally. What did you want to talk about Pastor Green?

PASTOR ELLEN GREENE I just thought Ralph might want to help out St. John’s Church with our new building addition. 20.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Ralph is not giving any of his money away to charities at this time. We are house hunting at the moment, and trying to stay away from our instant friends that all want to borrow money. Thank you, but no thank you, Pastor Green. Good day.

PASTOR ELLEN GREENE Perhaps it was God watching over Ralph that helped him win the Powerball lottery? At least have him think about donating to his church?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS I will think about it. Thank you Pastor Green.

PASTOR ELLEN GREENE God bless you and your money.



Ralph and his sister Jennifer are sitting in the same seat on the College bus from Western Conn. University. Ralph and Jennifer are both Students at Western Conn. University. Lashonda Williams a large 180 pound, black girl bullies Ralph on the College bus.


LASHONDA WILLIAMS (19) Hey you Ralph Loggins, boy? How about giving me some of that lottery money you won?

RALPH LOGGINS I don’t have any money.

LASHONDA WILLIAMS I am going to punch your face in boy if you don’t give me some of that money.

RALPH LOGGINS Leave me alone.

Jennifer who is sitting next to Ralph gets up and faces Lashonda. 21.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Excuse me bitch. If you lay one finger on my brother I will beat you silly.

LASHONDA WILLIAMS OK, girl, I was just kidding.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Get out of my face now or I am going to flatten you.

LASHONDA WILLIAMS Goodbye then. Retard,

RALPH LOGGINS Were you really going to punch her?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Of course Ralph. You are my brother, and I have to protect you from bullies like Lashonda.

FADE OUT. Ralph and Jennifer reach their bus stop, and get off the bus. Minutes later in their house.


JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS How was college today Jennifer? How about you Ralph?



JENNIFER LOGGINS We almost had a fight on the College bus. Some big black girl tried to pick on Ralph and force him to give her money. This has got to stop Mom. Everyone that recognizes Ralph, either makes fun of him for wanting to be a superhero or asks him for money.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS I know, I know it is getting out of control with Ralph’s lottery win. It seems like we will never have any privacy again. Ralph here is your debit card, which you can use to buy anything you want under $100.

(MORE) 22.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS (CONT’D) If you want something over $100 you have to ask me or your father to make a withdrawal from the bank.


TOM LOGGINS What about me? Am I the forgotten younger brother now?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Relax Tom, no one has forgotten you.


Bill Loggins comes home after work that night.


BILL LOGGINS I am home everyone. Where are the kids Jill?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS They are upstairs. We had another incident today with someone bullying Ralph into giving them money. What are we going to do Bill to stop this crap?

BILL LOGGINS The mortgage came through to purchase that house we were looking at further upstate Connecticut in New Town. All we have to do is withdraw some of Ralph’s money for a down payment. Ralph come down here please. Listen would you like to help us buy a new house where you will have your own bedroom, and not have to share with Tom? Take off those ear phones Ralph and listen to me.

RALPH LOGGINS Yes, dad. I heard you. When are we moving? 23.

BILL LOGGINS We have to go to the Bank this week, and withdraw some money from your account to put a down payment on the new house. You will have to sign a release form as well, as us to withdraw money from your portfolio account. Mom, and I will take you to the bank later this week. Are you alright after this girl bullied you on the college bus today, Ralph?

RALPH LOGGINS I am fine Dad.

JENNIFER LOGGINS (Listening to her father and Ralph from the other room) Are we really moving dad? Thank God. Maybe we can move to the woods and never be seen again?

TOM LOGGINS At least in another school district no one will know who we are and stop asking us for money.



Ralph is walking down the halls at Western Conn. University where he is taking courses in computer programming. Two male students are standing in the hallway as Ralph walks by.

BILL RICHTER (22) COLLEGE STUDENT Hey Ralph, Captain Superman, Captain America or shall I call you Captain Retard. Have you become a Super-Hero yet?(Laughing)

JIM BORCHERS (19) COLLEGE STUDENT Hey retard can I borrow some money from you?(Laughing)

RALPH LOGGINS Leave me alone. (Put his head down sulking posture).

Professor Tim Neil is a white teacher with a thin trimmed beard, brown hair thinning in the back of his head. He wears rimless glasses and a sports coat, dress shirt and pants and plaid tie. 24.

PROFESSOR TIM NEIL (40) Hey, boys go pick on someone else. Are you alright Ralph? Don’t listen to what they have to say. They are just teasing you because you won the Powerball lottery, and they didn’t.

FADE OUT. Later in the College cafeteria two college students are sitting together.


JILL JANSON (19) COLLEGE STUDENT (Whispering to her friend) Isn’t that the boy who won the Powerball lottery?

RONDA SCHAEFFER (20) Yes, he is sitting all alone. Apparently he has no friends?

Jill walks over to Ralph.

JILL JANSON Are you Ralph Loggins that won the Powerball lottery on TV?

RALPH LOGGINS Yes, leave me alone.

JILL JANSON I just wanted to say hello. I thought maybe you might want to be friends.

RALPH LOGGINS I don’t need any friends.

JILL JANSON Well excuse me then.

Walks back to her table.

JILL JANSON (CONT’D) He seems very strange.



Ralph answers the phone that rings in the living room.




STRANGE VOICE ON THE PHONE Ralph, Can you loan me some money? My house burnt down, and my family is homeless.

RALPH LOGGINS Ask my parents. I don’t have any money. (Hangs up).

Phone rings again.

TOM LOGGINS Hello? Who? Ralph, OK. Ralph pick up the phone.



BUSTER HILLE (20) FRIEND Hey Ralph, how are you doing dude?


BUSTER HILLE Wanna take a trip to the mall, and maybe see a movie or something?

RALPH LOGGINS It is too cold today. Maybe another day.

BUSTER HILLE I have been wanting to ask you if you could loan me a few hundred dollars until I get a job?

RALPH LOGGINS Nope, not interested.(Hangs up).

Ralph goes back to lining up little cars he has in a straight line on his desk.

Phone rings again.

BILL LOGGINS Don’t answer the phone it just someone wanting money form Ralph. 26.


OK, dad.



A month later.


RALPH LOGGINS I am missing a car in my mini-car collection. Tom did you take a minicar out of my room? Damm where it is?

Ralph begins ripping his room apart, and begins having a meltdown. He throws things across his room, and empties his desk draws looking for the mini-car.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS (Running up the stairs to the third floor where Tom and Ralph share a bedroom) Ralph what the hell are you doing? Stop it immediately. Sit down Ralph, and take a deep breath. Count to ten. Did you take your medicine this morning yet?

RALPH LOGGINS No mom. Sorry.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS What is the problem Ralph.

RALPH LOGGINS Someone stole my mini-car.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS No one stole your mini-car Ralph. You must have misplaced it. Maybe Jennifer knows what you did with it?

JENNIFER LOGGINS What is all the noise about?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Jennifer, have you seen Ralph’s mini-car? 27.

JENNIFER LOGGINS He was playing with it downstairs last week. I think he left it there?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Go downstairs Ralph and see if you left your mini-car there.

Ralph goes down the stairs to the living room. Minutes later.

RALPH LOGGINS I found it mom.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Great, now come up here and clean up your room.

Later that day.

RALPH LOGGINS (Counting his mini-cars) One, two, three, four, five, cars all in order. Just the way I like them all in a neat row.



Ralph’s parents use some of the money he won, and purchased a new house with five bedrooms in New Town, Conn. Ralph was not consulted about using his winnings because he parents felt he owed it to them to allow them to buy a new house.


RALPH LOGGINS Dad how come you and mom have bought a new house, and a new car, and I haven’t gotten anything. I thought I was supposed to be a millionaire now?

BILL LOGGINS Ralph you wanted to move to a new house so we bought one with the money you won. In a sense, you bought the house, and we helped make it happen. Our car was old, and broken down, and even you asked for a new car, so we bought the Cadillac we wanted.

(MORE) 28.

BILL LOGGINS (CONT’D) Now if you would take driving lessons, and study Then we could get you your own car, but you are lazy, and don’t want to learn to drive.

RALPH LOGGINS I just want to spend more money dad. It makes me feel rich. It is easier for mom to drive me around than drive myself

BILL LOGGINS Really Ralph? Do you like feeling rich? What is it you want to buy? You buy yourself clothes and shoes all the time, and that makes you happy. What else do you want to do with your life? You must have 50 pairs of sneakers by now?

RALPH LOGGINS I don’t know dad. I am just unhappy. I dreamt that I would be rich, and living on my own, with tons of money if I won the lottery, but here I am living with my parents with no job and nothing to do except play War games on TV.

BILL LOGGINS Your mother and I begged you many times to stay in college, and keep your part-time grocery store job, but you wanted to quit everything. So now what are you going to do? You almost 22 now, an adult, and you need to start thinking about a career doing something. Money alone will not bring you happiness Ralph. We have told you this again and again. You need to socialize, but you don’t like socializing with people, so that makes getting a sales job impossible and any job working with people. Maybe you could go back to Western Connecticut State College and take more courses in computer coding and computer languages? You could always become a computer programmer, and work on your own as a consultant. 29.

RALPH LOGGINS I know, I know, but making decisions is difficult for me. Sometimes I just want to climb into a corner and hide there.

BILL LOGGINS Talk to your mother Ralph. Maybe you will listen to her?

RALPH LOGGINS OK, dad. If I have to.



Jill has a flash back to when Ralph was born 21 (2007) years ago while she is washing dishes in the kitchen. She looks outside the kitchen window seeing her reflection and dreams.



JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Bill it is time to go to the hospital. My water broke.

BILL LOGGINS OK, I have the bags packed. Let me help you down the stairs. Are you OK?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS I am fine Bill. Let’s get in the car and get to Danbury Hospital quickly.

BILL LOGGINS OK, honey we will be there in s few minutes.

Arriving at the hospital.

BILL LOGGINS (CONT’D) My wife is ready to deliver her baby. Would you page Dr. Swvenson please? 30.

NURSE (45) Sure Mr. Loggins. Orderly, put Mrs. Loggins in a wheel chair please and take her up to the third floor maternity ward.

BILL LOGGINS Thank you Nurse.

NURSE Paging Dr. Swvenson. Paging Dr. Swvenson please report to the maternity ward asap. The doctor will meet you upstairs in the maternity ward. Follow your wife Mr. Loggins. The orderly will wheel her upstairs. Take elevator A.

Minutes later.

Dr. Swvenson is a short heavy Swedish doctor with a full face beard and rimless glasses dressed in a white lab coat.

DR. JAMES SWVENSON (60) Hello Mrs. Loggins and Mr. Loggins. It is good to see you. Did your water break yet Mrs. Loggins?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Yes, Doctor, back at home.

Dr. JAMES SWVENSON OK, Mr. Loggins take one of those surgical gowns and hats and put them on so you can enter the surgery room. I will wheel Mrs. Loggins into the surgical room. Are you feeling alright Mrs. Loggins?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Cramps lots of cramps.


14 hours later.


DR. JAMES SWVENSON Mr. Loggins you are now the proud father a a healthy male child. Congratulations. It was a long labor but it all worked out in the end. You can see your wife, but she is a little groggy right now. 31.

BILL LOGGINS Hi Jill how are you feeling?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS I am tired. Real tired after 14 hours of labor. Did you take a look at our little boy yet? He is in the maternity room down the hall. What are we going to call him?

BILL LOGGINS I thought we decided on the name Ralph Michael Loggins?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS That’s right I forgot. I am so tired I just want to sleep. Go see Ralph, and I am going to sleep.

BILL LOGGINS I will see you tonight when you get some sleep Jill. I will go see Ralph now.

Bill walks down to the nursery. He peeks through the glass window looking for the Loggins tag.

BILL LOGGINS (CONT’D) Ahh, there is his name tag. Cute looking little guy. I can’t believe I am a father now. Hurray.


Flash back to two years later.


JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Bill have you noticed anything strange about Ralph? He didn’t walk until almost 2 years of age, and he doesn’t talk at all yet. What do you think?

BILL LOGGINS My parents told me they thought something was wrong with Ralph’s development. He should have walked earlier, and starting talking. They strongly suggest we take Ralph to a doctor to be examined. 32.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS I hope there is nothing wrong with him? What doctor should we take Ralph to?

BILL LOGGINS I don’t know. I will look up a doctor in the phonebook. Did you notice Ralph never looks at you when you talk to him. He is always looking down for some reason.

A week later at Dr. Allan Grossman’s Office.

DR. ALLAN GROSSMAN(55) PEDIATRICIAN Good morning Mr. And Mrs. Loggins.

Is this your little boy Ralph?

BILL LOGGINS Yes Dr. Grossman, this is Ralph.

DR. ALLAN GROSSMAN We are going to give Ralph a battery of tests and a blood test to see if we can find anything that might be affecting his development. Sometimes children have what we call arrested development, but eventually they catch up to other children.


Several hours later.


DR. ALLAN GROSSMAN (CONT’D) Mr. And Mrs. Loggins you both need to sit down. We have a preliminary diagnosis regarding Ralph. From the results of all the tests we gave him, we have concluded that he has a mild case of autism.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Autism, what is that Doctor?

DR. ALLAN GROSSMAN Well, there are all kinds of autism, but basically a child with autism has trouble maintain eye contact and various sensory issues and tactile touch problems. You may have seen the movie, Rain-man. (MORE) 33.

DR. ALLAN GROSSMAN (CONT’D) Well that man was at the extreme of autism called an idiot savant. He was a genius at math but unable to socialize or function normally in society.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Oh, my God I think I am going to faint. I have to get a drink of water.

BILL LOGGINS Let me help you Jill.

DR. ALLAN GROSSMAN The prognosis is good. Ralph may grow out of some of his autism in time. I suggest you see a specialist for autistic children for planning how to deal with an autistic child. Otherwise, Ralph is perfectly healthy.

BILL LOGGINS Than you Doctor Grossman. Jill, and I will contact Dr. Elman the autistic specialist when we get home today.

Jill and Bill leave the hospital with Ralph and return home.

BILL LOGGINS (CONT’D) I am going to have to call my parents and tell them that Ralph is slightly autistic.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS I don’t have the strength to tell my parents. I will do it tomorrow or later this week. No need to rush.


The Next week at Dr. Elman’s Office.


DR. ELMAN (60) AUTISM EXPERT Hello Mr. Loggins and Mrs. Loggins.

I have read the report from Dr. Grossman, and I have examined Ralph, and concur with Dr. Grossman that Ralph is slightly autistic. It is not something to worry about. (MORE) 34.

DR. ELMAN (60) AUTISM EXPERT (CONT’D) You are just going to have to learn that children with autism see and learn things differently than other children. You are going to have to make eye contact when you talk to him to get him to focus on what you are saying. He is probably going to have problems socializing, but we can handle that later on when he gets older. For now I suggest you enroll in our parent support group that meets once a week to learn how to properly deal with a child with autism. Every few months you will bring Ralph into my office and we will do a physical on him and evaluate his progress or lack of developmental progress. Thank you for coming today.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS When is the first meeting of the parent support group Doctor Elman?

DR. ELMAN Next Tuesday at 10:00 am.. Bring Ralph with you so we can observe how he interacts with other children. The parents will have a discussion session and we will try to introduce some methods of coping with autism.

BILL LOGGINS Thank you Dr. Elman. I will drive Jill and Ralph here next week. See you then.

Flash back skips ahead to three years later at age 5 for Ralph.


JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Ralph look at me. Ralph look at my eyes. That is it. Now I want you to put on pants not your shorts. It is January, and 25 degrees outside, and we cannot go to the mall with you wearing shorts. You are going to get very cold in shorts, and perhaps come down with a cold or worse. 35.

RALPH LOGGINS But Mom, the scratching of the pants against my legs drives me crazy. I would rather have cold legs than have the pants scratching against my skin. I am sorry Mom, that is the way it is.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS OK, Ralph, I will bring a blanket in case you get cold in the car. Let’s go Jennifer, we are going to the Mall. I have to wrap little Tom up to keep warm. OK, let’s go. Leave the dog here. Good Peaches sit, sit now, good dog.


Later in the Danbury mall.


JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS (CONT’D) What do you want to eat Ralph?

RALPH LOGGINS A hamburger I guess, with nothing on it.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS You don’t want lettuce or tomatoes or catsup or mustard on your hamburger?

RALPH LOGGINS Right. I want to put the catsup on by myself. No pickle either.

JENNIFER LOGGINS (4) I want a cheese burger and fries mom.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS One cheese burger, one small burger, and a big Mac with fries for me. You guys want soda or water.


Water. 36.




Back to the present 2017, 21 years later. Ralph is expressing a desire to have his own apartment, and move out of the Loggins family. Jill and Bill have mixed emotions about Ralph being able to cook for himself and maintain a clean apartment.


RALPH LOGGINS Dad, I think I want to get my own apartment and see if I can live on my own. I am going on 22, and I want to live on my own.

BILL LOGGINS Ralph, your mother and I have talked about you moving, and we are not sure you can handle making your own meals or buying your meals everyday. Right now you are used to your mother doing everything for you including washing your clothes. Are you going to be able to do your own wash and fold your clothes before they get wrinkled? You don’t do it now.

RALPH LOGGINS I have to try dad. If I cannot do it, then I will come home to live.

BILL LOGGINS It is not that simple Ralph. The State of Conn., requires that someone check on you weekly to see that you are doing well living alone. That is the job I do with older men that have learning disabilities. We have to find an apartment that is affordable that you can afford, and then buy you some furniture, and a television too. You have nothing of your own except your toys, and clothing. (MORE) 37.

BILL LOGGINS (CONT’D) Give your mom and I, a month to work everything out for you to move.

TOM LOGGINS Are you really moving out brother? Can I have your bed? That will mean I can have the whole room to myself.

JENNIFER LOGGINS I will come over and visit you once a week Ralph to make sure you are doing well. Is that alright?

RALPH LOGGINS Sure Jennifer.

FADE OUT. The next day Ralph is walking to the grocery store to buy some bread and milk for his mother and a large white Van pulls up behind him.


STRANGE MAN IN A WHITE VAN (Sticking his head out of the van window) Hey fella is your name Ralph?

RALPH LOGGINS Yeah, who wants to know. Who are you?

STRANGE MAN IN A WHITE VAN I am a friend of your father’s. He sent me to give you a ride home.

RALPH LOGGINS I always walk to the store. Thanks anyway.

STRANGE MAN IN A WHITE VAN Get in the Van fella or I am going to shoot you in the head with this gun.(Holds a gun aimed toward Ralph).

RALPH LOGGINS I am sorry. I am sorry. What did I do? Where are we going? (Ralph begins crying). 38.

STRANGE MAN IN A WHITE VAN Shut up, and get in the back or I am going to shoot you in the back of the head, and leave you by the side of the road. Do you have any money?

RALPH LOGGINS Please don’t shoot me. dollars.

I have two

STRANGE MAN IN A WHITE VAN Where are those millions you won?

RALPH LOGGINS I don’t have any millions. It is all in the bank.

STRANGE MAN IN A WHITE VAN Let’s go to the bank and withdraw some of your millions.

RALPH LOGGINS I cannot take money out of the bank without my day or mom’s signature. Please let me go. I have no money. I will give you my two dollars.

STRANGE MAN IN A WHITE VAN Here take this cell phone, and call your mother and tell her you’ve been kidnapped and I want ten thousand dollars in cash by tomorrow.

RALPH LOGGINS OK, OK I’ll call mom, but she isn’t going to be happy.

STRANGE MAN IN A WHITE VAN Take the phone and shut up. (The stranger is driving down the road with Ralph in the back seat).

Just then the van hits a pot hole (boom), and the back doors of the van fly open and Ralph slides out of the van during the impact.

STRANGER IN A WHITE VAN Holy shit that was a giant pot hole. Hey, were are you going. Damm the doors popped open. Stay where you are. Damm he slid out. I gotta get the hell out of here.

The van races away down the road leaving Ralph lying stunned 39.

in the road.

WOMAN IN A CAR BEHIND THE WHITE VAN. You alright young man?

RALPH LOGGINS Yeah, yeah I am alright, thanks lady. I gotta get out of the road.

I have to run home.

Ralph runs several miles back to his house. Entering the house he calls his sister Jennifer who is on the third floor.

RALPH LOGGINS (CONT’D) Jennifer, a bad man tried to kidnap me.

JENNIFER LOGGINS It is not nice to lie Ralph. Where did your get those cuts on your arms. Did your fall off your bicycle or something?

RALPH LOGGINS No. A man in a white van had a gun, and he wanted money from me. I only had two dollars. He wanted to kill me, but I fell out of his truck.

JENNIFER LOGGINS What, for real? Is that how you got these cuts? Mom is really going to be worried. I will call her at work now. (Pause). Hello Mom. You need to come home now, we have a problem with Ralph I cannot tell you over the phone. Hurray. I will wait for you with Ralph.

(Shouting) Tom are you upstairs? Go down and lock the front door quickly, and don’t ask stupid questions.

TOM LOGGINS ( Tom runs down the stairs). OK, the door is double locked with the deadbolt and the door knob Jennifer.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Good, Mom can unlock it when she gets home.

(MORE) 40.

JENNIFER LOGGINS (CONT’D) Ralph go in the bathroom and I will get a cloth to wipe the blood off your arms.


Ten minutes later Jill arrives home.


JENNIFER LOGGINS (CONT’D) Mom is that you?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Yes, I am home Jennifer? What happened?

JENNIFER LOGGINS You are not going to believe this but someone tried to kidnap Ralph for money, but he escaped. His arms are all cut up for some reason. I washed off the blood, and put first aid spray on the cuts. Ralph is carrying on and having a meltdown over the incident. Should we call the police?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Oh, my God. Ralph let me see your arms. What happened, and talk slowly so I can understand what you are saying.

RALPH LOGGINS I was getting the milk and bread you asked me to get at the supermarket, and while I was walking to the store a big white van pulled up behind me and asked if I was Ralph. I said yes, and I asked who he was. The man in the van stuck a gun in my face and told me to get in the van. He wanted money, but I only had two dollars for bread and milk. He wanted me to call you and ask for ten thousand dollars. We hit a pot hole and the back doors of the van flew open and I slid out of the van when van jumped into the air. The man drove the van away and left me in the road. 41.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Really? You are not making this up? Let me dial 911, and call the police. Did you see the license number on the van, Ralph?

RALPH LOGGINS No mommy, I was scared. My leg is shaking.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Go take one of your pills to calm down Ralph, and I will call the police. Hello, I need a policeman to come to my house. A man in a white van tried to kidnap my son Ralph. My name is Mrs. Jill Loggins and I live on 44 Dogwood land, New Town.

911 POLICE DISPATCHER OK Mrs. Loggins I am sending a cruiser over to your house immediately. Did your son get a license plate number?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS No, he was too scared to notice the license number.

911 POLICE DISPATCHER Stay in your home and keep the door locked until the officers arrive.



Minutes later the police arrive and knock on the door.


JENNIFER LOGGINS I will get the door Mom. You sit down with Ralph and make sure he stays calm. I am coming. Hello officers, my mother and brother is upstairs, come in. 42.

OFFICER TIM WILEY (40) Hi I am officer Tim Wiley, and this is officer John Dadney. Your mother just called 911.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Yes she did. Come upstairs please.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Hi, I am Mrs. Loggins and I called you to file a complaint against a strange white man in a white van who tried to kidnap my son Ralph Loggins as he was walking to the supermarket.

OFFICER TIM WILEY Are you Ralph Loggins?


OFFICER TIM WILEY Tell me about what happened.

An hour later the police leave the Loggins house and inform Jill Loggins that two detectives will contact her regarding the attempted kidnapping.



The next day Detectives Charles Shultz and Peter Hommer visit the Loggins home.


DETECTIVE CHARLES SHULTZ (45) Good afternoon Mrs. Loggins. I am Detective Shultz and this is Detective Hommer from the New Town Police department. May we come in?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Sure come on up the stairs and have a seat in the living-room.

DETECTIVE CHARLES SHULTZ As you know Mrs. Loggins we are here on the charge of attempted kidnapping or abduction of your 21 year old son Ralph Loggins. What can you tell us about the incident? 43.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS First of all let me make it clear that Ralph is autistic, and does not react the way other people do to strangers. He doesn’t see evil in strangers. Regardless, he won the Powerball lottery a year ago for millions of dollars. His face was on TV, and in the local newspapers which made him very well known in Danbury, where we used to live. Ralph told me he was walking to the supermarket to get a small container of milk and a loaf of bread, that I had asked him to do earlier in the day before I left for work. He said a white man in a white van pulled up next to him, and asked him if his name was Ralph. He told the stranger yes, my name is Ralph, who are you? At that point in time the man pulled out a pistol and stuck it in Ralph’s face, and told him to get in the van, which Ralph did. He asked Ralph for money, but Ralph only had $2.00 on him. Then he gave Ralph a cell phone, and told him to call me and demand $10,000 ransom. Before Ralph could make the call the van hit a big pot hole in the road and the back doors of the van flung wide open and Ralph slid out of the truck from the impact. The driver did not stop and drove off. Ralph sustained cuts and scratches to his arms from falling out of the van onto the road. He ran home to tell his sister who called me at work.

DETECTIVE CHARLES SHULTZ Can your son, Ralph give us any details about the physical description of the man in the van?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS He said the man had a hooded sweatshirt on that was black, and he had a mustache and was a white man and that is all he remembers.

DETECTIVE CHARLES SHULTZ Did Ralph see a license plate number on the van? 44.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS No, he was too frightened and could not focus on the license plate. Remember he is autistic and this incident scared him a great deal and caused him to have an emotional break-down. We cannot get him to come out of his room today. He thinks the police are going to arrest him for some reason.

DETECTIVE CHARLES SHULTZ Do you think we can have him identify the man if we have a lineup at the station.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS It is doubtful. Autistic people want to please everyone and he will be conflicted in such a situation.

TOM LOGGINS Mom when are you making lunch?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Later Tom. I am talking to the detectives right now. You will have to wait.

DETECTIVE CHARLES SHULTZ I understand Mrs. Loggins. We will have a patrol car come by your neighborhood just to be safe. Because your son has such a high profile in winning the Powerball lottery, you are going to have to be more careful because there are a lot of crooks out there that would like to steal your money. If we get any leads we will keep you informed. Thank you for your time.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Thank you Gentlemen. It has been a most stressful couple of days. Good bye.

The Detectives leave in their car.


Bill calls from work.

FADE IN: 45.

BILL LOGGINS Hi Jill, did the detectives come yet?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Yes, they just left.

BILL LOGGINS Do they have any leads?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS No, not having a license plate number of more detailed description of the man is going to make catching him very difficult. They are going to have a patrol car drive by everyday to keep watch on our house. I am worried Bill.

BILL LOGGINS Stay calm for now. Has Ralph come out of his room yet?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS No, but when I make lunch his stomach may force him to show up. He is afraid of everything, the man in the van, the police, neighbors, and so forth. I will give him one of his pills during lunch to calm him down.

BILL LOGGINS How are Tom and Jennifer reacting?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS They are a little bit scared but having grasped the reality of almost being kidnapped yet.

BILL LOGGINS I will bring home a pizza tonight so you don’t have to cook. Talk to Ralph to get him out of his mood. Bye now.





A year later Ralph has moved into his own apartment to try and live on his own. Jennifer his younger sister, has become his buddy, and protector. Jill and Bill are disappointed that Ralph wants to live alone, but they are dealing with it.


JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS (Ring) (Ralph picks up his iPhone) Hi Ralph, you haven’t been answering your phone. How are you doing? Jennifer tells me she took you food shopping again, and you are doing well with frozen meals and peanut butter and jelly.

RALPH LOGGINS Hi Mom. I am fine. Working on some ideas for a Super-hero.(Tapping The table again and again).

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Remember Ralph Super-hero’s are only in comic books.

RALPH LOGGINS Yeah, yeah, but I have an idea or an invention I think I can make and sell.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS What is it Ralph? I would love to see what you made.

RALPH LOGGINS It is a secret for now, but I call it my Captain Retro Cube.(Tapping His head again and again).

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Who is Captain Retro Ralph?

RALPH LOGGINS I will tell you the story someday. Tell Jennifer to pick me up with the car today. I have to buy some electrical supplies.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Good. Call me once in a while. Your dad says hello. Love you Ralph. Bye. 47.


Bye Mom.

FADE OUT. Later that day Jennifer comes to visit Ralph’s apartment which is sparsely filled with furniture and everything is labeled and stored. Ralph is a neat freak and that is a good thing.


JENNIFER LOGGINS Ralph I am here with the car. I see you are keeping your apartment clean. Have you eaten anything?

RALPH LOGGINS Peanut butter and jelly sandwich for breakfast.

JENNIFER LOGGINS You should eat something more healthy Ralph like cereal or an egg and bacon.

RALPH LOGGINS Cooking takes too long.

JENNIFER LOGGINS What are you working on in your living room? It looks like a rubix cube, but with buttons and wires that actually work.

RALPH LOGGINS I am working on a smart cube that autistic people can use to fidget with, and help them focus on things.(Tapping The table again and again).

JENNIFER LOGGINS What does it do Ralph?

RALPH LOGGINS It does a lot of things and can fit in someone’s pocket. This button is the vibration mode button which makes the cube vibrate slowly to calm someone autistic down. This button here, and here are squeeze buttons to determine stress. (MORE) 48.

RALPH LOGGINS (CONT’D) When you squeeze the buttons a number comes up from 1-10 with 10 being very, very stressed. Here try it Jennifer.

JENNIFER LOGGINS That is cool Ralph. Squeeze both buttons like this? Oh, I see, and it gives you a number how stressed you are. I got a number of 3, guess I am OK, right brother?

RALPH LOGGINS There is more. I have managed to build a mother board to fit inside with a CPU like they have in computers. On one side there is a memory match game where a square lights up and, you have to find one to match it by pushing a square in. It also can match sounds with each square. If you get more than 50% right the whole cube begins lighting up and flashing with drum sounds.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Amazing. What are you going to do with this cube thing?

RALPH LOGGINS I want to train people to put it together so we can have a factory of people that are autistic and learning disabled working and earning money from our profits.

JENNIFER LOGGINS All you need is an old factory building in New Town or maybe Danbury where there are many old factories that are closed? You are going to need a lawyer Ralph, and real estate people to help you rent the building. Have you spoken to dad yet. He can get some facilities people from his old job at IBM to help clean up a factory and renovate it for assembly line production. It is going to cost a lot of money Ralph. Well you have plenty, so that is no problem. Talk to mom and dad about it tonight. (MORE) 49.

JENNIFER LOGGINS (CONT’D) I will help you get autistic teenagers and adults and learning disabled people that I work with in the county learning center.

RALPH LOGGINS Thanks Jennifer. I knew you would help. Look at these cute speakers I installed to play music and sounds. Next to the Vibration Button is the Calming Sound button that plays soothing sounds like rain on a roof, a gurgling stream, ocean waves and the like. The little sun catcher charges up the battery inside the cube. See this I put in a Chinese abacus. Actually, it is a binary abacus made out of little metal beads that send out a signal to the cpu when they are moved. It is a fun kind of calculator that keeps an autistic person’s fingers busy. A digital number shows up during adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing. I programed it into the cpu, and mother board. Flash was very helpful.

JENNIFER LOGGINS What is flash? Flash Gordon?

RALPH LOGGINS No silly, never mind. I saw a farm for sale near New Town with a barn and 100 acres. I think I can be safer there than here in my apartment. Besides I need something like a barn to manufacture my Capt. Retro Cube.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Really Ralph? Do you think anyone will buy this cube thing?




FADE IN: 50.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Ralph we are going to make an offer to buy the farm house. Let me talk and you just listen. Do you understand?

RALPH LOGGINS Yes, Jennifer you are the boss.

JENNIFER LOGGINS I have a certified letter from mom and dad permitting you to withdraw $200,000 from your bank account electronically to pay for the farm house, barn and 100 acres in full.

That will mean no mortgage to deal with and you will Jennifer and Ralph go to a real estate lawyer and make an offer in cash to buy the farm house, barn and 100 acres. Ralph’s parents approve of his paying $200,000 for the property in hopes that Ralph will develop a career.

JENNIFER LOGGINS (CONT’D) Ralph I am so excited for you in buying this wonderful old farm house and barn and 100 acres. The house is going to need some fixing up however. There are no curtains, the appliances are all old and need to be replaced and all the rooms need repainting. I can hire some of your autistic friends to help paint the farm house. We can pay them $15 dollars an hour.

RALPH LOGGINS That sounds good Jennifer. You take care of the farm house with Tom, and I will concentrate on getting the parts to manufacturer my cube concept.

Days later.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Ralph I hired some autistic people to work in your cube assembly line. You remember Billy Williams from high school. I hired him to work on the assembly line alone with Sally Mc Kenna, Jake Roster, Willie Sparks, and Donna McDougal. They are all autistic and willing to work on the cube project for $15. (MORE) 51.

JENNIFER LOGGINS (CONT’D) An hour which is much more than they would get if they worked in McDonalds or a Supermarket. Just let me know when we are ready to start the assembly line.

RALPH LOGGINS Jennifer I need you to find an engineer who specializes in setting up a factory to produce products such as the cube. Can you do that for me. I don’t know anything about setting up a factory assembly line. I also need help ordering parts in large quantities.

JENNIFER LOGGINS OK, Ralph. Tom and I will research for an Engineer that specializes in setting up factories and someone else for ordering supplies for the cubes.

RALPH LOGGINS I have been testing some prototypes of the cube and they all seem to be working the way I want them. As soon as the barn is cleaned out painted, wired correctly, Lighting installed and additional power outlets, then we should be able to start training our employees how to put together the Capt. Retro Cube.

JENNIFER LOGGINS What about packaging and shipping Ralph. Do you have an image in mind for the boxes that will contain the Capt. Retro Cube? No, but I have some ideas maybe Tom can help me draw something and then hire a graphic artist to lay out the printed sides to the Capt. Retro Cube?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Good idea. More people to hire. 52.

RALPH LOGGINS It has been a month now and everything has came together. The logo for the shipping box is finished and being sent our for a printing company to complete on a folding cardboard template. The Captain Retro cube will be in a box with a character similar to Captain America with a Shield that had the Initials CR on it in Red, white, and Blue. The entire box with be a red, white and blue motif signifying the American Flag.

JENNIFER LOGGINS That sounds great Ralph. Everyone is hired for now Ralph.

TOM LOGGINS Yeah, I had to order 2 thousand boxes for now with an option to order 3 thousand more on short notice at a reduced rate.

RALPH LOGGINS Great then we are ready to set up the assembly line. I will need everyone’s help in putting the parts at the proper place in the assembly line. I ordered plenty of rollers to allow the factory workers to pass the cube down the line to the next worker. Jennifer, you and Tom have to help me show everyone what their job will be. First, I will show you guys on a chart I made where we start. Looking at the chart, Station One is taking the two piece cube out of the box and hot gluing in place the mother board for the mini-computer inside the cube. Stage two will install the CPU on the mother board by inserting it and soldering it in place. We are going to need someone who can work with small detail and be accurate with soldering the cpu to the mother board. The third station will be to insert the buttons by drilling holes in the sides of the cube.

(MORE) 53.

RALPH LOGGINS (CONT’D) Station Four will attach the wires to a power source which will be a rechargeable watch battery. Station Five is the installation of the stress buttons and spring in the middle of the top and bottom of the cube. Also included is a tiny vibration motor to make the whole cube vibrate slowly. Station Six will be putting in a tiny receptor for a solar array for charging the cube in the sun. Also included will be the receptor for a quiet sound ear phones which are extra. Station Seven will be providing some shock material to prevent the cube from being shook around. Station eight will be glueing the two shells of the cube’s sides together. Station Nine will be packaging and putting the boxes together.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Sounds like you have it all worked out. What are Tom and I going to do?

TOM LOGGINS Yeah, Ralph what is our job. I hate factory work. My mind wanders.

RALPH LOGGINS All three of us will supervise and do quality control and mailing duties. Jennifer you are going to contact the store buyers and make them an offer to sell our Capt. Retro Cubes. They get to buy the cubes at wholesale which I figure will be around $5.99. They can retail the product for $10.99 Giving them a five dollar profit on each item sold.

TOM LOGGINS Did you consider returns and repairing them?

RALPH LOGGINS No, glad you thought of it Tom. How do we do that? 54.

TOM LOGGINS The retailers will credit returns back to the customers and then take that amount and deduct it from out bill. They will return the cubes to us to refurbish or throw out. We can fix them or mark them down as a business loss on our taxes. You will need a person once in a while to check returns and indicate if we can repair the cube. That means we have to have a way to take the cube apart without destroying it. Maybe you should come up with a way to do that Ralph?

RALPH LOGGINS Great, beginning now we have to start slowly training our employees and make sure they can put these cubes together accurately. I am hoping you and Jennifer can help me do this. You know how bad I am with socializing and getting along with people so I need your help tomorrow when we start training them.

JENNIFER LOGGINS OK, We are behind you 100%. I will work with Tom tomorrow in setting everything out for the assembly line to begin. Then we will time how long it takes to put together one cube so we can estimate how many cubes we can build five days a week with the weekends off.

RALPH LOGGINS Thanks Jennifer. You are the best sister every.

JENNIFER LOGGINS The only sister you have. (Laughing).



The first day of training five autistic young adults begins 55.

for the Capt. Retro Cube factory.


JENNIFER LOGGINS Thanks for getting here on time people. Today, Ralph, Tom and I are going to show you your new factory job. Keep in mind you do not have to work fast. Just work at the speed you are comfortable with. We will give bathroom every two hours for fifteen minutes so everyone can take a break at the same time, and start again at the same time. Let’s start with station 1-Station One is taking the two piece cube out of the box and hot gluing in place the mother board for the mini-computer inside the cube. Billy you start first, and take the two halves of a plastic cube. See the two brackets in the other box. You are going to glue the brackets in place on the inside of the cube on side 1 and side 3 as shown in the model in front of you. Go ahead try it.

Billy Williams has a slight case of autism which includes tactile issues like Ralph has and he tends to stutter when talking. Bill is 18 years of age, white, thin with blond hair and 6 feet tall.

BILLY WILLIAMS (24) AUTISTIC Ok. I glue the bracket inside the cube on this side, and then on the other side. Other side, staaa de. Sorry I stutter a lot.

JENNIFER LOGGINS I forgot to tell you have a metal ruler to mark the exact middle of the cube on the inside so the mother board will be straight inside the cube. Watch me, measure half of three inches, which is 1 1/2 or 1.5 Inches. Mark the inside with a magic marker, and then glue the bracket in place, and let it dry before you push it onto the next station. Are you good with numbers Billy? 56.

BILLY WILLIAMS Sure I am great at numbers. 1 1/2 inches and mark on the inside of the cube. Let me try it Jennifer. Ma ma Measure 1 1/2 inches from the bottom of the inside of the cube. There, now I can ga ga glue the bracket in place. When they are both dry I can glue the mother board in place. There done. How is that Jennifer?



TOM LOGGINS You go Billy.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Now we are going to Station 2-Stage two will install the CPU on the mother board by inserting it, and soldering it in place. We are going to need someone who can work with small detail and be accurate with soldering the cpu to the mother board. Sally you are good with your hands, aren’t you.

Sally McKenna is autistic and has poor eyesight and has to wear high powered glasses. She is short with brown hair in a pony tail. She is shy around strangers.

SALLY MCKENNA (28) AUTISTIC Yes, I think so Jennifer. My mother taught me how to sew my clothes.

Will that help?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Sure sewing is small detail work. Great. We are going to show you how to solder. You have to wear protective gloves so you don’t burn yourself. The first thing you are going to do is put this little spider like thing called a CPU into the four holes on the motherboard Billy just got done gluing together.

(MORE) 57.

JENNIFER LOGGINS (CONT’D) After You put the CPU in place which is easy, you take your hot solder iron and drop a little bit of silver on the edge of the cpu to prevent it from falling out of the motherboard. Here watch me Sally. Easy?

SALLY MCKENNA Now it is my turn. Take the cpu and put it into the four holes on the mother board. Take the hot solder iron, and hold it to the silver solder, and let a drop land on the edge of the cpu. Done. How is that Jennifer? I am a little nervous 1,2, 3, 4,5,6,7,8,9,10, deep breath. OK I am good now.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Fantastic Sally. You are going to be real good at this station. Next is Station 3-The third station will be to insert the buttons by drilling holes in the sides of the cube. Then putting the little buttons in the holes. Jake how about you trying station 3? Just put the template with the holes already drilled on the top of the cube and use the drill press to drill four holes and insert the little buttons in each hole. Each button has a different color, Red is first, Black is second, Green is third, and Yellow is last. There is a model done right in front of you.

Here try it Jake.

Jake is a short and heavy set young man with a crew cut style hair and a clean shaven face. Jake is autistic and has many problems learning and dealing with people in general.

JAKE POSTER (23) AUTISTIC My hand shakes a little, but I can concentrate on getting it to stop. OK? Put the cube on the drill press. Lay the template on top and drill four holes. Put the buttons in the holes, Red first, black second, green third and Yellow last. How is that? 58.

TOM LOGGINS Good job buddy. You got it perfect Jake. (Everyone claps their hands)

JENNIFER LOGGINS We are doing good so let’s move on to Station 4- Station Four will attach the wires to a power source which will be a rechargeable watch battery. Willie you are going to try Station 4. Each of the buttons have a clip to wrap a wire around which will lead to a terminal where you will insert a watch battery on the mother board where these pins are to hole the battery in place.

You can wear magnifying glasses if you want to make seeing the little wires easily. Ready Willie?

Willie Sparks is a short black man with a small mustache and dark horn-rimmed glasses and short afro hair. He is autistic and his family is very poor. Willie’s father left home when he was two and his mother Mildred has to raise him and his sisters.

WILLIE SPARKS (27) AUTISTIC I like magnifying glasses. I will wear them a lot. Four wires, each a different color. Let’s see red is first, green second, blue third, and Yellow. Put the battery on the mother board and attach the 4 wires. These twisters will make is easy to pick up the little battery. How is that?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Super job Willie. Now we are up to Station 5-Station Five is the installation of the stress buttons and spring in the middle of the top and bottom of the cube. Also included is a tiny vibration motor to make the whole cube vibrate slowly. Donna we are up to you to do Station Five. Can you keep your hands steady Donna?

Donna McDougal is a short Irish girl with red hair. She is autistic too and just graduated from High school the year before. She wears glasses to read and has issues with cold and hot weather, certain foods and the need to be neat to the point of obsession. 59.

DONNA MCDOUGAL (19) AUTISTIC I think I can keep from shaking?

Let me see I make sure the stress buttons on the top and bottom of the cube are inserted. I have to put the template on the bottom and drill a hole. Now I have to insert the spring inside from button to button next to the mother board.

The tiny vibration motor attaches to the mother board at the connection here. How does that look? This looks like fun.

JENNIFER LOGGINS You will do fine Donna. Now for Station 6-Station Six will be putting in a tiny attachment for a solar array for charging the cube in the sun. Also included will be the receptor for a quiet sound ear phones which are extra. We are up to Keith Adder now. Are you ready Keith.

Keith Adder is a tall thin young man who is autistic. He talks very low and is very shy. He has problems with his emotions and has to take medication to keep calm. He has problems socializing too.

KEITH ADDER (20) AUTISTIC I am afraid I am going to make a mistake Jennifer. I always worry about failure. Do you think I can do this Jennifer? I can’t stop tapping my leg. Maybe I should go home and sleep?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Take a deep breath Keith. You can do this. All your are going to do is insert a little hole called a receptor to hook up to ear phones and tiny attachment to connect to a tiny solar array which goes on the side of the cube like the model here.

KEITH ADDER I will give it a try Jennifer. Let see put this little metal thing in a hole for earphones to hook up. Now the connector for the tiny solar array.

(MORE) 60.

KEITH ADDER (CONT’D) Boy that is cut like a little mirror made of little tiles? Yeah, I can do this.

TOM LOGGINS Let me help Jennifer. The next station is Station Seven which will be providing some shock material to prevent the cube from being shook around. Just take this soft fiberglass material, and stuff it in and around the mother board and wires. Station eight will be glueing the two shells of the cube’s sides together. Stations 7 & 8 will be combined into one station since the task is so easy. Tom Sauer it is your turn. Try it.

Tom Sauer is a brilliant autistic college student who has problems learning concepts but can memorize anything in numbers. He has issues with talking to other people and is very critical of himself.

TOM SAUER (25) It seems easy enough to just stuff the cube with this fiberglass stuff and finally hot glueing the two sides of the cube together. I like this hot glueing gun, cool. Can I wear ear phones while working. Music keeps me focused Jennifer.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Sure Tom. Ear phones are fine if you can stay focused.

Benedict Moor is mixed race with brown skin, dark eyes and he is also autistic age 19. Alice Boondals (20) is a tall white girl built like a Swedish woman. She is autistic, yet strong physically and six feet tall with dirty blonde hair. She is very outspoken and has trouble dealing with other people.

TOM LOGGINS Benedict Moor and Alice Boondals will take care of packing and shipping in Station nine. Everyone watch carefully. The box has several sides that all fold upward and the long flap goes over the top and down into the side of the box to hold the box together. A touch of glue on the seams will hold the entire box together.

(MORE) 61.

TOM LOGGINS (CONT’D) The cube goes in the display box after the sides are up and before the top flap is glued closed. We are assigning two people because they will also have to put the boxes into cartons and put them on hand trucks to pile up for shipping to retailers. Let’s take a break for now. There are donuts and coffee or soda over on the table for you to eat and drink. Nice job gang.




A year has gone by, and the Captain Retro Cube is a major success among children and adults who are autistic, learning disabled or nervous disorders. The State of Connecticut officially cited the Captain Retro Cube for excellence in the field of products for children and adults of special needs.


JENNIFER LOGGINS Ralph it have been a little over a year since we started manufacturing the Captain Retro Cube, and we are starting to make a profit, and we have doubled our working force. That is great news. Also, we got Toys and Tools, Target, Macy’s and J.C. Penny to carry the Captain Retro Cube in the toy departments.

RALPH LOGGINS I am so glad. Everyone said I was stupid to build a cube, and now they are wrong.

TOM LOGGINS What is your next invention going to be big brother? 62.

RALPH LOGGINS I don’t know, but I was thinking of a device like an abacus that can help someone predict the numbers that might come up in a lottery based on the numbers that appear the most.

TOM LOGGINS That sounds cool. If someone wins using that product we will become millionaires many times over.

RALPH LOGGINS I guess. I have to go put on some shorts. My pants are scratching me. They are driving me crazy.

A few day later.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Ralph, Ralph you have a phone call from Toys and Tools. They want to buy the exclusive rights to manufacturer the Captain Retro Cube themselves. Here talk to them.

RALPH LOGGINS Hello, yes this is Ralph Loggins.

What is your name again? Roger Fedora, CEO of Toys and Tools.

That’s nice.

Roger Fedora is a typical lawyer looking person of medium height, mustache, glasses and pale white skin. He hair is slightly long to his ears and is brown and grey.


Yes, Mr. Loggins, we would like to meet with you and your lawyer to make an offer to buy you out regarding the patent for the Captain Retro Cube. We will make a handsome offer to buy out your patent and exclusive rights to make and distribute your product. It will make you a millionaire.

RALPH LOGGINS I am already a millionaire. What about my employees? They are all autistic or learning disabled. And they depend on this job to survive. 63.

ROGER FEDORA We will offer them a severance package which will last them a year.

RALPH LOGGINS I don’t know. I will have to talk with my sister and brother and my lawyer and then call you back. Good bye.

JENNIFER LOGGINS What do you think Ralph. Toys and Tools will make you a millionaire again, based on them buying out your patent, and exclusive rights to distribute the product around the world. That is more than we could ever do. I am just worried about out employees. We told them we would take care of them forever with a job that is easy and fun.

RALPH LOGGINS You are right. I am already a millionaire, and more than making the Captain Retro Cube, I wanted to help people like me that are autistic to find a job that they could do without having stress or a melt down when it got too hard to do. I owe them for believing in me when we started. I have to think about this a lot.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Talk with mom and dad. They might have some ideas.

RALPH LOGGINS That is a good idea.

A week later Ralph goes to his parent’s house to talk to them about the buy out offer from Toys and Tools.

RALPH LOGGINS (CONT’D) Mom and dad I have an offer from Toys and Tools to buy out the Captain Retro Cube patient and exclusive distribution rights around the world for millions of dollars.

(MORE) 64.

RALPH LOGGINS (CONT’D) We just started making a profit after a year of finding retail stores that would carry the Captain Retro Cube on their shelves. What do you think?

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS That sound wonderful Ralph. Millions of dollars to buy out the patient. Amazing. What do your think Greg?

BILL LOGGINS I think it is great too, however part of the idea to make the cube was to provide learning disabled teens and adults an opportunity to work in a low stress environment and make money to live on their own. That is a commitment, I remember you told everyone a year ago would be forever. One year is not forever.

RALPH LOGGINS I was thinking the same thing dad. It is all very confusing for me.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Ralph you need to do what is best for you and your employees. Money isn’t everything. If you sell your company, what will you do instead? You don’t like working for other people and you don’t like working with people, period.

RALPH LOGGINS You are right mom. I don’t like socializing. I like being my own boss with Jennifer and Tom helping me. We are one big family and I like that. I am going to call them back. No, I will have Jennifer call them back and turn the offer down. A week later.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Hello Mr. Fedora? This is Jennifer Loggins Vice President of Captain Retro Cube company. 65.

ROGER FEDORA Yes this is Mr. Fedora. Whom am I speaking to?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Mr. Fedora, Ralph and I, and our parents have discussed your generous offer, and have decided to turn it down for several reasons. First, it provides jobs for people of special needs, especially autistic teens and adults. Secondly, It keeps Ralph busy, and he enjoys being his own boss. I am afraid we will have to turn your offer down.

ROGER FEDORA But you haven’t even met with us yet? This could be worth millions of dollars for you and your brother.

JENNIFER LOGGINS This is not about money Mr. Fedora. It is about friends and employees that depend on this product to provide them a lifetime of working and being self sufficient.

ROGER FEDORA I wish you would change your mind.

JENNIFER LOGGINS No, we are firm in our resolution.

Thank you for making the offer.

Have a good day. Good bye.

When Jennifer gets off the phone Mr. Fedora has an emotional fit, and begins throwing things around his office at Toys and Tools.

ROGER FEDORA I can’t believe that idiot would sell his patient? I will be god dammed, we are going to copy that product, and steal it from him one way or another. Sally call the inhouse lawyer Bill Sawyer. I want to talk to him about getting this product. 66.

SALLY DORMAN (34) SECRETARY TOYS AND TOOLS Yes Mr. Fedora. I will call him right away.

Minutes later.

WILLIAM SLATER (60) IN HOUSE COUNSEL Mr. Fedora, what is up?

ROGER FEDORA Bill there is a hot product on the market invented by a brilliant autistic young man called the Captain Retro Cube. It has sold millions of units in just one year after hitting the retail market. I made this young man an offer in the millions to buy out his patent and exclusive rights to distribution and he turned me down. He is loyal to his factory workers that are mostly autistic or learning disabled and totally dependent on him for a salary and a living.

WILLIAM SLATER What do you want to do Roger? We could make a close copy, and try to market it. We could reverse engineer it if you want. Or on the dark side we could hire an operative to try and steel the blueprints on how the cube is made and what is inside?

ROGER FEDORA If we have to hire an operative, I do not want my name associated with paying this individual in any way. I could be fired from my position as CEO if we got caught.

WILLIAM SLATER I understand Roger. I will work through a third party who will not identify where the stolen blueprints are going and who is paying for this operation to take place. Payment will be made in cash so there is no paper trail. Do you want me to proceed Roger? 67.

ROGER FEDORA Yes, yes, get that bastard’s blueprints so we can blow him out of the water. After all we are Toys and Tools and no one tells us no. Report back to me when you discover something substantial. Now we are going to play hard-ball.

WILLIAM SLATER Yes Sir. I will contact a third party and request he try to steal the blue prints. I will let you know what we uncover.

ROGER FEDORA Remember, we never had this discussion and make sure my name can not be traced to this third party. OK, have a nice day Bill.



Six months later Ralph, Jennifer, and Tom and other employees are busy shipping orders out to Costco, Macy’s and J.C. Penny’s from their barn house factory.


TOM LOGGINS Well that is the last of the boxes to ship out today. It took seven hours, but all the boxes being shipped to Costco, Macy’s and J.C. Penny’s are taped, labeled and ready to be shipped. I will have a UPS truck come by tomorrow to pick up the boxes. Phew that was a lot of work. Good job guys.

JENNIFER LOGGINS I wish we had robots to do this work. I have never seen so many boxes ready to be shipped. We cannot increase our production any more than we are doing right now. At times that Toys and Tools offer looks good. Only kidding. 68.

RALPH LOGGINS I cannot believe how much work there is just to ship a few thousand boxes? Man this is real work.

JENNIFER LOGGINS (Laughing) See what you started Ralph, Captain Retro. (Laughing). I’ll set the digital alarm system before we go home for the night guys.

TOM LOGGINS OK, remembered you volunteered. I am out of here. I have a date tonight with a new girl friend. See you tomorrow gang.

Jennifer goes to the master digital alarm system and throws all the switches to on including the Barn and the offices in the Farm house.

JENNIFER LOGGINS OK, 30 seconds to get out of her folks. Come on Ralph the place is in lock-down until tomorrow morning.

RALPH LOGGINS I beat you out of the offices Jennifer.

All the employee cars pull away and Ralph goes upstairs to his personal apartment to relax and play electronic games. Very carefully he sets out six glasses of soda and fills up each one as he drinks down each glass of soda.

FADE OUT. Later that evening. A truck quietly pulls into the farm property of Ralph Loggins and turns off it’s lights.

FADE IN: James Boucher is an unshaven heavy set man and a drunk. He is always smoking a cigar and wears dark baggy clothing. He was once a lawyer who got disbarred and now works illegally as a spy and thief for corporations.


Benny have you got the flashlight?

I will carry the bag of tools. We believe the blue prints for the box are in the cabinet in the office in the farm house.

(MORE) 69.

JAMES BOUCHER (50) CORPORATE SPY AND The second possibility is the factory in the barn. It looks like they have a complete alarm system with outside cameras. Benny you cut the wires to the system and plug in the fake switch box and that should prevent the alarm from going off. I have a set if lock master keys that should work, otherwise I am going to have to pick the locks. When I get into the office you take the bolt cutter and cut the locks off the file cabinets.

Benny is a small fat grubby and dirty men who is unshaven and dirty looking. He wears dark rimmed glasses and has a distinctive large nose.

BENNY DECOSTAL (50) BURGLAR I got this Jim. These guys are amateurs. The electrical system is old fashioned and will be easy to cut.

JAMES BOUCHER We will leave the car here and walk into the farm from here. I don’t believe they have a dog. The apartment is upstairs, so be quiet.

BENNY DECOSTAL Yeah let’s go, I am getting nervous.

Minutes later both thieves walk up to the farm house in the dark.

BENNY DECOSTAL (CONT’D) (Whispering) The wire is cut and the transfer box is hooked up. We’re good to go.

JAMES BOUCHER The lock is a little rusty but I got it. Let’s go the file cabinet is over there. Cut the lock.

BENNY DECOSTAL Cut the lock. (whispering)

JAMES BOUCHER I can’t find any blueprint files. Damm where the hell are they? Nothing is in alphabetical order. Who the hell filed these files, a monkey?

(MORE) 70.

JAMES BOUCHER (CONT’D) Damm, damm I cannot find anything.

Let’s go to the barn. Maybe we can find something there?

Both thieves walk quietly in the dark over to the barn fifty yards away.

BENNY DECOSTAL There is an electronic camera in front of the barn. We are going to have to cut the wire to it or it is going to film us. Unfortunately, it is 18 feet or more up on the front of the barn. I don’t have a ladder. We are screwed. Stay in the dark on the right side of the barn. I have to figure this out.

JIM BORCHERS Hurray up fool, the lights just went on in the apartment over the office. He may have woken up?

Meanwhile, Ralph hears some noise in the night and sat bolt up right listening to the sounds of the night. He puts on the light in his bedroom.

BENNY DECOSTAL Oh, shit I stepped in a water can. Damm my foot is all wet now.

JIM BORCHERS Shut up. You made so much noise the upstairs apartment lights just went on. Let’s get out of here before the cops come.

FADE OUT. The next day at the Toys and Tools corporate office in Wayne, New Jersey two hours away from New Town, Connecticut.


ROGER FEDORA, CEO OF TOYS AND TOOLS (On his cell phone) Hello Bill, how did the raid go?

WILLIAM SLATER Not good. Our agents got into the office but could not find the blueprints and when they got to the barn it has a security camera 18 feet up in the air. They got nothing. I am sorry. They almost got caught since they woke up the tenant upstairs from the office. 71.

ROGER FEDORA, CEO OF TOYS AND TOOLS This is real bad news. I was planning on copying those blueprints and putting a copy of the Captain Retro Cube into production. Now I have to nix the whole thing. Did you pay off our friends in cash?

WILLIAM SLATER There is no trace back to you. They got their cash and are long gone.

ROGER FEDORA, CEO OF TOYS AND TOOLS Let’s never talk of this again Bill.


SCENE 2- INT.-CAPTAIN RETRO OFFICES 9:00 A.M.-DAY. The next morning.


RALPH LOGGINS Jennifer I am glad you got here early. Someone broke into the office last night and cut the wires to the alarm system too. I heard a bucket falling over near the barn last night and woke up. I looked out the window and could see nothing. Should we call the Police?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Definitely Ralph. I will call 911 right away. Did they take anything? What were they looking for?

RALPH LOGGINS The file cabinet lock was cut and the draws were open but I don’t see any missing files yet. There are so many files, I don’t know what they were looking for? 72.

JENNIFER LOGGINS That was very strange. They went through all this effort to break in, so there must have been something they were looking for? Did they get into the barn?

RALPH LOGGINS No, the barn is still locked. The security camera shows two men in the darkness looking up at the camera and then running away.

TOM LOGGINS Good morning guys. How come no one opened the barn yet?

RALPH LOGGINS We had a break in.

TOM LOGGINS What do you mean break in?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Someone broke into the office, and tried to steal something, but we don’t know what it was. They cut the lock in the file cabinet, so that must be where they were looking? I called the Police, and they will be here shortly.

TOM LOGGINS Holy crap we had a real break-in. What is that all about?



Sergeant Gosling is a partially bald, tall man, 6ft.2”, with a small mustache, partially greying hair, short cut style with a Boston accent.


SERGEANT MAX GOSLING (55) I understand you had a break in last night Ms. Loggins? 73.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Yes, someone broke into the office and cut the lock off the file cabinet but nothing seems to be stolen.

SERGEANT MAX GOSLING That seems very strange. They cut the security wires and attached a device to fool the security system. Now that seems very professional to me. What is it that you keep in the office that is of great value?

JENNIFER LOGGINS We don’t keep any cash in the office because most of our business is all credit. We keep the blueprints to the Captain Retro cube locked in the file cabinet stored under a false name.

SERGEANT MAX GOSLING Has anyone threatened you or your brothers lately?

RALPH LOGGINS Hi Jennifer, is this the Policeman you called?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Yes Ralph. Ralph this is Sergeant Gosling. He is investigating the break in. Can you show the officer the video recording for the barn from last night?

RALPH LOGGINS Yeah I have it on tape. Let me bring it up on the computer. See two men were outside the barn hiding in the shadows. They are looking at the camera and then they duck into the darkness out of range of the camera. The camera is mounted 18 feet up in the air and can focus up to 50 feet in all directions in front of the barn but not the sides.

SERGEANT MAX GOSLING Can I have a copy of that recording for evidence Mr. Loggins? 74.

RALPH LOGGINS Sure I can burn it to a DVD for you. It will just take a minute.

SERGEANT MAX GOSLING I just need to take some pictures of the cut lock, cabinet and the front door lock and I will be able to file my report. Do you have insurance to cover break-ins? If so I can give you a statement for the insurance company.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Than you Sergeant Gosling. Yes, we have insurance for liability and security break-ins with New York Insurance company.

SERGEANT MAX GOSLING I will be in touch in a few days when I finish filing my report. I will as the Chief of Police to make sure a cruiser passes by your property a few times each night. Have a good day.


Good bye.



Everything in Ralph’s apartment is neatly in place. He is a neat freak and has to have everything in place so he can find it when he wants to. He is neat to the point of obsession.Ralph and Jennifer are sitting at the kitchen table and talking.


RALPH LOGGINS You know Jennifer when people called me retarded, and retro, I was very hurt that they seemed to make fun of me for being different. (MORE) 75.

RALPH LOGGINS (CONT’D) Since then I have the last laugh by making a product that is making us millions of dollars yearly, and I used that stupid name Retro, and turned it into a Super Hero product. Now what do I do? Things almost seemed to easy with all the money I have.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Why don’t we reach out to the schools in Connecticut, and teach them how to feel like a Super Hero with good work values and personal respect for themselves?

RALPH LOGGINS That is a great idea Jennifer. How do we do that?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Let’s run a State wide contest to determine a Super Hero who had done something for someone else that deserves recognition with the Captain Retro Super Hero Award. We can give them a red cape with Captain Retro Super Hero on the back, and money in the form of a scholarship to use at any school or college they wish to attend.

RALPH LOGGINS How are we going to do that and travel around the State promoting our campaign for Super-Heros?

JENNIFER LOGGINS We could put Tom in charge more and ask mom and dad if they want to get involved with the factory and shipping. We could pay dad more money than he makes from the State and allow him to become involved in something his son created. Mom is good at bookkeeping, so she could take over the accounts payable and receivable. How does that sound for a plan. Meanwhile, you and I can travel around the State to Elementary schools, Middle schools and maybe high schools? 76.

RALPH LOGGINS Can I dress up as a Super-hero?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Why not you are the CEO? Let’s show kids that they can dream, and make their dreams come true. Let’s show them the Capt Retro Cube, and allow them to invent something they can make and sell.

RALPH LOGGINS Cool, I am excited already. You are a genius Sister Jennifer.

JENNIFER LOGGINS I have a lot to do first. I need to talk with mom and dad about our idea, and then I need to hire someone to work with me on the State wide campaign for Developing Good Super Heros. We have to create flyers and send letters to all the Superintendents of School districts and school principals to generate interest. If we put something like a donation to the school of $1,000 for technology equipment at their school for participating in the Super Hero Program.

A week later.

JENNIFER LOGGINS (CONT’D) Mom have you got a minute? Ralph, Tom and I have an offer to make. We want to take the Capt Retro Cube and Personality Development program state-wide to all the public and private schools with presentations and clinics where we can encourage kids of all ages to try and invent something useful and perhaps marketable like the Capt. Retro Cube.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS That sounds wonderful. I am so happy for all three of you working together. How can I help?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Ralph, Tom and I want you and dad to join us in running the Capt. Retro Cube factory and accounts. (MORE) 77.

JENNIFER LOGGINS (CONT’D) We will pay you more than you are earning from the State of Connecticut, with full benefits.

Tom is being promoted to factory manager and we cannot travel around the State without someone we trust to take over the shipping and accounts while we travel to schools and deliver our Super Hero message for all students to allow themselves to dream and come up with inventions.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Wow, that is a great offer, but I have to talk it over with your father first to see if he is onboard.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Thanks Mom. We can be the Loggins family working together as partners in a multi-million dollar business. Did I tell you the Toys and Tools tried to buy us out by the way for millions of dollars for the patient and full access to selling the Capt. Retro Cube world-wide.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS Really? I didn’t know. What a great offer. Did you accept?

JENNIFER LOGGINS No, we turned them down, because Ralph needs something to do the rest of his life and building the Capt. Retro Cube is his mission in life. We decided that we could take people laughing at a Super Hero and turn it into something positive like personality development clinics and encouraging all students normal or with learning disabilities to dream and follow through with their dreams like Ralph did with his life.

JILL ELIZABETH LOGGINS I am so very touched at your ideas Jennifer. You make me very proud to be your mother. I will talk to you dad tonight. 78.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Thanks mom. See you later.



Jennifer, Ralph and Tom’s parents join the Capt. Retro Cube corporation and help to run the program while Jennifer and Ralph and staff tour the State of Conn. Public and private schools with the Super-Hero Personality Booster Days. A thousand dollar donation is offered each school that has any student in its school that qualifies with an invention that is accepted in the State finals; whether they win first or not.


JENNIFER LOGGINS Ralph we are going on our first Capt. Retro Cube clinic today at two schools in Stamford, Conn.

RALPH LOGGINS That sounds great. I have been working on my speech and costume. This should be fun.

JENNIFER LOGGINS We are taking two vans. One van will carry us and the music and setup staff for the clinic. The second van will carry free Capt. Retro Cubes for everyone in each school. About 1800 cubes is what we estimate. The Principal of each school will introduce you and I to the students and they I will tell them how you won the Powerball lottery and put your winnings to a good cause helping other autistic children and adults with an electronic fidget cube device.

RALPH LOGGINS My job is to explain how the cube works. Should we hand the cubes out first or after the clinic.

JENNIFER LOGGINS If we hand the cubes out before the speeches they will not be listening as they play with the cubes. 79.

RALPH LOGGINS Right, good idea. How far is Stanford?

JENNIFER LOGGINS About an hour south of New Town.

RALPH LOGGINS Did you pack the red capes with the Captain Retro logo on them?

JENNIFER LOGGINS Yup, we have 500 capes for outstanding students that the Principal and teachers have identified as helping other students and setting a positive example to other students.




PRINCIPAL TOM WATES, COLUMBUS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (45) (Speaking over the PA system) Attention students and teachers. We are having a special assembly program today at 9:30 in ten minutes. The young CEO of Capt.

Retro Cubes will be here with his support team to celebrate Super Hero day. All the students in every class that have been identified as deserving of the Capt. Retro Award will be given a free Capt. Retro Cube and a Super Hero Cape with the Capt. Retro logo on the back.

30 minutes later.

PRINCIPAL TOM WATES, COLUMBUS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (CONT’D) Welcome students and teachers. I have the proud honor to introduce the Sister of CEO Ralph Loggins, Jennifer Loggins. Jennifer will tell you a little about her brother and how special his life has been. (MORE) 80.

PRINCIPAL TOM WATES, COLUMBUS Please pay careful attention to what they have to say. After their talks we will have all the Capt.

Retro award winners come up here on the stage to accept their awards for being a Super hero to other students. And here is Ms. Jennifer Loggins

JENNIFER LOGGINS Good morning students of Columbus Elementary School. My brother Ralph and I and our support staff are happy to be here today to talk about giving to your fellow students and being a Super-hero, dreaming and fulfilling your dreams. Let me tell you a little about my brother Ralph. Ralph was born slightly autistic and the Doctors at that time 23 years ago did not know what to do for autistic children. My mother had to go to many Doctors to find out what she could do for Ralph. Being autistic is about seeing things differently than others. Sometimes clothes rubbing against Ralph’s skin bothers him. Being social is very difficult for him also. He is exceptionally bright when it comes to Math and memorizing things but Foreign Language is hard for him. Our family has always been supportive of Ralph even when he has a melt down in a stressful situation. It was Ralph who after reading a lot of articles on the odds of winning a lottery can be predicted to some extent, so he applied a formula he learned from a Brazilian Professor in an online article to the Connecticut Powerball Lottery. The formula applied a formula based on the numbers that had shown up in the last two years of the Powerball Lottery and predicted the best choices at that time to win. Ralph purchased $50 dollars in Powerball lottery tickets three years ago and believe it or not he won $170 million dollars. How about that? Let’s give Ralph a big hand. (MORE) 81.

JENNIFER LOGGINS (CONT’D) What did Ralph do with all the money? He invented a tool or fidget toy for autistic children and adults and people that had learning disabilities or just nervous habits to help them focus or destress. I am going to let Ralph explain to you how the Capt. Retro Cube got it’s name, and how the electronic functions work. Here is my brother CEO Ralph Loggins. Let’s give him a big hand. (Clapping)

RALPH LOGGINS Hi everyone. Glad to be here today. Lots of people ask, how did I come up with the name Captain Retro. Well, people used to always call me names for being autistic and different in school. They used to call me retarded, and it hurt me. Why they did not like me. They called me a retro too. When I won the Powerball lottery, everyone in the world wanted me to give them money. They were so jealous I got more, and more insults such as retard, retarded, retro, and Captain Retro. I was depressed at all the name calling, just because I was rich and they were not. I decided to take something negative and turn it into something positive, so I invented the cube for fidgeting for autistic students and adults. It also works well for nervous people. I called the electronic cube the Capt. Retro Cube to make all those names people called me become something positive instead. Here is the cube (holding it up in the air) Each one of you that have been identified as giving to your fellow students and supporting them and not being selfish get one of these cubes free today. On the top of the cube is a squeeze button and on the bottom of the cube also. When you are having stress you squeeze the two buttons and the cube reads 1-10 in a small meter with 10 being highly stressed and 1 being no stress. The Capt. (MORE) 82.

RALPH LOGGINS (CONT’D) Retro cube also has calming features like a soft vibration mode or the soft low sound mode. One side has a rough surface for rubbing your hand across or a finger to help focus. The battery is hooked up to a tiny solar sensor which charges the battery if left out in the sun. A clip is attached to one corner to secure it to a lanyard to put around your neck so you don’t lose your cube. Lastly, the cube is small enough to put in your pocket and it has a location sensor which works with any iPhone to identify your location on a map, so in case you get lost your parents can easily find you on their iPhone. Lastly, the cape I am wearing is to remind you that anyone can become a Super-hero if they dream and treat other people with respect and loyalty. Every winner of the Capt. Retro Award today in every classroom will receive a free Super-hero Cape. Maybe we can set up Super-hero day every year at your school to encourage treating your friends with respect and especially students with autism and learning disabilities. I am going to give the mic to your Principal to call up the Capt. Retro award winners to come up to the stage and receive their free cube and cape. Let’s give all the winner now and future winner a big hand. Thank you.

PRINCIPAL TOM WATES, COLUMBUS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Thank you CEO Ralph Loggins and Jennifer Loggins. And now I am going to announce the 575 students that are going to be honored today.

After all 550 students came up on the stage, and received their award a group photo was taken and the Principal thanked everyone for coming and dismissed them back to their classrooms. 83.

PRINCIPAL TOM WATES, COLUMBUS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (CONT’D) On a personal note I want to thank you Ralph and Jennifer for providing a positive image for our students to copy Your visit today has been a real positive boost for our school spirit. Thank you and come again next year.

RALPH LOGGINS It has been our pleasure Principal Wates.

JENNIFER LOGGINS Well we have to run. We have another school assembly in an hour from now. Thank you Principal Wates.

Ralph, Jennifer and their support staff pack up and leave for the next school.

RALPH LOGGINS I am so glad I managed to get my whole speech out without mumbling.

JENNIFER LOGGINS You did great Ralph. I was a little nervous too. Now Captain Retro, Super Hero has become a house-hold name. You did well brother despite all the criticism you stood up to the bullies and shamed them.


Health Education for Junior High and High School in America 2021.

Health Education 2021

by Dr. Pelham Mead III

I was fortunate in 1980 and 1985 to be paid by East Ramapo Central School district to rewrite the Health Education district wide curriculum in Junior high and Senior high.In the early 1980’s to the early 1990, AIDS was the major factor constantly changing in the Health Curriculum. Ebola came later . When science caught up with the cause of the HIV AIds virus and a cocktail of drugs kept the virus under control, interest went down hill.This is my HEALTH Education Curriculum recommendations for now 2021 and the next ten years.

1- Pandemic, causes, cures and safety.

2-Future Viruses and how we will deal with them.

3- Global Health Issues, especially China and Africa

.4- Alcohol abuse

5-The drug abuses of the 2021 era, Meth, marijuana, cocaine, Heroine, crack.

6-Legalization of Marijuana in many States.

7- Sex among teenagers, diseases, treatment, cures, new trends.

8-Sex among College students, new trends, diseases, RAPE, rape drugs.

9-Smoking, new electronic smoking dangers, 2x American cigarettes and caffeine effects on the body.

10-Cancer the good old killer.


12-Heart disease.

\13-Lung DIseases

14-Medical insurance in the USA and the World.

15-Health trends in the 2021 era.

16- Dealing with death, loss of a love one.

17-Depression and treatment in the 2021 era

.18-Bi-Polar disease, paranoia and other Mental diseases and treatments.

Any Items you would like to add? Please comment.

Aero Long Kitsune, Shapeshifter

By Dr. Pelham Mead (c)2019

Aero Long is chained to a brick wall in the basement of the First Congregational Church of Salem, Mass. Water dripped down the damp wall as Aero struggled to get free. A cockroach ran across his hands which were strung high above his head. A beam of light came through the cracks in the bricks and a mouse scurried across the moldy floor.
I don’t know how much longer I can bear this pain.
In the basement across from Aero is John Alden Jr. John is the son of Pilgrim John Alden and Priscilla Mullins.
You may not have to worry much longer if these crazy witch hunters have their way. They will tie you to a chair on a pole and put you under water again and again until you drown.

How is it you were arrested for witch craft stranger?
I was in Canada trying to get some hostages released and when I returned a woman name Isabel told everyone I was a witch. I rejected her a few years ago when she thought she was in love with me.
Ahh, a woman scorned. Now you have your reward.
I plan to escape. My family on the outside is going to bribe someone to let me out of this church basement.
Perhaps you can take me with you stranger?
I will let you know when the time is right.
When the time came for John Alden Jr. to escape his friends appeared at the stairway to the basement. Quickly they unlocked John Alden Jr. From his chains.
See to the stranger on the other end of the basement. Unlock him.
What stranger? The chains on the wall are empty, and there is no one there. Wait, there is a fox. What the hell is a fox doing in the basement?
We have no time to figure it out. Run for daylight before we are discovered.
Right behind the group of men the fox scampered up the stairs and into the church courtyard never to be seen again.
We are free. Grab your horse John and let us be gone. Y
Finally, a horse to freedom. Ride on steed.
Running behind the men on horses a red fox scampered off into the woods, free at last.

SCENE 1-INT. DAY- JULY 14, 1763
Edward Bancroft runs away from his physician apprentice at age 16 and sails for Dutch Giana to seek a new life.
Ahh the smell of the sea and the endless horizon of the ocean is the life to be.
It doesn’t smell so great when you have to climb them masts high in the air to drop the sails. I have been a seaman all my life and I can’t smell the ocean from the deck varnish.
Well it is all new to me after living in New England all my life.
Note: The next day a storm hit and most of the crew and passengers had to stay below because of the waves splashing over the deck and washing everything no tied down into the ocean. The ship swayed from side to side in an unnatural rocking motion. Every other wave the ship would life out of the waves and come thundering down with a loud clapping sound in the trough of another wave. Most of the passengers including Edward Bancroft were all heaving their guts out.
How is that ocean smell treating you matey? Ha…storms like this make a man out of you in no time. Just hold onto the posts for dear life. The storm should be gone by tomorrow. Bear with it matey.
I think my insides are going to turn themselves inside out. How much longer is this storm going to last?
Here eat some of this ginger. It will settle your stomach and help you feel better during the storm.
Thank you Mr. Pike.
Sometime during the storm seaman Rogers went to look for Mr Bancroft who seemed to have disappeared from below deck.
Mr. Pike have you seen Mr. Bancroft lately? I looked below and I cannot find him. Do you know where he is?
Nope, I haven’t seen him for several hours Mr. Rogers.
Wait what is that over there in the corner of the storage? It looks like a red fox. How the hell could a red fox get aboard this vessel? Pike call the Quartermaster. We have a red fox on board.
There are no red foxes on board matey. You must have been drinking too much rum.
I swear it was a red fox. I saw. Now it has disappeared. I must have imagined it. Ahhh Mr. Bancroft I have been looking for you.
The storm departed after a day. Several weeks later the brig named Success arrived in Dutch Guiana.
Welcome Mr. Bancroft. We don’t get many white settlers here in Dutch Guiana. What do you plan to do for a living sir?
I am well read in medicine, and plan to provide medical services on the plantations. I was a Physician’s apprentice for two years.
We are in great need of medical services since we have no doctors on the island. I recommend you try the plantations on the Canoe river near Berbice sir.
That I will do. Than you sir.
After a short boat ride down the Canje river, Bancroft arrived at a plantation owned by Abraham Van Peere.
Well, who do we have here today? A white man? Where do you come from son, and why are you here in Dutch Guiana?
I am a student of the medical profession and I have come to offer my services to you and your family, and your slaves.
We are in need of a doctor. Malaria and many other disease are common in the jungles of Guiana. You are welcome Mr. Bancroft. The maid will show you to your bedroom on the second floor of the manor house. When you get settled I want you to look after a dozen of my slaves who have malaria.
I have a small amount of quinine with me , but we will need to import some more quinine to fight malaria.
I will see to it that you get all the quinine you need. Malaria is killing off half of my slaves.
With only two years of experience as a physician’s apprentice Edward Bancroft began treating plantation slaves and Dutch colonists. The slaves could not pronounce Bancroft so they called Edward Master. He did not like being called Master so he asked the saves to call him Mr. Fox. The saves made Mr. Fox into mitta-fox.
Samuel my name is Edward Bancroft and I am the doctor for Master Peere’s slaves.
Yes, m-sob you Doctor. Me head man.
You tell the other slaves that I am here to help them. I am not master. I am doctor here to help them.
Yes, M-sob. What you name?
Bancroft is a hard English word to say so just call me Mr. Fox.
Mitta Fox, yes small smart animal.
Yes very smart. Do you have any slaves that are sick? I would like to cure them
Yes m-sob, mitta Fox come with me.
Samuel and Edward entered a run down shack with a palm
Thatched roof, and a dirt floor. Lying on a bed sweating, and in pain
was a male slave named Jumbo. He had malaria
Edward could tell from the symptoms.
Here is some medicine to mix with a glass of water. Samuel tell him to take the medicine three times a day, and it will make him well.
Yes mitta fox. I do. Jumbo you take medicine from Doctore.
Two weeks later Jumbo recovered and was working in the plantation again. Plantation owner Van Peere was impressed how efficient Edward was with the slaves. Edward also cured Van Peere’s wife of malaria.
I am indebted to you Mr. Bancroft for saving my wife Maria’s life. She was dying of malaria until you gave her medicine. I understand you also saved my slave Jumbo’s life too. You are welcome to join me at the dinner table when ever you wish.
Thank you Mr. Van Peere. I was just doing my job as plantation Doctor.
Doctor Bancroft or Mr. Fox as the slaves call you. You are a God-sent with your medicine and modern knowledge of curing diseases. I too am indebted to you for saving my life from malaria.
Quinine is the cure for quinine Mrs. Van Peere. I had your husband order more of it from America.
I have more plantations further up Canje and Berbice rivers if you want to treat my slaves on those plantations? For now feel free to enjoy the life of a gentlemen in Dutch Guiana.
Thank you Mr Van Peere.
You will be paid in sterling silver each month which you can save since all your food and housing will be provided for by me.
I ask only that you purchase some medical manuals for me to read while I am treating the slaves and colonists.
What every medical books you want I will have shipped directly from Britain for you.
Thank you Sir.
Several months later Edward came into conflict with the slave shaman named King John.
mitta-fox. I am King John, shaman for all slaves on plantation.
I am glad to meet you King John. I am doctore here to help cure sick slaves. I do not wish to interfere with your healing practices. Me heal.
I see in dream that you have special healing powers Doctore Fox Why do you call yourself mitta Fox? Are you really a Fox?
Most slaves cannot say my English name Bancroft so I chose a simple name Fox for them to use. Mitta fox is all they could pronounce.
King John, being a shaman, felt that was something unusual about this Englishman called Fox, and he was right. When stressed Edward Bancroft could change he shape from a man into a red fox. It was his method of escape, and as a fox he was able to easily go undetected in the night or day. One night Edward was called out to deliver a child to a slave woman named Buela. It was a difficult birth and the slave was in much pain. The shaman King John appeared, and gave Buela some herbs that helped in the pain. Edward was upset that King John had upset his delivery of the baby. Edward was so stressed that he went outside the shack and turned into a Fox and ran away into the forest.
Mitta Fox, we missed you last night. Buela had a healthy boy after I gave her herbs to kill the pain. Where did you go mitta Fox? The baby came and I had to deliver it. It was a boy, and then named him Uriel.
I was not feeling well and had to return to the manor house to rest. I am sorry I was not there for the birth.
You are strange English. There is something about you that makes me nervous.

Edward said nothing. From that day on King John was always asking questions about Edward Bancroft alias Mr. Fox.
A year after Edward began as plantation Doctor he decided to move up the Berbice river to two other plantations owned by Van Peere.
Mr. Van Peere, I have decided to move further up the Berbice river to assist the slaves on your two plantations there.
I would be most grateful for you to treat my slaves on the Berbice river plantations. Many slaves have died of many jungle diseases, and I need you to cure them.
I will leave tomorrow then.
The next day Edward Bancroft alias Mr Fox took a boat headed upriver on the Berbice river to the two plantations that Mr. Van Peere owned. When He got there tension was in the air and a slave revolution was about to begin.
The slaves are acting very strangely on these Berbice plantations. They wouldn’t talk to me for some reason.
Big Tom was a big 280 pound black slave with many scars on his back from whippings. His hair was close cut and he had a huge nose and very dark skin.
English man, you go back to the coast. Bad things about to happen. Slaves unhappy here.
I bring medicine to cure jungle disease.
Not want medicine English. You go back to the coast now.
Does anyone know what is going on here on these plantations? The slaves seem like they are hiding something. They are very angry for some reason.
Many whippings English.
I have a letter of introduction to the plantation Master to allow me to treat colonists and slaves, and to provide me room and food during my stay.
I see Mr. Von Peere sent you. Welcome Mr. Bancroft or shall I say Doctor Bancroft? We are having a situation here on the plantations which may require the military to assist us. Word is that the slaves are going to revolt. We cannot allow that.
The next day a slave was tied to a pole and whipped with a leather bull whip.
Why is that slave being whipped?
He attempted to escape and we caught him in the jungle.
A week after Edward arrived at the Berbice river plantations inland, several hundred slaves raided the manor house on one of the plantations. The Plantation owner had to call in the military from neighboring counties.
Sound the alarm and break out the rifles. Several hundred slaves have walked off the plantation and are headed to the manor house. We must protect the manor house. Petre you take a boat downriver to Mr. Van Peere and tell him we need an Army of soldiers to put down this rebellion immediately.
Yes Boss. I take the boat.

The army is coming. The army is coming. Run for ya life.
What is going on sir?
The slaves are revoting. You need to stay indoors Mr. Bancroft. It isn’t safe for white folk to go out until the slaves are subdued.
Edward Bancroft had a perfect view of the plantation from his bedroom window on the second floor of the manor house.
I can’t believe the army cut the slaves down with machetes like they were cutting meat. It is a bloody revolution the slaves were losing. The slaves had only farm tools and the army had guns, cannons, swords and machetes. They cut the runaway slaves down like wooden pegs. Dead bodies of slaves were lying all over the plantation fields. It was a massacre. The slaves quarters and part of the coffee field had turned into a lake of blood. Slave body parts were everywhere. It was a scene from Hell, and beyond. Edward felt sick to his stomach. Turning into a red Fox, Edward ran to the slaves quarters to warn them an army of mercenaries was coming up the river to kill anyone who resisted. He never considered that a talking Fox would scare the wits out of the slaves. He ran as fast as he could run toward the slave huts. Run, run for your lives soldiers are coming up the river to put down the revolution. Put down your weapons and surrender or run into the jungle. You cannot win, there are too man soldiers.
Sarah was a tall thin negro slave with light brown skin and a wide African nose with a ring through it. Her hair was short and kinky and black.
Look it is a Fox, and it talks. This is an omen from the Devil. We are doomed. Run for your lives.
So you have appeared again Red Fox? Why do you warn us? Do I know you Red Fox? We will be successful in our revolt. We outnumber the whites by ten to one. They cannot win.
(In the shape of a Red Fox) You are wrong wise one. The soldiers have field cannons that can kill 50 slaves at a time. The Dutch can always replace the slaves by buying more slaves at the market. Out of fear the white man has to put down this rebellion. You can run into the jungle, and hide there or surrender with a white flag. Do you hear the cannon in the distance. The cannon balls will flatten every slave hut here, and cut down 30-50 slaves at a time. You cannot win. Surrender. I will leave you now to decide your fate.
Edward returned to the manor house and when he got back to his bedroom he changed back into his human form.
I am a Doctor, and there is nothing I can do here in this slave rebellion. I will leave tomorrow at Sun rise.
The next day Edward Bancroft fled back down river from the Berbice river plantations to the coast plantations of Abraham Von Peere.
Welcome back Mr. Bancroft. I heard there was a slave revolt on my plantations. I had to sent in the Army to tame the slaves.
Your army sir killed hundreds of unarmed slaves. I watched the bloody massacre from my bedroom window.
The slaves outnumber the whites ten to one and we cannot allow the to take over or they will kill every white in Dutch Guiana. We have to come down hard on slave revolts or they will kill us all.
Having saved several hundred British pounds, Bancroft takes a year off as a Doctor and travels around Dutch Giana observing and collecting the plant life, animals and natives. He begins writing a three volume book about his research in Dutch Giana. While traveling around Dutch Giana Bancroft comes across the Macusi tribe in the jungles of Dutch Giana. The Macusi were known to have the strongest poison for their arrows. Bancroft wanted to learn how to make the curari poison but the shaman would not reveal the plant or process.
In a local Macusi tribal village deep in the jungles of Dutch Giana. Edward with a local guide enter a Macusi village. A macusi native approaches them with a head piece of beautiful bird feathers. His body is marked with many tattoos and he is wearing only a breech cloth.
I am Doctore Bancroft. I want to meet your shaman.
What do you want of me white man?
I have beads as a gift to you. I want to learn about your tribe and it’s medicines, and the poison you use on your arrows and blow guns.
Macusi arrow poison is a tribal secret that cannot be told, white man.
Perhaps if I give you some gifts for you to tell me the secret of your arrow poison.
No gifts. Secret and very dangerous. Gods of Macusi protect poison.
The shaman is not going to give you the secret to the Macusi arrow poison no matter how many gifts you give him. He wants you to sit at the fire and drink native drink masato. Be careful boss the drink is very powerful. To refuse it is considered an insult.
Thank you Jim Bob for keeping me informed. Tell the shaman I accept his invitation to sit down with him and drink his masato.
Note: Masato is an alcoholic drink made from yuca which is chewed and then spit into a container to ferment.Many Amazon Indians drink masato.
We sit. Drink Masato.
Good. White man drink. We talk.
What did he say Jim Bob?
He invites you to sit and drink masato with him.
I will try the masato. It really has a kick to it. Wow, I just got a rush to my head after one sip. This drink is really strong.
The Macusi make the drink from fermented yucca.
After several hours Edward felt drunk from drinking the masato.
Ask the shaman if we could stay for a few days to observe their tribe.
(In Macusi language) White man thanks the shaman for his drink. May we stay tonight and learn the ways of the Macusi?
(In Macusi language) White man, and maroon welcome to say. We have empty hut for you to sleep tonight.
What did he say Jim Bob?
He welcomes us and has an empty hut for us to stay tonight.
Thank God. I am very drunk and cannot even focus my vision. That drink was very powerful. Let’s thank the shaman and retire for the night. I feel sick.
(In Macusi language) Thank you shaman. We accept your offer and will stay here tonight in your empty hut.
(In Macusi language) Come follow me white man and maroon and I will show you to your hut.
The next morning Edward woke up with a tremendous headache.
My head is killing me. That macusi drink was very powerful. I need to learn how the natives make it. Most important I need to find our what the arrow poison is made of and how to make it.
The shaman will never give up the secret to their arrow poison.
We will see about that. I have some magic of my own. Come let’s see what the shaman is up to today.
(In macusi language) Good morning shaman. Thank you for the lodging last night.
(In Macusi language) Come maroon. You and white man will join us in eating. We killed a wild pig the other day and roasted it for the whole village to eat. Come, you are welcome.
What did he say?
He wants us to join him in eating a wild boar they roasted.
Fine I am starved.
About 40 macusi men and women sat around a huge fire spit with a wild boar being roasted. Various jungle fruits and plants were also being cooked on the fire.
This wild pig is delicious and I am starved. I gave the shaman some beads and other gifts.
Gifts will not get the shaman to give up the secret of their arrow poison. You need to do something amazing that will scare the shaman showing you have magic. More magic than the shaman has.
I am going to have to think about it. Eat up this pig is delicious.
After the dinner the shaman, Bancroft, and the maroon guide sat and talked macusi tribal life. It was then that Edward realized that the only way to get the secret arrow poison was to scare the hell out of the shaman. He would have to reveal that he was a shape-shifter who could turn into a red fox at will and back again. Edward realized that he could not let Jim Bob see this secret, so he waited until Jim Bob went back to the hut to rest that night. It was then that Edward would reveal himself as a white man magician.
I am going to the hut to lay down master.
I will be along shortly. I have a few things to discuss with the shaman.
OK, Master. I will wait in the hut.
After Jim Bob left, Edward attempted to communicate with the shaman with sign language.
Shaman, I am a white man wizard with many magical powers which I will show to you, if you promise to reveal the secret of the arrow poison.
Shaman cannot reveal secret of poison.
Upon realizing the shaman was not going to change his mind Edward focused his mind and turned himself into a red fox in front of the shaman.
You see shaman my magic is more powerful than your magic. I am a fox now that can talk like a white man. As a fox I can run faster, see farther and smell 10x better.
Gods above, you are a devil creature. Do not eat me.
I will not eat you. See I am back in the shape of a white man again. Did my magic impress you shaman?
You have the power of black magic white man. I will show you the secret of the arrow poison. After we make the poison from a local vine you can carry the black tar like substance in a bamboo tube safely. You cannot touch or inhale the fumes of the poison or it will kill you. There is no medicine to stop the poison.
You have no medicine to stop the poison?
We gather the bark of this vine and it’s apples and cook it over a fire. We add some other tree bark and the crushed fangs of a snake along with ants that bite. Mixed together the poison is spread on a leaf and rubbed on an arrow. At no time can you touch the poison or you will die. Now you can keep your fox magic away from me.

You are safe my friend. I want to bring some bamboo tubes of poison back with me. I offer you some knives made by white men to trade for the arrow poison.
This is a good trade white man. Now you must take the poison and go from this village before the Gods are angry with me for revealing the secret to our poison.
Silas before you leave for Paris, France, I have a list of several men I want you to look up when you get to France to help you achieve your goals. Since you cannot speak French, I highly recommend Dr. Edward Bancroft of London to help interpret any French correspondence. Arthur Lee a true Virginian is another man than can be helpful. Others friends of mine are on this list I am giving you.
Thank you Dr. Franklin. I realize I am taking on a great responsibility seeking credit in France for military supplies and perhaps Spain also. I am grateful for your assistance Dr. Franklin.
Letter to Edward Bancroft
Turns into a Fox to avoid the pain from malaria
Gets sick again. Turns into a Fox again
Deane discusses needs of the colonies. Bancroft waits outside.
Paul Wentworth recruits Bancroft as a spy for the British. Offers payment. Bancroft sends Lord North and Lord Egan a long report on his activities with Silas Deane in Paris, France.

After Silas Deane was sent to France in June 1776, Congress decided to send a committee of three to represent the Colonies with a treaty with France and Spain. Benjamin Franklin was sent from Philadelphia and Arthur Lee, a Virginian, was living in London, England at the time. He was instructed to meet Deane and Franklin in Paris, France as soon as possible.
It is hereby decided by Congress to send a committee of three delegates to Paris, France. Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Mr. Arthur Lee, and…. It will be their duty to secure supplies for the Continental Army and to establish credit in France, Prussia, and Spain.
Later that day in Franklin’s home.
Sarah, I have been called by the Continental congress to travel to France to help direct the negotiations between France and the American Colonies. I would like to take my Grandson Temple, and your son William with me to get a good Continental education at the private schools in France and Switzerland. I hope you are agreeable to let you six year old son accompany me to Europe. It will be an opportunity of a life-time to see Paris, and all of Europe. No school or tutoring in the Colonies with the treat of War can match the life experiences of being in France.
Sara Franklin was a beautiful young lady raised by her father to be a shining example of the rich and wealthy in the Colonies. She wore many different wigs and had a thin face with a long nose and stood five feet four inches tall.
I am sure William would love to sail in a boat across the ocean to France with you father. I am sure you will take good care of him, and ensure a good education in France. You have my permission to take William to Paris, France, father.
Thank you Sarah. Start packing William. We depart tomorrow at high tide.
Delays in ship arriving. Takes a small fishing boat to port in France. Travels overland to Paris.

SCENE 1- Int.-Day- Franklin’s Office Paris.
Paul Wentworth and Edward Bancroft stroll through the Tulleries gardens in Paris, France deciding how Bancroft will get his messages to Wentworth without any French or American spies knowing it.
Edward Bancroft and his spy handler Paul Wentworth were strolling in the Tulleries gardens in Paris, France deciding how Bancroft will communicate with Wentworth.
Edward, I am afraid I will have to leave Paris and return to London, England. There are many French spies that might soon arrest me for spying. I am often followed by strangers who are following my every move. We need to find a way for you to communicate with me after I leave Paris.
I am sorry to see you leave. We made a good team spying on the Americans here in Paris. What do you suggest for a new method of communicating valuable information to you after you depart for London?
Do you see that tree over there? It is hollow down toward it’s roots. I will have a jar placed in the hollow portion of the tree and a string will be tied around the jar so you can retrieve it. When you have valuable information you are to come to the gardens and seek out this tree. Look for the string which will have a stick on the end to prevent the jar from falling to far inside the hollow tree. Pull the string up and take the jar out and put your message in the jar. Secure the lid and lower the jar back down inside the tree. My operatives will come by once a week to pick up the messages and to also leave messages from me. Use the premise of writing to your mistress in London as an excuse for the letter just in case the letter is intercepted. Use the invisible ink and write between the lines the real information about the Americans that you have. I will then use lemon juice to decipher the invisible ink in London when I get the letter. I am departing for London tomorrow on a frigate. You are on your own from this point on in Paris and you will be our only spy in France due to the recall of all British spies to London by Lord Eden.
When will you have the jar in the tree in place?
My secretary will place the jar in the tree on a string tomorrow before we depart for London. Feel free to use this method of reporting, but be careful because you may be watched by French or American spies.
I wish you well on your voyage back to London. I will remain in Paris as long as needed. Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane all trust me completely and I have made myself an important contribution to the American delegation by translating French documents into English for them and helping to secure supplies for the Continental American Army.
We need to know everything about the Franco-American alliance, what ships are leaving French ports bound for the American Colonies, any trade between the Americans and the Caribbean islands. In addition we need to be aware of any credit the French and or Spanish give to the Americans to buy arms. Sent us any copies or summaries of Silas Deane’s letters to the Colonies or Benjamin Franklin. I must leave you now to pack my bags in preparation for my departure tomorrow to return to London. Just in case we are followed I will take another path to return to my hotel as should you.
I will do the best I can in reporting Silas Deane’s activities in securing credit for the Colonies to purchase artillery and guns from the French and Spanish. Have a safe voyage Paul.
At this point Bancroft and Wentworth parted ways in the park.
SCENE 2- EXT. NIGHT- 9:00 P.M..
One week later, Edward Bancroft is about to make his first letter drop into the jar in the hollow tree in Tuilleries gardens. He is paranoid about French spies seeing him leave the hotel at night. The fear of being caught and shot as a spy intensifies to the point that he changes into a Fox and runs off into the night in the direction of the Tuilleries gardens.
I must change into a Red Fox to avoid being seen by any French Spies. My nerves are killing me, but I must inform Paul that Deane has received over a million livre from the French government and a million from the Spanish government to purchase canons and rifles for the Continental army. Let me see if I got everything right in my letter. Dearest beloved, I have missed you very much over these past months. I hope to return to London soon so we can meet and make love again. You are always on my mind. Love and kisses. John. I must address the envelop to M. Richards. Now for the invisible ink.(Invisible Ink between the lines of the letter) Deane has secured credit 1 mil. To purchase 100 canons and 300 rifles from the French and Spanish government. He is traveling to Holland to secure the purchases in two days. Now to become a Red Fox. I will place the envelope in my mouth and carry it to the hollow tree. Now I must depart. It is only 3.7 Kilometers from the Valentinois hotel to the Tuilleries Gardens. I will run along the Seine river, and then cross over one of the bridges to the other side to get to the gardens. It will be a short run for a Fox.
The red fox jumps out the window onto the balcony and down to the ground and runs off into the darkness.
No one has noticed me and that is good. Now to pull the string out of the hollow tree. Wait I hear something. No, it is just the wind in the trees. Taking the lid off the jar is harder than I thought. Now to put the letter in the jar and put the lid back on and lower the jar into the tree using my mouth. Ahh it is done. Time to run back to the hotel.
Edward returns to the hotel undetected around 10:00 p.m.
And now I must return to my human self. My mission is complete. I am exhausted now, and must rest. Tomorrow Paul’s operative will get the message and send it by boat to London.

Debates over Article 11 and 12 in the draft version of the treaty with France.
Franklin’s view. Arthur Lee’s opinion. Silas Deane’s opinion from letters.Article 11: Pledge to honor land claims[edit]
Article 11 pledges to honor the lands claims of both nations forever into the future with the United States guaranteeing full support of France’s current land claims, and any lands they may acquire during the war, against all other nations, and France in turn pledging support for the United States land claims and guaranteeing to help preserve the country’s “liberty, Sovereignty, and Independence absolute, and unlimited, as well in Matters of Government as commerce.”[10]

Article 12–13: Effective dates of the treaty, ratification, and signing delegates[edit]
Article 12 establishes the agreement as a conditional treaty which will only take effect upon a declaration of war between France and Britain, and further makes the land, and diplomatic guarantees laid out in the treaty dependent upon the completion of The American Revolutionary War and a peace treaty which formally establishes each nation’s land possessions.[10]

Rumors About the Franco-American alliance were spreading around Paris. Vergennes the French minister realized that he could no longer keep the alliance secret so in March, 1778, he makes the treaties with the American colonies public.

I will announce today our treaty with the American colonies to quiet down all the gossip in Paris. This will allow me to expel the English Ambassador Stormont and his staff back to London. It gives me great pleasure to get rid of all the British spies finally.
Later on the British Ambassador to France, English Ambassador Stormont receives the correspondence from Vergennes the French Minister to leave France immediately.
Damm the French have signed a treaty with the American Colonies and Vergennes the French Minister is ordering us out of the country immediately. Inform the staff to pack up all our documents. We are leaving for London tomorrow on March 22, 1778. Burn any unnecessary documents immediately. It is over. I just received a formal notice from the Crown to vacate our hotel immediately.
The scene switches to King Louis XVI in the Versailles castle which is twenty miles outside Paris, France.
You majesty may I introduce the ambassadors from the American Colonies: Mr. Benjamin Franklin, Mr. Silas Deane, Mr. Arthur Lee, Mr. William Lee, and Mr. Ralph Izard along with their entourage.
Benjamin Franklin is 70 years of age and well known in France thanks to his Electrical experiments which were published several years before. His hair is completely white and thin and balding at the top.
You majesty, we thank you for granting us a private audience. We welcome and rejoice in our treaty with France and your majesty. Your support will greatly help us to defeat the British.
King Louis XVI is an young man of 23 at the time, and due to his political troubles in Paris chose to move to the country to his palace known as Versailles.
Bienvenue Americans.
Come and join us in a small banquet we prepared for our new American allies.
Amazing how big this banquet is the French have provided us with. Thank you Mr. Franklin for inviting me to this special occasion.
King Louis XVI had table after table of fabulous French food served for the American guests. It was a celebration beyond all imagination.
As France signs a treaty with the Colonies, they also declare war against the British. All British diplomats are asked to leave the country. Likewise Paul Wentworth must also leave for fear of being discovered as a spy leaving only Edward Bancroft in Paris to report on the Americans.
(Sitting at a desk, writing a letter) Dear Mr. Jones, I am forced to return to London since the French signed a treaty with the American Colonies. All British diplomats have been asked to leave the country and that leaves me in a dangerous position remaining in Paris. Thus I must depart for London. Continue to use the tree drop for messages and I will have my assistants pick up you letters. Good Luck. PW. There Bancroft will be our only spy in Paris now which makes him more valuable than ever. I will report this to Lord Egan in London.
Later that day Bancroft aka Mr. Jones gets the letter from Wentworth.
Ahh, a letter from Wentworth. What he is leaving Paris? That leaves only me to spy on the Americans. Damm it is going to be more dangerous than ever to get messages to Wentworth. Someday, I hope to return to London and live a normal life. I will drop another note tonight regarding the Dutch and the Americans receiving unlimited credit for building ships and shipping military supplies to the Colonies.
Later Paul Wentworth dispatches a letter to London to Lord Egan who was in charge of the British secret service.
Lord Egan, I am departing Paris since the French have signed a treaty with the Americans and expelled all British Diplomats. This puts me in a risky and unusual position and I must return to London for my own safety. Edward Bancroft aka Mr. Jones will be our only remaining British Spy in Paris upon my departure. He will continue to send letters in invisible ink to me via diplomatic courier out of Holland. Respectfully yours, P.W.
Several weeks later in London, England, Lord Egan receives Wentworth’s letter.
I am in receipt of a letter from Wentworth. He is returning to London after the French treaty with the Americans. Our only British spy in Paris is Edward Bancroft now. Correspondence will be more difficult now. Damm. His majesty will not be happy to get this news.
Benjamin Franklin begins to suspect he has a spy in his midst and writes to Julian Ritchie a woman living in a Benedictine Convent in Cambrai.
(Sitting at his desk writing a letter) Dear madam Ritchie, I hope this letter finds you well. I am engaged in writing a treaty for the American Colonies and France to help us become independent from Britain. These have been difficult time with spies everywhere. Even my vale is suspect. I cannot trust anyone here in Paris, France. I cannot speak or read French which puts me at a disadvantage, but Sir Edward Bancroft a Doctor and Scientist has been most helpful in reading French documents and writing French letters in return. Even Dr. Bancroft had been accused of being a spy due to his relations in London, England. I have invited Dr. Bancroft to Paris to continue to help me communicate with the French officials in French. I mention this to you now in the utmost confidence. How do I follow up on my suspicions I ask? Perhaps you have an opinion on my situation? I look forward to your reply. Your servant, Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Envoy to France.

Arthur lee suspects Edward Bancroft is a British spy. Arthur Lee writes a letter to Benjamin Franklin warning him that his continued reliance on Bancroft could turn out to be a disaster.
Dear Dr. Franklin, It has come to my attention that Edward Bancroft is a British Spy. You need to be cautious in using his services for everything you do is being reported to the British.
Dear Mr. Lee, I have taken your letter under consideration and find it wanting in facts. Mr. Bancroft has often provided his services at no charge and has moved his family to Paris to help support the American committee here. I cannot justify accusing him as a spy.
Congress, I have evidence that on of our colleagues in Paris is a British spy. Dr. Edward Bancroft is a criminal with regard to the United States, and I shall have him charged as such, whenever he goes within our jurisdiction. Bancroft was recruited by the British Secret service in 1776 for the sum of 200 pounds per year. I have pleaded with Dr. Franklin to stop using Dr. Bancroft as an interpreter and consultant for he truly spies for the British.
Later when Dr. Bancroft learns of Arthur Lee’s accusations.
Dear Paul, I recommend you inform Lord Eden that I am being accused of spying by Arthur Lee, Diplomat for the American committee in Paris. I suggest you have the local police arrest me, and other suspects and put me in jail for a night to thrown the suspicion of my being a spy off. Benjamin Franklin will be impressed that I fled London to go to Paris after being jailed by the British. I await your response.
Dr. Bancroft, I received your note. Be ready for tonight the local London police will be at your door and you will be arrested for spying. You will be released after one night to return to Paris to spy on the Americans. Lord North is impressed with your spying reports to date.
That night the local Police come knocking.
(Knock, knock) Open the door in the name of the Constable of London. Dr. Bancroft you are under arrest for spying. Tie him up gentlemen.
But I must protest. I am a Scientist and Author and not a spy.
Lock up this spy and make sure he gets no food tonight.
The next day.
Dr. Bancroft, prisoner 3440, you are to be released on the orders by Lord Eden. Take your coat and be gone with you.
Thank you Constable. You will not see me again.
Bancroft boards a ship and flees to Paris, France.
Dr. Franklin, I have fled to Paris to help support you and the American committee. Edward Lees charges are of course false. I was arrested as a spy in London, but manage to escape by paying off the jailer. I will not be permitted to return to London now that I am a criminal on the run from the British.
You are welcome as always Dr. Bancroft. Come sit down and have some tea with me and tell me about the prisons in London.
Thank you Dr. Franklin, you are most kind. I will be writing my wife and requesting that she and my children come to Paris to live with me. If you would I am short of funds at this time, may I borrow a small amount to pay for ship passage for my family?
Of course, by all means. I will extend you credit to purchase ships passage for your wife and family to come to Paris. They can stay at the Hotel de Valentois.
Thank you Dr. Franklin. You are most gracious.



Summary for Novel 109122, for inside cover jacket, “Autumn Winds Over Okinawa, 1945” Dr. Pelham Mead III

On the fateful day on August 31, 1945, four sailors departed the USS Antietam CV-36 on a launch headed for the shores of Okinawa. The war was officially over, and all of them wanted to transfer back to the States. In the launch were Chief Petty Officer of Machinists, Ken Mead, Seaman First Class Robert Brown, Seaman First Class Lincoln Overland, and Seaman First Class Charles Smitty. The seas were calm that day as the launch headed into the docks at Haku Bay. Atop a flagpole beyond the beach, Old Glory was rippling in the wind. The stumps of hundreds of burned out palm trees were visible beyond the white beach sands. As they approached the beach, they saw battle debris everywhere including American plane parts, and a Jap wing with the red circle on it half sunk in the sand. Huge craters pockmarked the sand where bombs had hit and exploded.

        Unbeknown to them this would become their home for over a month despite all their radio efforts calling to nearby ships. It would be a month from hell as two major typhoons hit the island causing massive damage. It would be a month from hell dodging Jap snipers. It would be a month of survival with limited food and water available, since the Navy no longer had a post on the island. All that was left was the Army, and hundreds of Okinawan civilians, and of course Jap snipers, who did not believe the war was over. Insects and disease were as much the enemy as were the Jap soldiers hiding in the limestone caves fighting to the death in honor of the Emperor. This is a story of survival in an unknown incident on the Island of Okinawa at the end of WWII.

Chapter 2 from the Novel, “Autumn Winds Over Okinawa 1945 by Dr. Pelham Mead (c) 2010, Xlibris Publishers.

Chapter 2- Arriving in Okinawa on Aug. 30, 1945

Early on the morning of Aug. 30, 1945, I could see the Kerama islands with binoculars from the bridge of the USS Antietam CV-36 aircraft carrier. Captain James Tague had called me up to the bridge to give me my temporary transfer papers that would eventually allow me to be processed for discharge. The Captain handed me the binoculars and said, ”Look out there, Chief, those are the Kerama islands that are to the west of Okinawa.”

(USS Antietam CV-36 circa 1945)

“Thank you Captain,” I said and then took the binoculars and scanned the horizon to see many little green islands on the horizon. It was for me, a thrilling sight because now I knew I would be able to get off at Okinawa, and return to Hawaii and then home to Stamford, Connecticut.  My mind drifted off for a while reflecting on all that I had seen and done in this terrible war.

I had enlisted in the Navy as a Naval Reservist on full time status on July 8, 1941 before the US entered the war.  At first I was responsible for “Search and Rescue” in Jamaica bay on Long Island in a small rescue boat. We would retrieve flyers when they crashed in the Jamaica Bay or surrounding areas off Long Island’s south shore that were in the approach path to Floyd Bennett Field. When I wasn’t doing Search and Rescue, I spent time training as an aviation machinist’s mate while at Floyd Bennett Field on Long Island. I was six months too old to become a Navy flyer so I became an aviation mechanic. I always regretted not becoming a flyer but I did get to put in a lot of training hours flying at Floyd Bennett Field for search and rescue operations. This allowed me to at least get a pilot’s license that was important in testing out how some of the planes flew after they were repaired.  My wife and son (born in June 1942) lived at home with my mother-in-law in Baisley Park, Queens, New York, and a borough of New York City.

It wasn’t until four years into the war (August 1944) that I got a transfer as Chief Petty Officer (E7) aboard the newly commissioned aircraft carrier Antietam CVS-36 (commissioned Jan. 28, 1945). I had put in a request to be transferred to the front in the Pacific to see some action rather than spend the remainder of the war state side-fishing pilots out of the water.

USS Antietam CV -36 at sea 1945

The Antietam was designed after the Essex class (long hull) fleet aircraft carrier. With a displacement of 27,100 tons and a length of 888 ft. she could reach 33 knots top speed. I was transferred in the summer of 1944 to go aboard when the Antietam was launched on August 20,1944. It was built in Philadelphia, and I had to take a train to the Philadelphia Naval yards to get there in time for the launching. I would be in charge of airplane mechanics that would take care of around 100 planes. I remember how shocked I was when I first saw how really huge the ship was while sitting in the Philadelphia Naval yard.

It was a day I will always remember. I was nervous with sweat and excited at the same time that I was finally getting to see some action.

After many shakedown cruises and repairs and crew training, the ship was finally commissioned on Jan. 28, 1945. Eventually, the entire crew aboard the Antietam would total around 3448 men.

As of now my enlistment was up, and the war was over as of August 15, 1945 when the Japanese surrendered. It was a great moment for me when Captain Tague thanked me for my service as Chief Petty Officer. I finally started to feel like I had accomplished something in this war.

The islands that surround the western coast of Okinawa dotted the horizon that day. Tokashiki-shima Island, a rather large island, was off to the left on the horizon, and Rukan-sho, a much smaller island was to the right as we approached from the south of Okinawa. The islands looked like small patches of green ovals, much like lilypads on a large pond. There were many other small islands on the horizon that I could not identify as the USS Antietam CV-36 steamed toward the captured island of Okinawa.

General Douglas McArthur signing the treaty Sept. 2, 1945

The treaty would be signed on Sept. 2, 1945 in Tokyo Harbor on the battleship USS Missouri, but the Antietam would not be going there for the signing because a mechanical problem back to Guam had forced us to drop out of the fleet that was headed toward Tokyo for the signing ceremony.

Right after the U.S. planes dropped the Atom bomb on Japan on August 6 and 9, 1945, the Russians took advantage of that opportunity and invaded Manchuria.

The situation was tense in the Yellow Sea off China and Manchuria. We were redirected to stand off the coast of China in the Yellow Sea after joining the Seventh Fleet at Okinawa, instead of going into Tokyo Harbor for the surrender signing.

When I learned of this at an officer’s briefing, I decided I did not want to leave my wife and son at home for another two or three years while I remained off the coast of China. I talked it over with some of my friends, and since the war was officially over my enlistment was also over so I could return to the States, and my family. It all sounded like a good plan.

That was all behind me now for my only thought was “Thank God it is over…the war that is.” Smitty, a sailor and good friend, a Mechanic’s Mate 1st Class was supposed to meet me at 11:00 hours to let me know if he was going ashore on Okinawa. Being a Chief Petty Officer was a big responsibility with roughly 1:00 airplanes to repair on the ship. I learned to take it in stride even when we got the “ninety day wonder fly boys” onboard who crashed the planes into the deck trying to land.  Ninety days was definitely not enough time to learn how to fly, let alone land on an aircraft carrier. They were either crashing into the sea or crashing into the deck. I kept up my flight hours just in case we needed experienced pilots, instead of these rookies.

“Smitty” Charles Johnson Smith, had put in for a transfer to Guam, and wanted to get off at Okinawa to fly back to Guam. Beauvard Browne, “Brownie” another Seaman 1st class, was the first to make up his mind to “cash in his chips,” since his enlistment was also up.  He wanted to be discharged from the Navy right away before the ship headed into the Yellow Sea for another tour of duty.  Like myself he was an older guy in his late twenties.  I was 28 at the time, and a few years older than most have the 18 and 19-year-old sailors on board.  None of us wanted to stay on the USS Antietam patrolling the Yellow Sea because that duty would mean not getting back to the States for two or three years or more. It was either get out now, or stay onboard and risk becoming involved in a battle station situation that could go on for a long time off the China coast.

I went below to look for Smitty to see if he had news from the Executive Officer Alderman or Captain Tague about going ashore and leaving the Antietam forever. Smitty was a humorous guy I had got to know well since he was assigned to my crew. He was short, 5’6” and had a sun bleached crew cut with a short mustache. He was always being teased about his nose that had a small bulb on the end of it and it was always red. His Irish heritage showed in his temper and redness in his face when he got worked up over something. He was always cursing about something whether it was good or bad.

            We were still steaming toward the western side of Okinawa where we would anchor in Haguchi Bay near the 9-mile long beaches that were so heavily bombed before the invasion. I found Smitty putting in some zzzzs in his hammock.  The Executive Officer J.D. Blitch, said that he would know sometime today whether the Captain had given permission for me to go ashore with Smitty, and Brownie and another guy named Lincoln.

            Smitty had been sleeping all morning after doing the night watch. He was eager to get home and so was I.  “Chief, do you think we will be in Okinawa before dark?” he asked.

I wasn’t sure how to respond. “Captain Tague had said he expected to drop anchor by 1430 hours. I’m not sure,” I told Smitty. “Maybe we have two hours left in port, somewhere around 1400 hours.”

            “Did you pack up your duffel bag?” Smitty asked.

            “Yeah but it was a son of a bitch getting all that junk in one bag. The Captain wouldn’t let us take our sea chests, you know,” I said.

“Yeah, all my tools are in my chest. I hope they can ship it back to the States someday.”

Just then, Brownie came down the ladder. “Chief, it looks like I am going to be joining you guys going ashore tomorrow.”

“That’s great,” I said.

We all began to slap one another on the back, for it seemed like a great moment. Little did we know what we were in for on Okinawa?  Another sailor Lincoln Hallard was also going to be leaving with us. The Captain would be providing us with a launch to take us to the beach while the Antietam remained anchored in the bay.

The Antietam had survived the war, and fortunately arrived too late to do battle with the “divine wind,” the kamikaze Jap pilots who carried one big bomb, and flew their planes into our ships. We heard all about the battle of Okinawa from radio communications while we were in the Pacific.

Now we were approaching the end of August, and the typhoon season in Japan. So much had happened so fast over the past year on the Antietam that it seemed like years ago since I boarded. Who would have ever thought we had a bomb like the A-bomb? Who ever thought that we would actually use it against Japan? Strange, I thought, war was more than playing the chess pieces of life and death; it was a story of long waiting hours with little to do. It was a story of constant drills and training to turn a bunch of raw recruits into seasoned sailors. It was a story of accidents like a sailor walking into a plane propeller and having his body spewed all over the ship. It was a story of horror when some sailors misfired a round and blew themselves up. What did we need battles for?  We could kill ourselves without the enemy’s help.

            I often had nightmares of being attacked by a Jap kamikaze and having it dive right into the deck and sinking the Antietam. Sleep was a luxury that I learned never happened in a war, especially on an aircraft carrier where you had to constantly worry about being attacked by planes or submarines.

 I had packed my sea bag packed already with all I could jam into it. My leather flight jacket and metal seaman’s chest would remain onboard to be transferred back to the States whenever possible after the Manchuria hostilities had ceased.

I said goodbye to some of my crew and some of the officers I got to know while I was stationed on the Antietam. The following day I would be leaving as their Chief and someone else would be taking over after a long year of sailing together. It would be a sad parting since we had grown very close during that time. We played poker all night the last night before I left. I won $355.

On August 30th at about 13:00 hours after a briefing by Captain Tague, Rear Admiral A.C. Davis took over and made the USS Antietam the flagship of the Task Force 72 including the Interpid and the Cabot. The USS Antietam was to support the allied occupation forces by a show of air power with planes over North Chin and Korea.

Later on I went back up to the command tower to see if Okinawa was in sight yet. I will never forget when I first saw Okinawa that dreaded afternoon. I was standing on the command tower searching the horizon for the island with my own personal pair of binoculars that I had bought in Hawaii. Yes indeed, it was lying there on the horizon a few miles off. It looked like a long green pea pond in a sea of blue and white water. Almost like a sparkling green paradise island. A fog was rolling in and a light misting rain had begun. The sun had ducked behind some clouds, making the day suddenly very dark. As the USS Antietam steamed closer I could see the beaches and palms trees. Well not really palm trees; rather burnt stumps that were once palm trees. A green ridge covered with heavy vegetation rose across the middle of the island like the backbone of a lizard. The island was only 60 miles long and two miles wide at some points and seven miles wide at its widest point.

            As we approached anchorage in Hagushi Bay, which was north of the capital city of Nahu, we went to general quarters. The devastation of the 84-day battle of Okinawa back in the spring of 1945 was apparent with the beaches full of debris from Jap plane parts, boat parts, and bomb craters. I could see that the once pristine white beaches were now black like burnt toast. Bombed out buildings lay along the edge of the beach as a testament to the savage battle. An American flag waved in the wind and rain over an Army headquarters tent on the island back from the beach near a clump of burnt out palm trees stumps. A black cloud moved over the island as if to signal that this was a place of death. As the Antietam moved into the harbor area a stench of ammunition, burnt wood and an undefined acid smell pervaded the air. I couldn’t get over the complete look of devastation on the island from the sea. It was as if all the armies and navies of the war had dumped their garbage on the beach. What a mess!

            It would not be until 11:00 the following morning on August 31st that Smitty, Brownie, Lincoln and I would be allowed to go ashore in a launch.  I will never forget going down over the side 65 feet or more on a rope cargo net holding a 80-pound plus duffel bag. One of the ship’s boatswains sounded the boatswain’s pipe as an act of respect as we left the ship. It gave me a chill in my spine that I was leaving my floating home and preparing to return home. Dropping over the side of the ship from the elevator was like the drills they used to do in Navy training camp in 1941. The drop over the side was steep and my duffel bag strap was digging into my shoulder numbing my arm completely. Each step down the cargo net was painful, but I finally made it to the bottom into the waiting Launch with a small outboard engine. Smitty could not climb down with his bag, so he yelled, “Chief, catch my bag, it is too heavy.”

            Like a fool I said “OK” and I reached out to receive a crushing force on my arms from a duffel bag, which must have weighed 200 pounds. “What do you have in this bag, stones,” I yelped. Just the four of us, Smitty, Brownie, Lincoln and myself went ashore that day. My crew was on the deck waving to me as we headed for the beach. I looked back and waved with a twinge of sadness to see my floating home fade behind us in the distance.  We took an extra bag of mail for the Army and Navy guys on shore. Little did we know that the Navy had pulled out of Okinawa and was preparing for the surrender signing in Tokyo Harbor and rounding up any stray submarines who did not hear the war was over.

What have we learned about General George Washington?

General George Washington 1776.

Did General Washington make some mistakes in the Battle of Brooklyn?

What would have happened if General Washington was forced to surrender at Brooklyn in 1776?

What was the numerical advantage General Howe had in troops over General Washington?

How did General Howe do an an end run or flanking movement around General Washington’s troops at the Battle of Brooklyn.

How did General Washington escape Brooklyn?

What did Admiral Howe do to chase Washington?

Why didn’t General Howe capture General Washington with his superior troop advantage.

In addition to British troops, what other mercenaries served under General Howe?

How many ships did Admiral Howe have anchored in New York harbor in 1776?

What happened to General Washington at Fort Lee?