Featured

Looking Back at the Title V federal grant at the College of Mount Saint Vincent, Riverdale, Bronx, New York 2001-2005.

by Dr. Pelham Mead III

A true story of a five year Title V federal grant at the College of Mount Saint Vincent, a small Catholic College in Riverdale, New York, 2001-2005.

Twenty years ago in May of 2001 I was hired as the Director of the Teacher Learning Center at the College of Mount Saint Vincent in Riverdale, New York, on the border of Westchester county and the Bronx on the Hudson River. The Associate Dean at the time interview me first and I was recommended by Sister Margaret who was the Department chairperson of the Education Department. Originally, the Fall before in 2000 I applied for a job as a Professor of Special Education and Sister Margaret passed my name along as a possible Director of the Title V, Hispanic Serving Institutions grant for 1.1 million dollars.

The Dean of Students previously wrote the Title V grant but when it was awarded she had taken a leave of absence to care for her son in Arizona who was in a car crash. She never returned, so the 160 page grant was never read by anyone in the College. President Richard Flynn was hired in January of 2001 and insisted that someone be hired to run the Title V grant project for five years. I was interviewed in April 2001 and after several interviews including a group interview of ten people and a final interview by the President. There was no Teacher Learning Center at the time and no office.

After I was hired there was no office for me to work in. I stayed a week in the Reading Center until they could find an office. A storage closet on the four floor of the Administration building was selected. At the time it was full of cabinets and had no desks or chairs.

My first job was to hire an office assistant. I was allowed to pick my own office assistant, so I chose a Cambodian woman who was in my Computer training class at BOCES of Nyack. Her name was Py Liv Sun. I selected her because she was a quick learner and hard worker. I needed someone I could trust and depend on to keep track of the purchase orders and financial records. Py Liv was a a perfect choice. She lived in Suffern, so she drove to my house in Nyack and left her car there and we drove in together to the College of Mount Saint Vincent for five years. Later on I hired a Teaching Assistant, Christine Servano, who was an outstanding student in my Adobe Photoshop course at BOCES.

My second big task was cleaning out the storage room so we could set up office for the new Teacher Learner Center. I called Facilities many times to remove the metal cabinets, but they never came. Py Liv and I moved the cabinets out ourselves leaving them in the hallway to be removed. Finally, Facilities removed them. Next we needed furniture, so we were told there was old furniture in the fifth floor attic we could take. There was only one elevator that went to the fifth floor attic. We found office chairs and several desks in the attic. I got a hand cart from the basement and Py Liv and I moved the tables and chairs down the elevator to our new office on the fourth floor.

The clean-up came next. The place was dusty and filthy. We had to scrub all the wall and the floor before we could sit in the office. Eventually, I got approval to hire someone to paint the walls to cover all the cracks and stains. The ceiling lights needed new bulbs and the windows needed caulking to fill the cracks. Finally, we settled in and I was able to order several computers to work with using Title V grant money. All expenses had to be approved by the College Provost before I could order anything. Our budget for the first year was $340,000 dollars. All of it had to be spent or our account would be red flagged. The grant called for five smart classrooms a year to be installed on the campus. I reached out to the VP of Finance and the Director of Facilities for help in finding classrooms to upgrade to Smart Classrooms, but I got no cooperation all summer of 2001. Every time I called the Director of Facilities he ducked out on me. For some reason he did not want to be involved in the Title V grant development.

I interviewed Professors that were still on campus in May and June of 2001 and found some supportive friends for technology. Professor Pat Grove in Biology was one of my biggest supporters and had previously pushed for technology at CMSV. Dean Bob Coleman in the Communications department was another great supporter. He told me the history of the College in relation to technology and the hiring of an outside agency to run the college computer and technology program at the cost of five million dollars. Sister Margaret was also a good friend in helping to get teachers to sign up for Instructional Technology tutoring with the Teacher Learner Center. Sue Apold was the Director of the Nursing Department at the time and she personally came down for instruction from me in the first year. I was able to help her Professors write two successful grants for the Nursing Department. Professor Kathy Flaherty won a Masters Degree plus certificate Nurse training program from the New York State Education department. I helped write all the technical specs for that program and helped teach Nurses with Master degrees who wanted a certificate to teach on the college level but did not want to take a Doctor degree to do so.

The second Nursing grant for $650,000. dollars was a technology Nursing grant from the Federal Office of Health. I had to install a MAC lab for that grant and train the teaching Professors how to use the MAC Computers. We converted two old unused classrooms into a computer lab. I helped file all the Assessment paperwork for the Nursing Professors and kept all their equipment up to date. They had to film or video tape lectures for future reference, so I filmed the lessons and showed the Professors how to use iMovie and Final Cut Pro edit the movies and see them to a server.

Back to the Teacher learner center. The Associate Dean who hired me ran the Reading center for students and was very popular, but not with the new President. He forced her to retire in a year and all of a sudden she was gone to Canada to retire. There were a lot of turnovers in the Administration especially at the VP of Finance and Comptroller positions. The VP of Finance had spent funds from the grant illegally and without permission of the new incoming President for a financial software program costing $60,000. I found about the expenditure when I did the first year Assessment report and realized that $60,000 was unaccounted for. With some research, Py Liv and I went through all the purchase orders prior to my being hired from the fall of 2000. Lo and behold we found monthly payments to a software program in Indiana and signed by the VP of Finance. I knew that being the new guy in administration I could not opposed the VP of Finance until I had more evidence. I was able to absorb the expense within the ten percent rule the first year, but eventually, I had to inform the President that the VP of Finance has spent $60,000 from the grant illegally before he or I were hired in the fall of 2000. The President confronted the VP of Finance with the copies of the purchase orders Py Liv and I found and he was fired. The Director of Facilities was also fired for refusin to cooperated with the Title V grant.

After a whole summer of planning and interviewing administrators and faculty I achieved no progress on constructing the five smart classrooms in the goals of the Title V grant, thanks to the lack of cooperation from the Director of Facilities. Finally, when all hope dimmed and the first year grant was about to expire on September 30, 2001, I went to the President and told him the Director of Facilities had blocked me all summer and prevented me from installing any smart classrooms as required by the Title V grant. I informed the President that if we did not install the smart classrooms and spent the money, we would lose the 1.1 million dollar grant from the US Department of Education. He was furious that the director was not cooperating. The President told me to do what ever it took to install the five smart classrooms that weekend before there grant expired. “Do whatever it takes,” he told me.So I hired a subcontractor that was a specialist in smart classroom installations for $25,000. Sister Mary Edward the administrator of the Biology building helped me renovate the Biology 90 seat lecture hall. We could not safely remove a giant ceiling projector without danger to the workers. Sister Mary Edward talked the college plumber, a devote Catholic, into climbing through the ceiling to reach the heavy projector and lower it down by rope to the floor. I was nervous he would get injured, but luckily all went well. Sister Mary Edward helped me plan the TV wall rack which had to be drilled through a brick wall to hold it up. We ran a LAN wire from the computer server closet for WAN access for computers. The chemistry counter was removed and an electronic giant movie screen was also installed. Sister Mary Edward got President Flynn to replace the broken plastic seats and new curtains for the faded and torn old curtains. It was a very successful smart classroom conversion thanks to her help and Professor Pat Grove.

Back in the administration building I chose rooms 410 and 412 and on the third floor 310 and 308 classrooms with fifteen foot ceilings. Room 410 had been started but never finished as a smart classroom previously. It had defective windows that were broken and cracked that had to be replaced. The LAN system was drilled through the floors to the server closet on the first floor. Later on as technology improved I installed portable wireless modems. Eventually, I copied the UCLA approach and had the wireless modems installed on the telephone poles in front of the Administration building. This saved thousands of dollars in not having to put a modem in every classroom.

I began installed year two smart classrooms the fall of 2002 to make sure we had plenty of time to do it right. Meanwhile, My first class of professors had started. The professors were too interested in what the other professors were doing than what they were learning. I had to scrap the classroom approach and switch to individual tutoring to custom design the instructional technology to each Professors needs and learning ability level. Each Professor got an hour a week for 14 weeks in which they received a stipend of $1600. This factor alone made the TLC program very popular. In addition I ordered Laptop computers to loan out to Professors to use for the semester. Most of the King brand desktop computers were broken and beyond repair in most Professor’s offices. The five million dollar fee for an outside company did not go very far. Being that I had access to funds and the Technology department did not, I was able to get their cooperation.

A third priority was to establish a TLC web site with online learning courses in Photoshop, MS Word, Powerpoint, and Access. I also taught podcasting and movie editing to advanced Professors. To keep the graduates of the TLC program active and involved, I offered monthly Grad dinners in which I brought homemade chili, Py liv brought Cambodian spring rolls and Christine brought Filipino Adobo Beef. The unique foreign meals were a big hit. I reported the TLC progress and offered lunch time catch up clinic in new programs.

Installing Blackboard was the next major priority. I had to learn the program from scratch and then teach it to all the faculty. It took help from Manhattan college to install the program. I then had to manually upload each professor’s classiest and teach them how to upload their syllabus and use the lockbox. I was the administrator for three years until Manhattan college hired a full time person.

The biggest and most difficult job was a costly installation of the Banner all-college system. Manhattan College again provided tech support. The cost of the modules was thousands o dollars and training was included for the student database, registrar, financial, admissions and accounting modules for staff. The installation was so expensive it had to be spread out over a couple of years. The Banner system completely replaced the previous Manhattan college and College of Mount Saint Vincent systems. It was a very complicated and expensive process.

Dressed up in my Columbia Doctor’s Robe for Graduation ceremonies at CMSV.

Year

Featured

My Years at the College of Mount Saint Vincent as Director of the Teacher learner Center and Coordinator of the Title V federal grant for 1.1 million.

Dr. Pelham Mead, Director of the College of Mount Saint Vincent Teacher Learning Center 2001-2005.
Dr. Pelham Mead at CMSV graduation with Sister Mary Edward Zipf, Sisters of Charity and Biology Professor.

The College of Mount Saint Vincent Biology Building 2002

The College of Mount Saint Vincent administrative building 2002.

Communications Department. Sister Pat

My hard working assistant Mrs. Py Liv Sun at the CMSV Teacher Learning Center 2002-2005.

Professor Kathy Flannigan, Nursing Professor.

The first Smart Classroom presentation in 2002 Fall, room 210.

Dr. Mead and Kathy relaxing at the monthly TLC graduate dinner at the College of Mount Saint Vincent. Kathy was one of the first Professors to complete the TLC tutoring program.

Christine Servano, my TLC teaching Assistant

Christine the TLC teaching assistant working with a Business Professor.

Professor Arlene Moliterno teaching in a Smart Classroom 2002.

Smart Classroom with electronic movie screen, TV mounted on the wall, overhead projector and LAN access with portable Laptop computer.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Py Liv Sun and Professor of Sociology 2003.

Dr. Pelham Mead attending College ceremonies in the fall of 2001.

Professor Pat Grove, Biology in her Office 2002.

The Biology Classroom 2002.

Christine TLC teaching assistant helps Professor Moliterno.

Professor Barbara Cohen, Nursing Graduate Professor 2002.

TLC Assistant Py Liv Sun and Christine Servano working at their desks in the Teacher learning lab 2001.

Newly renovated smart classroom -Biology Lecture hall, With the help of Sister Mary Edward, Biology administrator we completed the upgrade in September 2001. The old projector was taken down and a new $5,000 projector was installed. LAN access was installed and the Chemistry counter was removed. An electronic movie screen was installed and a 37 inch TV mounted through a brick wall to the right.

Dedicated Biology Professor.

Biology Department Chairperson in 2001.

Professor Jim working with students in Biology.

Dr. Green, Provost in 2001.

Professors Kathy and ….

Three female Professors at CMSV graduation in 2001.

Professor Fran and Sister Pat talking during the line up for Graduation 2001.

Director of the TLC- Dr. Pelham Mead and Professor Kathy.

Professor Arlene Moliterno, Teaching Professor at CMSV graduation 2001.

Dean of Communications, Bob Coleman, 2001.

Professor John, College Organist and Music Professor, graduate of TLC program using a Smart Classroom 2002.

Professor teaching in a new Smart Classroom 2002.

Sister Pat teaching in a smart classroom for Communications department. Notice the TV mounted in the background.

The Nursing Annex Smart Classroom. Previously a snack room. The floor was black from years of dirt. I had it sanded and resurfaced. The walls were cracked and had to be repaired. The overhead movie projector can be seen in this photo which was installed. The entire room was repainted after repairs. Outside the room a roof leak was also repaired. This room was a major unmaking but successful in the end.

Director of Nursing and Later VP, Susan at Graduation.
Professors at CMSV graduation 2001.

Bother, Professor of Communications 2001.

College of Mount Saint Vincent Castle seen through the trees.

Fran, Department Chairperson for Communications 2001.

CMSV department TV studio 2001 before the new one was installed in 2003.

Christmas party of 2001. Sister Mary Edward celebrating in Santa outfit.

Professors Celebrate at Christmas CMSV party 2001.

President Flynn and others sing at the Christmas Party 2001.

Dean Bob Coleman relaxes during the Christmas Party of 2001.

CMSV administration building from parking lot view.

Statutes in front of the CMSV library 2001.

Chapel of CMSV from the rear of the administration building.

The Business building under construction 2004. Maryvale was upgraded to a Fine Arts labs and Communication labs and classrooms, partially with Title V funds.

Maryvale construction. Before demolition.

Maryvale construction 2004-2005.

Front porch of Administration building. Before the old porch fell down, the Sisters of Charity had a porch going from end to end of the front of the administration building.

Another view of the administration building.

Maryvale construction pipes.

Sisters of Charity cemetery at the top of the hill.

Another view of the cemetery. All Nuns that taught or lived on the grounds and Priests are buried here.

Winter view of the great lawn from the Administration building.

2002 Spring View of Castle on the College of Mount Saint Vincent campus.

Winter view of Campus with Hudson river in the background.

Finished Maryvale 2005.

Road into the College of Mount Saint Vincent. 2002.

Gazebo on the back lawn behind the castle on the CMSB campus 2002.

CMSV auditorium and gymnasium building 2002 , spring.

Biology Building 2002.

Road to St. Vincent’s Point on the other side of the RR tracks on the shores of the Hudson river. Used to be a train station here in the old days.

Blackboard menu. Blackboard was installed by Title V and administered by Dr. Pelham Mead for three years until Manhattan College took over with a full time administrator.

Angel statute on campus.

Outdoor angel in the CMSV garden

Children praying to the Mother Mary.

Angel statute on campus

CMSV college logo

Female students exercise class at CMSV

Female CMSV students working out.

Exercise room at CMSV.

Fall leaf

Castle view from the administration building.

CMSV bell in the tower

Top of the administration building over the chapel.

Castle view.

Hudson river view looking toward the Tappan Zee bridge from the tower.

View from inside the bell tower on top of the administration building.

View of the road from the bell tower.

Administration building roof.

View from the roof.

Graduation Tent for 2002 goes up.

Stages of graduation tent going up on the great lawn. CMSV 2002.

Graduation tent covers the entire great lawn.

John, College Organist and Music teacher, Py Liv Sun and Christine Servano 2003.

Dr. Pelham Mead, Py Liv Sun, Christine Servano and Professor John.

College of Mount Saint Vincent chapel organ 2002.

College organist, John plays on the organ.

Organ view in chapel.

College organist John.

President Richard Flynn 2002 graduation.

Sister Mary Edward.

Faculty procession 2002 graduation.

Faculty procession 2002, Graduation.

Faculty entering Administration building.

Faculty leads student procession.

Student process in 2002 graduation at the College of Mount Saint Vincent.

Graduation 2002

castle door on CMSV campus

Faculty ascend platform.

Construction sign 2005 graduation

Faculty gather before graduation. Fran from Communications in background sitting.

Faculty graduation 2002.

Fran, Sister Pat and Brother chat.

Featured

The White Eyes and the Native Americans

By Dr. Pelham Mead

If you country was invaded by a foreigner what would you do? Fight back of course. Supposing the invader had superior weapons and you had only bows and arrows? Such was the plight of the American Native Indians. Who were the good guys and the bad guys? That depends on who you think had the right to wipe out entire nations of American Natives. The white eyes lied to the American Indians time after time. No wonder there was no trust.

Was the Native American Indian worse than the white eyes. Taking scalps was a tradition for Native Americans, but what about hanging a person from a rope in public until their neck broke or they choked to death.

Who killed hundreds of thousands of Buffalo? Not the Native American Indians, it was the white eyes with guns that could shoot rapidly. Buffalo skins had a great market value as well as horns.

Who held the white eyes accountable for their crimes against the Native American Nations? No one did. Killing Native American Indians was like a fox hunt where the fox had no chance in hell of surviving with hunting dogs chasing them down and men on horseback armed with rifles shooting at them.

So, a Few hundred years later the Native American Indian is treated as a minority with little or no rights. Look at Brazil how they do not let the Amazon Indians own land and have no more rights than a teenager.

When there is talk about reparations for the black slaves of America, think first about the white men who stole the land away from the Native Americans to begin with before the slaves were brought to America.

The Native American Nations had wonderful cultures and practices that are fading into the air over time. What can we do? Perhaps renew their status in the American culture and give them more support to get educated and become part of this great American society. Always remember the place in History the Great Chiefs and their Nations played in our history and the Wild West.

Why are there no national holidays that celebrate Native American Holidays?

Think about the Washington Redskins football team. Is Redskin really an insult?

Do we have any teams called the white eyes or the yellow skins? Think about it.

Are there any Polish poppers, or Irish hacks, or British cavaliers, or French Frogs?

Featured

New York College of Osteopathic Medicine

Learning Outcomes Assessment 2009-2010

January 2009

Taskforce Members

John R. McCarthy, Ed.D.

Pelham Mead, Ed.D.

Mary Ann Achziger, M.S.

Felicia Bruno, M.A.

Claire Bryant, Ph.D.

Leonard Goldstein, DDS, PH.D.

Abraham Jeger, Ph.D.

Rodika Zaika, M.S.

Ron Portanova, Ph.D.

Pre-

Doctoral

Data

Post-Graduate Data

Career

data

Pre-Matriculation

Table of Contents

OVERVIEW 4

I. Introduction and Rationale 5

II. Purpose and Design 9

III. Specifics of the Plan 11

Mission of NYCOM 11

Learning Outcomes 11

Compiling the Data 17

Stakeholders 17

IV. Plan Implementation 18

Next Steps 18

V. Conclusion 20

A. OUTCOME INDICATORS – DETAIL 24

1. Pre-matriculation data 24

Forms 26

2. Academic (pre-clinical) course-work 47

Forms – LDB / DPC Track 49

Forms – Institute for Clinical Competence (ICC) 55

3. Clinical Clerkship Evaluations / NBOME Subject Exams 86

Forms 88

4. Student feedback (assessment) of courses/Clinical clerkship

PDA project 92

Forms 94

5. COMLEX USA Level I, Level II CE & PE,

Level III data (NBOME) 120

6. Residency match rates and overall placement rate 121

2

7. Feedback from (AACOM) Graduation Questionnaire 122

Forms 123

8. Completion rates (post-doctoral programs) 142

9. Specialty certification and licensure 143

10. Career choices and geographic practice location 144

11. Alumni Survey 145

Forms 146

B. BENCHMARKS 151

Bibliography 152

Appendices: 153

Chart 1 Proposed Curriculum and Faculty Assessment Timeline

Institute for Clinical Competence:

Neurological Exam – Student Version Parts I & II

Taskforce Members

List of Tables and Figures

Figure 1 Cycle of Assessment 9

Figure 2 Outcome Assessment along the Continuum 15

Figure 3 Data Collection Phases 22

Table 1 Assessment Plan Guide 23

3

New York College of Osteopathic Medicine

Learning Outcomes Assessment Plan

February 2009

Overview

This document was developed by the NYCOM Task Force on Learning Outcomes

Assessment and was accepted by the dean in January 2009. Although a few of the assessment

tools and processes described in the document are new, most have been employed at NYCOM

since its inception to inform curriculum design and implementation and to gauge progress and

success in meeting the institution’s mission, goals and objectives.

The Learning Outcomes Assessment Plan documents the processes and measures used by

the institution to gauge student achievement and program (curricular) effectiveness. The results

of these activities are used by faculty to devise ways to improve student learning and by

administrators and other stakeholder groups to assess institutional effectiveness and inform

planning, decision-making, and resource allocation.

Certain of the measures described in later sections of this document constitute key

performance indicators for the institution, for which numerical goals have been set. Performance

on these measures has a significant effect on institutional planning and decision-making

regarding areas of investment and growth, program improvement, and policy.

4

Key performance indicators and benchmarks are summarized below and also on 􀁓􀁄􀁊􀁈 151

􀁒􀁉􀀃􀁗􀁋􀁈􀀃􀁓􀁏􀁄􀁑􀀑

Indicator Benchmarks

 Number of Applicants Maintain relative standing among Osteopathic Medical

Colleges

 Admissions Profile Maintain or improve current admissions profile based

on academic criteria (MCAT, GPA, Colleges attended

 Attrition 3% or less

 Remediation rate

(preclinical)

2% reduction per year

 COMLEX USA scores

(first-time pass rates,

mean scores)

Top quartile

 Students entering

OGME

Maintain or improve OGME placement

 Graduates entering

Primary Care careers

Maintain or improve Primary Care placement

 Career characteristics Regarding Licensure, Board Certification, Geographic

Practice, and Scholarly achievements–TBD

I. Introduction and Rationale

At NYCOM we believe it is our societal responsibility to monitor our students’ quality of

education through continual assessment of educational outcomes. On-going program evaluation

mandates longitudinal study (repeated observations over time) and the utilization of empirical

data based on a scientific methodology.

At Thomas Jefferson University, an innovative study was implemented circa 1970, which

was ultimately titled “Jefferson Longitudinal Study of Medical Education”.1 As a result of

implementation of this longitudinal study plan, Thomas Jefferson University was praised by the

1 Center for Research in Medical Education and Health Care: Jefferson Longitudinal Study of Medical Education,

Thomas Jefferson University, 2005.

5

Accreditation Team for the Middle States Commission on Higher Education for “…..their

academic interest in outcome data, responsiveness to faculty and department needs and the clear

use of data to modify the curriculum and teaching environment….their use of this data has

impacted many components of the curriculum, the learning environment, individual student

development, and program planning…” (TJU, 2005).

The Jefferson Longitudinal Study of Medical Education has been the most productive

longitudinal study of medical students and graduates of a single medical school. This study has

resulted in 155 publications in peer review journals. Many were presented before national or

international professional meetings prior to their publication (TJU, 2005).

According to Hernon and Dugan (2004), the pressure on higher education institutions to

prove accountability has moved beyond the acceptance and reliance of self-reports and anecdotal

evidence compiled during the self-regulatory accreditation process. It now encompasses an

increasing demand from a variety of constituencies to demonstrate institutional effectiveness by

focusing on quality measures, such as educational quality, and cost efficiencies.

Accountability focuses on results as institutions quantify or provide evidence that they are

meeting their stated mission, goals, and objectives. Institutional effectiveness is concerned, in

part, with measuring (Hernon and Dugan, 2004):

 Programmatic outcomes: such as applicant pool, retention rates, and graduation rates.

Such outcomes are institution-based and may be used to compare internal year-to-year

institutional performance and as comparative measures with other institutions.

 Student learning outcomes: oftentimes referred to as educational quality and concerned

with attributes and abilities, both cognitive and affective, which reflect how student

experiences at the institution supported their development as individuals. Students are

expected to demonstrate acquisition of specific knowledge and skills.

6

At NYCOM, we recognize that our effectiveness as an institution must ultimately be

assessed and expressed by evaluating our success in achieving our Mission in relation to the

following Outcomes:

1. Student Learning / Program Effectiveness

2. Research and Scholarly Output

3. Clinical Services

The present document focuses on #1, above, viz., Student Learning / Program Effectiveness.

That is, it is intended only as a Learning Outcomes Assessment Plan. At the same time, we are

cognizant that Institutional Effectiveness/Outcomes derive from numerous inputs, or “means” to

these “ends,” including:

1. Finances

2. Faculty Resources

3. Administrative Resources

4. Student Support Services

5. Clinical Facilities and Resources

6. Characteristics of the Physical Plant

7. Information Technology Resources

8. Library Resources

We believe it is our obligation to continually assess the impact of any changes in the inputs,

processes, and outputs of this institution.

The evaluation approach in this Assessment Plan provides for on-going data collection

and analysis targeted specifically at assessing outcomes of student achievement and program

effectiveness (educational quality). Assessment of achievement and program effectiveness is

based on objective, quantifiable information (data).

As a result of the NYCOM Learning Outcome Assessment Plan’s continual assessment

cycle, the report is available, with scheduled updates, as a resource in the decision-making

process.

7

The report provides outcomes data, recommendations, and suggestions intended to inform key

policy makers and stakeholders2 of areas of growth and/or improvement, together with proposed

changes to policy that strengthen both overall assessment and data-driven efforts to improve

student learning.

2 NYCOM Administration, academic committees, faculty, potential researchers, and students.

8

II. Purpose and Design

Well-designed plans for assessing student learning outcomes link learning outcomes,

measures, data analysis, and action planning in a continuous cycle of improvement illustrated

below.

Figure 1 Cycle of Assessment

Ten principles guide the specifics of NYCOM’s Learning Outcomes Assessment Plan:

1. The plan provides formative and summative assessment of student learning.3

2. The primary purpose for assessing outcomes is to improve student learning.

3. Developing and revising an assessment plan is a long-term, dynamic, and collaborative

process.

4. Assessments use the most reliable and valid instruments available.

3 Examples of the former include post-course roundtable discussions, Institute for Clinical Competence (ICC)

seminars, and data from the Course/Faculty Assessment Program. Examples of the latter include the AACOM

Graduation Questionnaire, COMLEX scores, NBOME subject exam scores, and clerkship evaluations.

Define

intended

Learning

Outcomes

Identify

methods

of measuring

outcomes

Collect Data

Review results

and use to make

decisions

regarding program

improvement

Start

Here

9

5. Assessment priorities are grounded in NYCOM’s mission, goals, and learning outcomes.

6. The assessment involves a multi-method approach.

7. Assessment of student learning is separate from evaluation of faculty.

8. The primary benefit of assessment is the provision of evidence-based analysis to inform

decision-making concerning program revision and improvement and resource allocation.

9. The assessment plan must provide a substantive and sustainable mechanism for fulfilling

NYCOM’s responsibility to ensure the quality, rigor, and overall effectiveness of our

programs in educating competent and compassionate physicians.

10. The assessment plan yields valid measures of student outcomes that provide stakeholders

with relevant and timely data to make informed decisions on changes in curricular design,

implementation, program planning, and the overall learning environment.

Outcomes assessment is a continuous process of measuring institutional effectiveness

focusing on planning, determining, understanding, and improving student learning. At

NYCOM, we are mindful that an integral component of this assessment plan is to ensure that the

plan and the reporting process measures what it is intended to measure (student achievement and

program effectiveness).

10

III. Specifics of the Plan

The NYCOM assessment plan articulates eleven student learning outcomes, which are

linked to both the institutional mission and the osteopathic core competencies

Mission of NYCOM

The New York College of Osteopathic Medicine of the New York Institute of

Technology is committed to training osteopathic physicians for a lifetime of learning and

practice, based upon the integration of evidence-based knowledge, critical thinking and the tenets

of osteopathic principles and practice. The college is also committed to preparing osteopathic

physicians for careers in primary care, including health care in the inner city and rural

communities, as well as to the scholarly pursuit of new knowledge concerning health and

disease. NYCOM provides a continuum of educational experiences to its students, extending

through the clinical and post-graduate years of training. This continuum provides the future

osteopathic physician with the foundation necessary to maintain competence and compassion, as

well as the ability to better serve society through research, teaching, and leadership.

Learning Outcomes

The following eleven (11) Learning Outcomes that guide this plan stem from NYCOM’s mission

(above) and the osteopathic core competencies:

1. The Osteopathic Philosophy: Upon graduation, a student must possess the ability to

demonstrate the basic knowledge of Osteopathic philosophy and practice, as well as

Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment.

2. Medical Knowledge: A student must possess the ability to demonstrate medical

knowledge through passing of course tests, standardized tests of the NBOME, post-

11

course rotation tests, research activities, presentations, and participation in directed

reading programs and/or journal clubs, and/or other evidence-based medicine activities.

3. Practice-based learning and improvement: Students must demonstrate their ability to

critically evaluate their methods of clinical practice, integrate evidence-based medicine

into patient care, show an understanding of research methods, and improve patient care

practices

4. Professionalism: Students must demonstrate knowledge of professional, ethical, legal,

practice management, and public health issues applicable to medical practice.

5. Systems-based practice: Students must demonstrate an understanding of health care

delivery systems, provide effective patient care and practice cost-effective medicine

within the system.

6. Patient Care: Students must demonstrate the ability to effectively treat patients and

provide medical care which incorporates the osteopathic philosophy, empathy, preventive

medicine education, and health promotion.

7. Communication skills: Students must demonstrate interpersonal and communication

skills with patients and other healthcare professionals, which enable them to establish and

maintain professional relationships with patients, families, and other healthcare providers.

8. Primary Care: Students will be prepared for careers in primary care, including health care

in the inner city, as well as rural communities.

9. Scholarly/Research Activities: Students will be prepared for the scholarly pursuit of new

knowledge concerning health and disease. Students in NYCOM’s 5-year Academic

Medicine Scholars Program will be prepared as academic physicians in order to address

12

this nation’s projected health care provider shortage and the resulting expansion of

medical school training facilities.

10. Global Medicine and Health policy: Students will be prepared to engage in global health

practice, policy, and the development of solutions to the world’s vital health problems.

11. Cultural Competence: Students will be prepared to deliver the highest quality medical

care, with the highest degree of compassion, understanding, and empathy toward cultural

differences in our global society.

The NYCOM assessment plan provides for analysis of learning outcomes for two

curricular tracks and four categories of student

NYCOM has historically tracked student data across the curriculum, paying particular

attention to cohorts of students (see below), as well as NYCOM’s two curricular tracks:

a) Lecture-Based Discussion track: integrates the biomedical and clinical sciences along

continuous didactic ‘threads’ delivered according to a systems based approach;

b) Doctor Patient Continuum track: a problem-based curriculum, whose cornerstone is

small-group, case-based learning.

Current data gathering incorporates tracking outcomes associated with several subcategories of

student (important to the institution) within the 4-year pre-doctoral curriculum and the 5-year

pre-doctoral Academic Medicine Scholars curriculum. The pre-doctoral populations are defined

according to the following subcategories:

 Traditional:4

 BS/DO: The BS/DO program is a combined baccalaureate/doctor of osteopathic

medicine program requiring successful completion of a total of 7 years (undergraduate, 3

years; osteopathic medical school, 4 years).

 MedPrep: A pre-matriculation program offering academic enrichment to facilitate the

acceptance of underrepresented minority and economically disadvantaged student

applicants.5

4 All other students not inclusive of BS/DO, MedPrep, and EPP defined cohorts.

5 The program is funded by the New York State Collegiate Science and Technology Entry Program and the

NYCOM Office of Equity and Opportunity Programs.

13

 EPP (Émigré Physician Program): A 4-year program, offered by NYCOM, to educate

émigré physicians to become DOs to enable them to continue their professional careers in

the U.S.

The NYCOM assessment plan includes data from four phases of the medical education

continuum (as illustrated in Figure 2 and Figure 3): pre-matriculation, the four-year predoctoral

curriculum6, post-graduation data, and careers and practice data

Within the NYCOM Learning Outcome Assessment Plan, the Task Force has chosen the

following outcome indicators for assessment of program effectiveness at different points in the

medical education continuum:

 Pre-matriculation data, including first-year student survey;

 Academic (pre-clinical) course-work (scores on exams, etc.) – attrition rate;

 Clinical Clerkship Evaluations (3rd/4th year) and NBOME Subject Exams;

 Student feedback (assessment) of courses and 3rd and 4th year clinical clerkships and

PDA-based Patient and Educational Activity Tracking;

 COMLEX USA Level I, Level II CE & PE, and Level III data, including:

o First-time and overall pass rates and mean scores;

o Comparison of NYCOM first time and overall pass rates and mean scores to

national rankings;

 Residency match rate and placement rate (AOA / NRMP);

 Feedback from AACOM Graduation Questionnaire;

 Completion rates of Post-Doctoral programs;

 Specialty certification and licensure;

 Career choices (practice type–academic, research, etc.);

 Geographic practice locations;

 Alumni survey.

The Outcome Indicators—Detail sections of this plan (􀁓􀁄􀁊􀁈􀁖 24 􀁗􀁋􀁕􀁒􀁘􀁊􀁋 150) show the various

data sources and include copies of the forms or survey questionnaires utilized in the data

gathering process.

The NYCOM assessment plan identifies specific sources of data for each phase

Figure 2 illustrates which of the above measures are most relevant at each phase of the medical

education continuum.

6 And the five-year pre-doctoral Academic Medicine Scholars program

14

15

16

The NYCOM assessment plan describes the collection and reporting of data,

responsibilities for analysis and dissemination, and the linkage to continuous program

improvement and institutional planning

Compiling the Data

Discussions with departmental leaders and deans confirmed that data gathering occurs at

various levels throughout the institution. Development of a central repository (centralized

database) facilitates data gathering, data mining and overall efficiency as it relates to data

analysis, report generation, and report dissemination. This includes utilization of internal

databases (internal to NYCOM) as well as interfacing with external organizations’ databases,

including the AOA (American Osteopathic Association), AACOM (American Association of

Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine), AMA (American Medical Association), and the ABMS

(American Board of Medical Specialties).

Stakeholders

Information from the data collection serves to inform NYCOM administration, relevant

faculty, appropriate research and academic/administrative committees, including the following:

 Curriculum Committee

 Student Progress Committee

 Admissions Committee

 Deans and Chairs Committee

 Clinical and Basic Science Chairs

 Research Advisory Group

 Academic Senate

The NYCOM assessment plan sets forth benchmarks, goals and standards of performance

The major elements of the plan are summarized in Table 1: Assessment Plan Guide:

Learning Outcomes/Metrics/Benchmarks found at the end of this chapter.

17

IV. Plan Implementation

As discussed earlier, most of the assessment tools and processes described in the

document have been employed at NYCOM since its inception to inform curriculum design and

implementation and to gauge progress and success in meeting the institution’s mission, goals and

objectives. Beginning in fall 2008, however, assessment efforts have been made more

systematic; policies, procedures, and accountabilities are now documented and more widely

disseminated.

The Office of Program Evaluation and Assessment (OPEA), reporting to the Associate

Dean for Academic Affairs is responsible for directing all aspects of plan refinement and

implementation.

Next steps

1. Develop a shared, central repository for pre-matriculation, pre-doctoral, and postgraduate

data (see Figure 3). Time Frame: Academic Year 2010-2011

Centralized database: Development of a (shared or central) repository

(database) utilized by internal departments of NYCOM. WEAVEonline is

a web-bases assessment system, utilized by numerous academic

institutions across the country, for assessment and planning purposes.

Utilizing this program facilitates centralization of data. The central

database is comprised of student data categorized as follows:

Pre-matriculation Data includes demographics, AACOM pre-matriculation survey, academic

data (GPA), and other admissions data (MCAT’s, etc.).

Data is categorized according to student cohort as previously written and

described (see item III. Specifics of the Plan on pages 13-14).

18

Pre-doctoral Data includes academic (pre-clinical) course work, course grades, end-ofyear

grade point averages, the newly implemented, innovative Course /

Faculty assessment program data (described in Section 4), ratings of

clinical clerkship performance, performance scores on COMLEX USA

Level I and Level II CE & PE, descriptors of changes in academic status

(attrition), and AACOM Graduation questionnaires.

Post-graduate/Career Data includes residency match rate, residency choice, hospitals of

residency, geographic location, chosen specialty, performance on

COMLEX Level III, geographic and specialty area(s) of practice

following graduation, licensure, board certification status, scholarly work,

professional activities/societies, faculty appointments, type(s) of practice

(academic, clinical, research).

This database supports and assimilates collaborative surveys utilized by

internal departments in order to capture requested data (see item III.

Specifics of the Plan on pages 13-14) essential for tracking students during

and after post-graduate training. Specific data (e.g., COMLEX Level III,

board certification, and licensure) is provided by external databases,

through periodic reporting means, or queries from NYCOM, therefore the

database provides for assimilation of this external data, in order to

incorporate into institutional reporting format.

2. Establish metrics. Time Frame: Academic Year 2010-2011

Benchmarks and Reporting: Conduct a retrospective data analysis in

order to establish baseline metrics (see Compiling the Data on page 17).

19

Following development of these metrics, institutional benchmarks are

established. Benchmarks align with Institutional Goals as written above.

Reporting of data analysis occurs on an annual basis. An annual

performance report is compiled from all survey data and external sources.

Timeframe for reporting is congruent with end of academic year. Updates

to report occur semi-annually, as additional (external) data is received.

Data reporting includes benchmarking against Institutional Goals

(mission), in order to provide projections around effectiveness of learning

environment, quality improvement indicators, long-range and strategic

planning processes, and cost analysis/budgetary considerations.

Report dissemination to key policy makers and stakeholders, as previously

identified (see Stakeholders on page 17) in addition to other staff, as

deemed appropriate for inclusion in the reporting of assessment analysis.

V. Conclusion

The impact on student learning of such things as changes in the demographics of medical school

applicants, admissions criteria, curricula, priorities, and methods of delivery of medical education

deserve careful discussion, planning, and analysis before, during, and after implementation. This

plan facilitates change management at three points:

o Planning, by providing evidence to support decision-making;

o Implementation, by establishing mechanisms for setting performance targets and

monitoring results, and

20

o Evaluation, by systematically measuring outcomes against goals and providing evidence

of whether the change has achieved its intended objectives.

At NYCOM, accountability is seen as both a requirement and a responsibility. As healthcare

delivery, pedagogy, and the science of medicine constantly change, monitoring the rigor and

effectiveness of the learning environment through assessment of student learning outcomes

throughout the medical education continuum becomes paramount.

21

Figure 3 Data Collection Phases

Pre-doctoral Data

Pre-matriculation

Data

Post-Graduate

Data

Career

Data

Assessment

Process

22

Learning Outcomes7 Data Collection Phases8 Assessment Methods Metrics9 Development of

benchmarks10

Students will:

Demonstrate basic knowledge of OPP

& OMT

Demonstrate medical knowledge

Demonstrate competency in practicebased

learning and improvement

Demonstrate professionalism and

ethical practice

Demonstrate an understanding of

health care delivery systems

Demonstrate the ability to effectively

treat patients

Demonstrate interpersonal and

communication skills

Be prepared for careers in primary

care

Be prepared for the scholarly pursuit

of new knowledge

Be prepared to engage in global

health practice, policy, and solutions

to world health problems

Be prepared to effectively interact

with people of diverse cultures and

deliver the highest quality of medical

care

• Pre-matriculation

• Pre-doctoral

• Post-graduate

• Career

• Didactic Academic

Performance

• LDB Curriculum

• DPC Curriculum

• Formative / Summative

Experiences: Patient

Simulations (SP’s /

Robotic)

• Student-driven Course,

Clerkship, and Faculty

Assessment

• Clinical Clerkship

Performance

• PDA-Based Patient and

Education Tracking

• Surveys

• Standardized Tests

• Alumni Feedback

Vis a Vis:

• Admissions Data

(Applicant Pool

demographics)

• Course Exams

• End-of-year pass rates

• Coursework

• Analysis of Residency

Trends Data

• Standardized Tests

Subject Exams

• COMLEX 1 & II Scores

• Analysis of Specialty

Choice

• Analysis of geographic

practice area

• Academic Attrition

rates

• Remediation rates

• Graduation and postgraduate

data

• External surveys

• Applicant Pool

• Admissions Profile

• Academic Attrition

rates

• Remediation rates

(pre-clinical years)

• COMLEX USA

Scores I & II (1st

time pass rate /

mean score)

• Number of

graduates entering

OGME programs

• Graduates entering

Primary Care (PC)11

• Career Data:

Licensure (within

3 years);

Board

Certification;

Geographic

Practice Area;

Scholarly

achievements

7 Complete detail of Learning Outcomes found in III., pages 11-13.

8 See Figure 3, page 22.

9 List of Metrics is not all-inclusive.

10 See complete detail of benchmarks—pages 5 & 151.

11 Primary Care: Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Pediatrics.

Table 1 – Assessment Plan Guide: Learning Outcomes / Data Sources / Metrics

23

Outcome Indicators – Detail

1. Pre-matriculation data

Data gathered prior to students entering NYCOM, and broken down by student

cohort, which includes the following:

Traditional, MedPrep, and BS/DO students

 AACOM pre-matriculation survey given to students;

 Total MCAT scores;

 Collegiate GPA (total GPA-including undergraduate/graduate);

 Science GPA;

 College(s) attended;

 Undergraduate degree (and graduate degree, if applicable;

 Gender,;

 Age;

 Ethnicity;

 State of residence;

 Pre-admission interview score.

Additional data is gathered on the MedPrep student cohort and incorporates the

following:

 Pre-matriculation lecture based exam and quiz scores;

 Pre-matriculation DPC (Doctor Patient Continuum) based facilitator assessment

scores and content exam scores;

24

 ICC (Institute for Clinical Competence) Professional Assessment Rating (PARS)

Scores.

Émigré Physician Program students

 TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) score;

 EPP Pre-Matriculation Examination score;

 Medical school attended;

 Date of MD degree;

 Age;

 Ethnicity;

 Country of Origin.

25

Specific forms/questionnaires utilized to capture the above-detailed information include the

following:

 MedPrep 2008 Program Assessment

 MedPrep Grade Table

 NYCOM Admissions Interview Evaluation Form

 Application for Émigré Physicians Program (EPP)

 AACOM Pre-matriculation survey (first-year students)

 NYCOM Interview Evaluation Form – Émigré Physicians Program

Samples of the forms/questionnaires follow

26

MedPrep 2008 Program Assessment

Successful completion of the MedPrep Pre-Matriculation Program takes into consideration the

following 3 assessment components:

1. Lecture-Discussion Based (LDB)

2. DPC (Doctor Patient Continuum)

3. ICC (Institute for Clinical Competence)

A successful candidate must achieve a passing score for all 3 components. Strength in one

area will not compensate for weakness in another.

1. The first component assesses the Lecture-Discussion Based portion of the MedPrep Pre-

Matriculation Program. It is comprised of 3 multiple choice quizzes and 1 multiple choice exam.

 Histology

 Biochemistry

 Physiology

 Genetics

 Physiology

 OMM

 Pharmacology

 Pathology

 Microbiology

 Clinical Reasoning Skills

Each of the three quizzes constitutes 10% of an individuals overall LDB score and the final exam

(to be conducted on June 27) constitutes 70% of an individuals overall LDB score (comprising

100%) in the Lecture-Discussion portion of the program.

2. The second is based upon your performance in the DPC portion of the MedPrep Pre-

Matriculation Program. There will be a facilitator assessment (to be conducted on June 26),

which will comprise 30% of an individual’s grade and a final written assessment which will be

70% of an individual’s overall DPC score.

** Note – Both the Lecture-Discussion Based and DPC passing scores are calculated as

per NYCOM practice:

 Average (mean) minus one standard deviation

 Not to be lower than 65%

 Not to be higher than 70%

27

3. The third component is the ICC encounter designed to assess your Doctor Patient

Interpersonal skills. This assessment is evaluated on the PARS scale described to you in the

Doctor Patient Interpersonal Skills session on June 12, by Dr. Errichetti.

After the program ends, on June 27th, all three components of the assessment will be compiled

and reviewed by the MedPrep Committee. The director of admissions, who is a member of the

committee, will prepare notification letters that will be mailed to you within two weeks.

Please note:

The written communication you will receive ONLY contains acceptance information. NO

grades will be distributed. Exams or other assessments (with the exception of the Lecture-

Discussion Based quizzes, which have already been returned) will not be shared or returned.

Please DO NOT contact anyone at NYCOM requesting the status of your candidacy. No

information will be given on the phone or to students on campus.

Thank you for your participation in the MedPrep Pre-Marticulation Program. The faculty

and staff have been delighted to meet and work with you. We wish you success!

Sincerely,

Bonnie Granat

28

Last Name, First Name

Quiz #1

Score

(10% of

Overall

LDB

Score)

Quiz #2

Score

(10% of

Overall

LDB Score)

Quiz #3

Score

(10% of

Overall

LDB

Score)

LDB Final

Exam

Score

(70% of

Overall LDB

Score)

Overall LBD

Score

(Exam and

Quizzes

Combined)

Overall

DPC

Score

Overall

ICC

Score

29

NEW YORK COLLEGE OF OSTEOPAHTIC MEDICINE

ADMISSIONS INTERVIEW EVALUATION FORM

Applicant______________________________________________________ Date____/_____/____

CATEGORY

CRITERIA

VALUE

RATING

I. PERSONAL PRESENTATION

MATURITY

LIFE EXPERIENCE /TRAVEL

EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES/HOBBIES

COMMUNICATION SKILLS

SELF ASSESSMENT (STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES)

AACOMAS & SUPPLEMENTAL STATEMENT

50

II. OSTEOPATHIC MOTIVATION

KNOWLEDGE OF THE PROFESSION

TALKED TO A DO/LETTER FROM A DO

15

III. PRIMARY CARE MOTIVATION

INTEREST IN PRIMARY CARE

15

IV. OVERALL IMPRESSION

EXPOSURE TO MEDICINE

– VOLUNTEER EXPERIENCE

– EMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCE

– UNIQUE ACADEMIC EXPERIENCES

– RESEARCH

20

TOTAL RATING

100

OTHER COMMENTS: PLEASE USE OTHER SIDE

(REQUIRED)

INTERVIEWER:

Print

Name______________________________

Signed__________________________________________

30

Comments on Applicant _____________________________________________________

COMMENTS:

Interviewer_______________________________________

31

32

14. List all Colleges attended (Undergraduate, Graduate, Professional – US and Home Country) List in chronological order

Institution Name Location Dates of Major

Attendance Subject

Degree granted

or expected (Date)

Medical Specialty (if any) ___________________ No. of years in practice _________

15. Have you had any U.S. military experience ? Yes ( ) No ( )

If yes, was your discharge honorable? Yes ( ) No ( )

16. List employment in chronological order, beginning with your current position:

Title or Description Where Dates Level of Responsibility

17. Work/daytime telephone number________________________

area code phone

18. How do you plan to finance your NYCOM education? Personal funds ________ Loans

19. Were you ever the recipient of any action for unacceptable academic performance or conduct

violations (e.g. probation, dismissal, suspension, disqualification, etc.) by any

college or school? Yes ( ) No

If yes, were you ever denied readmission? Yes ( ) No

20. Have you ever been convicted of a misdemeanor or felony (excluding parking violations)? Yes ( ) No(

If your answer to #19 or #20 is yes, please explain fully:

21. Evaluation Service used: Globe Language Services ______ Joseph Silny & Assocs. ______

World Education Services ______ IERF _____

*22. TOEFL Score(s): ________________________________

*ALL CANDIDATES MUST TAKE TOEFL / TOEFL

Scores Cannot Be Older Than 2 YEARS

If you plan to take or retake the TOEFL, enter date: _____/_____/ mo.

yr.

(NYCOM’s TOEFL Code is #2486; copies cannot be accepted)

( )

( )

)

33

USMLE WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED IN LIEU OF TOEFL

All evaluations must be received directly from the evaluation service and are subject to approval by the New York

College of Osteopathic Medicine.

Personal Comments: Please discuss your reasons for applying to the EPP program.

Selection of candidates is competitive; achieving a minimum, passing TOEFL Score

does not automatically guarantee an interview.

I certify that all information submitted in support of my application is complete and correct to the best of my knowledge.

Date: Signature: ______________________________________

PLEASE MAIL APPLICATION AND FEE ($60.00 CHECK OR MONEY ORDER ONLY, PAYABLE TO NYCOM) TO:

New York College of Osteopathic Medicine

Of New York Institute of Technology

Office of Admissions/ Serota Academic Center Room 203

Northern Blvd.

Old Westbury, NY 11568-8000

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

NEW YORK COLLEGE OF OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE

INTERVIEW EVALUATION FORM – É MIGRE PHYSICIANS PROGRAM

Applicant:___________________________________ Date:________________

State:___________________________

CATEGORY

CRITERIA TO BE

ADDRESSED VALUE RATING

1. Oral Comprehension

Ability to understand questions, content

30

2. Personal Presentation

Appropriate response, ability to relate to

interviewers

30

3. Verbal Expression

Clarity, articulation, use of

grammar

30

4. Overall Impression

Unique experiences, employment ,

research

10

OVERALL

RATING

100

INTERVIEWER RECOMMENDATION:

Accept_____________

Reject_____________

COMMENTS:______________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

NAME:_____________________________

SIGNED:____________________________

46

2. Academic (pre-clinical) course-work

Data captured during NYCOM’s pre-clinical 4-year pre-doctoral program and 5-year

Academic Medicine Scholars program which includes the following:

Curricular Tracks: Lecture Based-Discussion / Doctor Patient Continuum

 Pre-clinical course pass/failure rate as determined by class year (year 1 and year

2) and overall at end of year 2 (tracking each class and in aggregate for two

years);

 Failure rates of (components) Nervous System course or Behavior course;

 Course grades (H/P/F);

 Exam scores;

 Scores (pass/fail rate) on Core Clinical Competency OSCE exams;

 Professionalism Assessment Rating Scale (PARS)

 Students determined as pre-clinical course dismissals (and remediated);

 Students determined double course failure (and remediated);

 Failure rates due to cognitive and/or OMM lab portions of course

 Repeat students (aligned with Learning Specialist intervention)

 Changes in academic status (attrition-as identified above);

 End-of-year class rankings.

47

Specific forms/questionnaires utilized to capture the above-detailed information include the

following:

 Introduction to Osteopathic Medicine / Lecture-Based Discussion

 Doctor-Patient Continuum (DPC) – Biopsychosocial Sciences I

Grading and Evaluation Policy

 DPC – Clinical Sciences II – Grading Policy

 Assessing the AOA Core Competencies at NYCOM

 Institute for Clinical Competence (ICC) Professionalism Assessment

Rating Scale (PARS)

 SimCom-T(eam) Holistic Scoring Guide

 Case A – Dizziness, Acute (scoring guides)

Samples of the forms/questionnaires follow

48

Introduction to Osteopathic Medicine / Lecture-Based Discussion

Grading and Evaluation

1. At the conclusion of this course, students will receive a final cognitive score and a final OMM laboratory

score.

2. Both a student’s final cognitive score and a student’s final OMM laboratory score must be at a

passing level in order to pass this course.

3. Cognitive Score

a. A student’s cognitive score is comprised of the following two components:

i. Written Examinations and Quizzes pertaining to course lectures and corresponding

required readings, cases, course notes, and PowerPoint presentations

ii. Anatomy Laboratory Examinations and Quizzes

b. The weighting of the two components of the final cognitive score is as follows:

Summary of Cognitive Score Breakdown

Cognitive Score Component % of Final Cognitive Score

Written Examinations and Quizzes 75%

Anatomy Laboratory Examinations and

Quizzes

25%

Total Cognitive Score 100%

c. Written Examinations and Quizzes

i. There will be three written examinations and four written quizzes in this course.

ii. The written examinations and quizzes will consist of material from all three threads

(Cellular and Molecular Basis of Medicine, Structural and Functional Basis of Medicine,

Practice of Medicine).

iii. Up to 25% of the written exam and quiz material will come from directed readings.

iv. For the purpose of determining passing for this course, the written examinations will be

worth 90% of the final written score and the quizzes will be worth 10% (2.5% each) of the

final written score. This weighting is illustrated in the following table:

Summary of Written Exam/Quiz Score Breakdown

Written Exam/Quiz # % of Final Written Score

Written Exam #1 25%

Written Exam #2 30%

Written Exam #3 35%

Total Written Exam Score 90%

Written Quiz #1 2.5%

Written Quiz #2 2.5%

Written Quiz #3 2.5%

Written Quiz #4 2.5%

Total Written Quiz Score 10%

Total Written Score 100%

d. Anatomy Laboratory Examinations and Quizzes

i. There will be two Anatomy laboratory examinations in this course

ii. There will be Anatomy laboratory quizzes in this course, conducted during Anatomy

laboratory sessions.

iii. For the purpose of determining passing for this course, each Anatomy lab examination

49

will be worth 45% of students’ final Anatomy lab score and all Anatomy lab quizzes

combined will be worth 10% of students’ final Anatomy lab score. This weighting is

illustrated in the following table:

Summary of Anatomy Lab Exam/Quiz Score Breakdown

Anatomy Lab Exam/Quiz # % of Final Anatomy Score

Anatomy Lab Exam #1 45%

Anatomy Lab Exam #2 45%

Anatomy Lab Quizzes 10%

Total Anatomy Lab Exam/Quiz Score 100%

4. OMM Laboratory Score

a. A student’s OMM laboratory score in this course is comprised of an OMM laboratory examination

and laboratory quizzes, as follows:

i. There will be one OMM laboratory practical examination in this course

ii. There will be two OMM laboratory practical quizzes in this course conducted during OMM

laboratory sessions

iii. There will be a series of OMM laboratory written quizzes in this course conducted during

OMM laboratory sessions.

b. The weighting of the components of the OMM laboratory final score is as follows: For the purpose

of determining passing for this course, the OMM laboratory practical examination will be worth 70%

of the final OMM laboratory score, the OMM laboratory practical quizzes will be worth 20% (10%

each) of the final OMM laboratory score, and the OMM laboratory written quizzes will be worth 10%

(all OMM lab written quizzes combined) of the OMM laboratory score. This weighting is illustrated

in the following table:

Summary of OMM Laboratory Exam/Quiz Score Breakdown

OMM Laboratory Exam/Quiz % of Final OMM Laboratory Score

OMM Laboratory Practical Exam 70%

OMM Laboratory Practical Quiz #1 10%

OMM Laboratory Practical Quiz #2 10%

OMM Laboratory Written Quizzes (all quizzes

combined)

10%

Total OMM Laboratory Score 100%

5. Examinations and quizzes may be cumulative.

6. Honors Determination

a. For the purpose of determining who will be eligible to receive a course grade of Honors (“H”), the

final cognitive score and final OMM laboratory score will be combined in a 75%/25% ratio,

respectively.

b. Using the formula noted above, students scoring in the top 10% (and who have not taken a makeup

exam within the course or remediated the course) will receive a course grade of Honors.

50

DOCTOR PATIENT CONTINUUM(DPC) – BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL

SCIENCES I

Grading and Evaluation Policy:

The examinations and evaluations are weighed as follows:

Evaluation Criteria: Percent of Grade

Content Examination 55%

Component Examinations 25%

Facilitator Assessment 20%

Content Examination: There will a mid-term exam and an end of the term exam, each weighted equally. The

examinations will cover the learning issues submitted by the case-study groups. Questions will be based on the

common learning issues (covered by all groups) and learning issues specific to individual groups (unique issues).

Component Exams: Distribution of the component exams will be as follows:

 Exams based on Anatomy lectures and labs = 20%

 Graded assignments offered by problem set instructors, which might include quizzes, position papers,

and/or other exercises = 5%

Facilitator Assessment: Facilitators will meet individually with students twice during the term to evaluate their

performance. The first evaluation will be ‘formative’ only, i.e., to advise students of their progress and will not be

recorded for grade. The end of the term evaluation will be used to assess the student’s progress/participation in the

group and other class related activities. Students will also complete Self-Assessment Forms to supplement the

evaluation process.

The grading of this course is on a “PASS/FAIL/HONORS” basis.

1) Students will be evaluated each Term using the multiple components as described above.

2) Each year at the end of the 1st Term:

a) All students will be assigned an interim grade of I (Incomplete);

b) Each student will be informed of his/her final average, a record of which will be maintained in the office of

the DPC Academic Coordinator and the Director of the DPC program.

3) Students who earn less than a 1st-Term average of 70%, or a content exam score of <65%, will be officially

informed that their performance was deficient for the 1st Term. The student, in consultation with the Course

Coordinator, will present a plan designed to resolve the deficiency. This information will also be forwarded to

the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs for tracking purposes.

4) Students with a 1st-Term average <70%, or a content exam score of <65%, will be allowed to continue with the

class. However, in order to pass the year the student must achieve a final yearly average (1st- and 2ndterm)

of 70% or greater with a content exam average (for the two Terms) of 65% or greater.

5) All students who meet the requirements for passing the year (see 4) will then be awarded the grade of P (Pass)

or H (Honors) for each of the two Terms.

51

6) Students who fail the year (see 4) will be awarded a grade of I (Incomplete) and will be permitted (with

approval of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs) to sit for a comprehensive reassessment-examination.

The reassessment exam will be constructed by the course faculty and administered by the Course Coordinator.

The exam may include both written and oral components. Successful completion of the reassessment

examination will result in the awarding of a grade of P for the two Terms. Failure of the comprehensive

reassessment exam will result in the awarding of a grade of F (Fail) for the two terms, and a recommendation to

the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs that the student be dismissed from the College.

7) Students whose failure of the year (i.e. overall yearly average <70%) can be attributed to low facilitator

assessment scores present a special concern. The student has been determined, by his/her facilitators, to be

deficient in the skills necessary to effectively interact with patients and colleagues. This deficiency may not be

resolvable by examination. Such failures will be evaluated by the Director of the DPC program, the Associate

Dean of Academic Affairs and/or the Committee on Student Progress (CSP) to determine possible remediation

programs or to consider other options including dismissal.

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DOCTOR PATIENT CONTINUUM(DPC) – CLINICAL SCIENCES II

Grading Policy:

1. The grading of this course is on a “PASS/FAIL/HONORS” basis. Grades will be determined by performance

in the three components of the course, OMM, Clinical Skills, and Clinical Practicum, as follows:

Evaluation Criteria: Percent of Grade

OMM 40%

Clinical Skills 40%

Clinical Practicum 20%

In both the OMM and Clinical Skills components of the course, student evaluations will encompass written

and practical examinations. In order to pass the course, both the written and practical examinations in OMM

AND Clinical Skills must be passed. Students who fail to achieve a passing score in either Clinical Skills or

OMM will be issued a grade of “I” (Incomplete). Such students will be offered the opportunity to remediate

the appropriate portion of the course. Re-evaluation will be conducted under the supervision of the DPC

faculty. Successful completion of the re-evaluation examination, both written and practical, will result in the

awarding of a grade of P (Pass). Failure of the comprehensive reassessment exam will result in the

awarding of a grade of U (Unsatisfactory) for this course.

2. Grading of the OMM component will be evaluated according to the following criteria:

Evaluation Criteria: Percent of Grade

OMM written (weighted) 50%

OMM practical (average) 50%

3. Grading of the Clinical Practicum component will be evaluated according to the following criteria:

Evaluation Criteria: Percent of Grade

Attendance and Participation 15%

Case Presentation 35%

Clinical Mentor Evaluation 50%

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4. Grading of the Clinical Skills component will be evaluated according to the following criteria:

Evaluation Criteria: Percent of Grade

Class participation/assignments 5%

ICC participation/assignments 10%

Timed examination #1

– Practical portion 20%

– Written portion 5%

Timed examination #2

– Practical portion 20%

– Written portion 5%

Timed Comprehensive examination

– Practical portion 25%

– Written portion 10%

Pre-clinical Years: Years I and II DPC Track

54

Assessing the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Core Competencies at

New York College of Osteopathic Medicine (NYCOM)

A. Background

In recent years, there has been a trend toward defining, teaching and assessing a number

of core competencies physicians must demonstrate. The Federation of State medical Boards

sponsored two Competency-Accountability Summits in which a “theoretical textbook” on good

medical practice was drafted to guide the development of a competency-based curriculum. The

competencies include: medical knowledge, patient care, professionalism, interpersonal

communication, practice-based learning, and system-based practice. The AOA supports the

concepts of core competency assessment and added an additional competency: osteopathic

philosophy and osteopathic clinical medicine.

Arguably it is desirable to begin the process of core competency training and assessment

during the pre-clinical year. Patient simulations, i.e. using standardized patients and robotic

simulator, allow for such training and assessment under controlled conditions. Such a pre-clinical

program provides basic clinical skills acquisition in a patient-safe environment. NYCOM has

responded to this challenge by creating a two-year “Core Clinical Competencies” seminar that

requires students to learn and practice skills through various patient simulations in the Institute

For Clinical Competence (ICC). In this seminar the ICC assesses a sub-set of the above

competencies taught in the lecture-based and discussion-based clinical education tracks.

The following is a list of the competencies assessed during the pre-clinical years at

NYCOM, and reassessed during the third year (osteopathic medicine objective structured

clinical examination) and fourth year (voluntary Clinical Skills Capstone Program). It should be

noted that there is a fair amount of skills overlap between the competencies, for example, the

issue of proper communication can be manifested in a number of competencies.

B. Core Clinical Competencies

1. Patient Care: Provide compassionate, appropriate effective treatment, health promotion

Skills:

 Data-gathering: history-taking, physical examination (assessed with clinical skills

checklists)

 Develop differential diagnosis

 Interpret lab results, studies

 Procedural skills, e.g. intubation, central line placement, suturing, catheterization

 Provide therapy

2. Interpersonal and communication skills: Effective exchange of information and collaboration

with patients, their families, and health professionals.

Skills:

 Communication with patients and their families across a spectrum of multicultural

backgrounds (assessed with the Professionalism Assessment Rating Scale)

55

 Health team communication

 Written communication (SOAP note, progress note)

3. Professionalism: Commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities and ethical

committments

Skills:

 Compassion, respect, integrity for others

 Responsiveness to patient needs

 Respect for privacy, autonomy

 Communication and collaboration with other professionals

 Demonstrating appropriate ethical consideration

 Sensitivity and responsiveness to a diverse patient population including e.g. gender,

age, religion, culture, disabilities, sexual orientation.

4. Osteopathic Philosophy and Osteopathic Clinical Medicine: Demonstrate, apply knowledge

of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT); integrate osteopathic concepts and OMT into

medical care; treating the person, and not just the symptoms

Skills:

 Utilize caring, compassionate behavior with patients

 Demonstrate the treatment of people rather than the symptoms

 Demonstrate understanding of somato-visceral relationships and the role of the

musculoskeletal disease

 Demonstrate listening skills in interaction with patients

 Assessing disease (pathology) and illness (patient’s response to disease)

 Eliciting psychosocial information

C. Assessment of Core Competencies

The ICC utilizes formative assessment to evaluate learner skills and the effectiveness of

NYCOM’s clinical training programs. Data on student performance in the ICC is tracked from

the first through the fourth year. The ICC satellite at St. Barnabas assesses students during their

clerkship years as well as interns and residents in a number of clinical services. It uses a variety

of methods to assess competencies:

1. Written evaluations

 Analytic assessment – skills checklists that document data-gathering ability

 Global-holistic rating scales to assess doctor-patient communication (Professionalism

Assessment Rating Scale) and health team communication (SimCom-T)

 SOAP note and progress note assessment

2. Debriefing / feedback – a verbal review of learner actions following a patient simulation

program provided by standardized patients and instructors as appropriate.

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Core Clinical Competencies 590 (MS 1)

Core Clinical Competencies 690 (MS 2)

The courses provide a horizontal integration between clinical courses provided by the LDB and

DPC programs (small group discussion and demonstration) and the OMM department. It

provides practice with simulated patients (some variation in this aspect as noted below),

formative assessment, end-of-year summative assessment and remediation.

1. SP PROGRAM, METRICS AND HOURS

MS 1 Program – SP Different program, same standardized examination

LDB

 SP program: training with formative assessment (see next bullet for formative assessment

metrics)

 End of year OSCE assessing history-taking (checklists designed for each SP case), PE (see

attached physical examination criteria) and interpersonal communication (see attached

program in doctor-patient communication “Professionalism Assessment Rating Scale)

 Hours: 13.5 / year (including OSCE)

DPC

 Clinic visits to substitute for SP encounters

 End of year OSCE (same as LDB)

 Hours: Should be equivalent to the number of SP hours in the LDB program

NOTE: The purpose of the OSCE is to assess the clinical training of both the LDB and DPC

programs. It is assumed the LDB and DPC faculty will work on this OSCE together with the

OMM department.

MS 1 Program – Patient Simulation Program

LDB and DPC

 Same program in basic procedures for both LDB and DPC students as outlined in the

syllabus distributed during the curriculum committee

 Hours: 5 hours / year

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MS 2 Program – SP

LDB and DPC – same program, different approaches, same standardized exam

 SP program: training with formative assessment (see next bullet for formative assessment

metrics)

 End of year OSCE assessing history-taking (checklists designed for each SP case), PE (see

attached physical examination criteria) and interpersonal communication (see attached

program in doctor-patient communication “Professionalism Assessment Rating Scale)

 Hours: 13.5 hours / year (including OSCE)

 NOTE: It is assumed that the LDB and DPC program schedules will vary but that the

content will be equivalent

MS 2 Program – Patient Simulation Program

LDB and DPC – same program, same standardized exam

 Students work in the same group throughout the year

End of year OSCE assessing medical team communication using the SimCom-T rating scale

(attached)

 Group grade assigned for the OSCE (reflecting the spirit of the SimCom-T rating scale)

 Hours: 11 / year (including OSCE)

2. Attendance

 All activities and exams are mandatory.

 Make ups are done at the discretion of the ICC

NOTE: Make ups will be done as close to an activity as possible because delaying them, e.g. to

the end of the year, will incur additional training expenses (e.g. re-training a SP for a case played

months earlier) for the ICC.

3. Grading and remediation

 Pass / fail

 Grading is based upon:

o Attendance

o Participation

o End-of-year OSCE (standards to be set)

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ICC Hours

MS1

Clinical Practice OSCE Total

Hours

LDB 8 SP exercises @1.5 hours each

12 hours per student

5 patient simulation program exercises @ 1 hours

each

5 hours per student

End-of-year SP OSCE

1.5 hours per student

(approximately 6.25 days)

13.5 hours

(SP)

5 hours

(Pat Sim)

Total = 18.5

DPC Clinic experience to substitute for SP exercises

 Students will receive information re:

communication and PE competencies

5 patient simulation program exercises @ 1 hours

each

5 hours per student

0 hours

(SP)

5 hours

Pat Sim

Total = 5

MS2

Clinical Practice OSCE Total

Hours

LDB

DPC

8 SP exercises @1.5 hours each

12 hours per student

6 patient simulation program exercises, plus ACLS

10 hours per student

End-of-year SP OSCE

1.5 hours per student

(approximately 6.25 days)

End-of-year Pat Sim OSCE

1 hour per student

(approximately 5 days)

13.5 hours

(SP)

11 hours

(Pat Sim)

Total = 24.5

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© 2007 NYCOM Do not reproduce or distribute without permission 9/4/07

Institute For Clinical Competence (ICC)

Professionalism Assessment Rating Scale (PARS)

Dear Students:

As part of your professional development, standardized patients (SPs) in the ICC will be

evaluating your interpersonal communication with them using the Professionalism Assessment

Rating Scale (PARS).

This scale evaluates two types of interpersonal communication, both important to quality health

care:

􀂃 Patient Relationship Quality – Rapport, empathy, confidence and body language.

􀂃 Patient Examination Quality – Questioning, listening, information exchanging and careful and

thorough physical examination.

Arguably patients (real or simulated) are in the best position to assess your interpersonal

communication with them because you are directly relating to them during an intimate, face-toface,

hands-on encounter. They are in the best position, literally, to observe your eye contact,

demeanor and body language because they are in the room with you. We would recommend you

take their feedback seriously, but perhaps “with a grain of salt.”

The term standardized patient is to some degree a misnomer – SPs can be standardized to

present the same challenge and the same medical symptoms to each student, but they cannot be

standardized to feel the same way about you and your work with them compared to other

students. This is true in life as well as clinical work – some people will like you better than others,

and patients are people! You may communicate with one patient the way you do with the next,

but receive slightly different ratings. This is to be expected. Unlike the analytic checklists we use

to document if you asked particular questions or performed certain exams correctly, there are no

dichotomous / “right or wrong” communication ratings. Patients are people who may tune into

different things during an encounter. We think this slight variation in observation is an asset that

will help you understand that patients are individuals who must be approached as individuals.

Another word about the ratings you will receive – the ratings are not absolute numbers that

constitute an unconditional assessment of your communication skills. Some days you may be

better than other days. We use the ratings numbers (1-8 holistic scale) to chart progress over

time. We do see improvements during the first two years of the typical student’s training but the

ratings are used to track your progress as much as to structure a conversation with the SP, or

faculty member, during debriefing. We would recommend you take responsibility during SP

debriefing and ask them questions about the work you just did.

The holistic 1 – 8 scale is broken down into two parts: Ratings of 1 – 4 are considered “lower

quality” communication, i.e. what might be considered acceptable at a novice or trainee level, but

less acceptable for an experienced professional. Ratings of 5 – 8 are considered “higher quality”

communication, i.e. more professional-quality communication regardless of the training or

experience level.

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© 2007 NYCOM DO NOT DISCLOSE, DISTRIBUTE OR REPRODUCE WITHOUT PERMISSION 3/18/07

Professionalism Assessment Rating Scale (PARS)

Standardized patients will rate “to what degree” you demonstrated relationship quality and

examination quality on the following nine factors:

RELATIONSHIP QUALITY

To what degree did the student …

Lower Higher

Quality Quality

1 Establish and maintain rapport 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2 Demonstrate empathy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 Instill confidence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

4 Use appropriate body language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

EXAMINATION QUALITY

To what degree did the student …

Lower Higher

Quality Quality

5 Elicit information clearly, effectively 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

6 Actively listen 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

7 Provide timely feedback / information / counseling 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

8 Perform a thorough, careful physical exam or

treatment

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8

Less experienced, More

or unprofessional professional

The following pages are a guide to the PARS, giving examples of “lower quality” and

“higher quality” communication.

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© 2007 NYCOM DO NOT DISCLOSE, DISTRIBUTE OR REPRODUCE WITHOUT PERMISSION 3/18/07

1 Establish and maintain rapport

Establish and maintain a positive, respectful collaborative working relationship with the patient.

Lower Quality

1 2 3 4

Higher Quality

5 6 7 8

Overly familiar.

􀂃 “Hi Bill, I’m John. How are you doing

today.”

Appropriate address, e.g.

􀂃 “Hi Mr. Jones, I’m Student-doctor Smith. Is it

OK if I call you Bill?”

No agenda set. Set agenda, e.g.

No collaboration with the patient, i.e. carries

out the exam without patient consent or

agreement.

􀂃 “We have ___ minutes for this exam. I’ll take a

history, examine you…..etc.”

Collaborative mindset

􀂃 “Let’s figure out what’s going on.”

􀂃 “We’re going to work out this problem together.”

Took notes excessively, i.e. spent more time

taking notes than interacting.

Spent more time interacting with the patient than

taking notes.

Began physically examining patient without

“warming” patient up, asking consent, etc.

Asked consent for obtaining a physical

examination, e.g.

􀂃 “Is it OK for me to do a physical exam?”

Did not protect patient’s modesty, e.g.

􀂃 Did not use a drape sheet

Respected patient’s modesty at all times e.g.

􀂃 Used a drape sheet when appropriate

􀂃 Did not direct patient to get dressed after

exam

􀂃 Letting patient cover up follow an examination.

􀂃 Left door open when examining patient.

Talked “down” to patient, did not seem to

respect patient’s intelligence.

Seemed to assume patient is intelligent.

Rude, crabby or overtly disrespectful. Never rude, crabby; always respectful.

Dress, hygiene problems:

􀂃 Wore distracting perfume/cologne.

Dressed professionally, i.e. in a clean white coat,

clean clothes, etc.

􀂃 Poor hygiene, e.g. uncleanly, dirty nails,

body odor, did not wash hands, etc.

􀂃 Touched hair continually

􀂃 Unprofessional dress, e.g. wore jeans,

facial jewelry (e.g. tongue or nose studs),

overly suggestive or revealing garments

Seemed angry with the patient.

Seemed to like the patient.

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2 Demonstrate empathy

Demonstrate both empathy (compassion, understanding, concern, support) and inquisitiveness

(curiosity, interest) in the patient’s medical problem and life situation.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

EMPATHY

No expressions of concern about patient’s

condition or situation.

Expressed concern about patient’s condition or

situation, e.g.

􀂃 “That must be painful.”

􀂃 “I’m here to try to help you.”

Failed to acknowledge positive behavior /

lifestyle changes the patient has made.

Reinforced behavior/lifestyle changes the patient

has made, e.g. “That’s great you quit smoking.”

Failed to acknowledge suggested behavior /

lifestyle changes might be difficult.

Acknowledged that suggested behavior/lifestyle

changes might be difficult.

Empathic expression seemed insincere,

superficial.

Empathic expressions seemed genuine.

Detached, aloof, overly “business-like,” robotic in

demeanor.

Compassionate and caring, “warm.”

Seeming lack of compassion, caring.

Accused patient of being a non-compliant, e.g.

􀂃 “Why don’t you take better care of yourself?”

􀂃 “You should have come in sooner.”

Positive reinforcement of things patient is doing

well, e.g.

􀂃 “That’s great that you stopped smoking.”

􀂃 “I’m glad you are taking your medication on a

regular basis.

INQUISITIVENESS – An aspect of empathy is inquisitiveness, the ability to attempt to

understand the patient, both medically and personally.

Focused on symptoms, but not the patient, i.e.

did not explore how the medical problem /

symptoms affect the patient’s life.

Tried to understand how the medical problem /

symptoms affect the patient’s life, or vice versa.

􀂃 “How is this affecting your life?”

􀂃 “Tell me about yourself.”

Failed to explore activities of daily living. 􀂃 “Describe a typical day in your life.”

􀂃 “Tell me about your stress.”

Failed to explore patient’s response to diagnosis

and / or treatment.

Inquires as to patient’s response to diagnosis and

/ or treatment

Failed to explore barriers to behavior / lifestyle

change.

Explored barriers to behavior / lifestyle change.

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© 2007 NYCOM DO NOT DISCLOSE, DISTRIBUTE OR REPRODUCE WITHOUT PERMISSION 3/18/07

3 Instill confidence

Instilling confidence that the medical student or doctor is able to help and treat the patient.

Lower Quality

1 2 3 4

Higher Quality

5 6 7 8

Conveyed his / her anxiety, e.g. Conveyed an appropriately confident demeanor,

e.g.

􀂃 Made eye contact

􀂃 By avoiding eye contact

􀂃 Laughing or smiling nervously

􀂃 Sweaty hand shake

Made statement such as:

􀂃 “This is making me nervous.”

􀂃 “This is the first time I’ve ever done this.”

􀂃 “I don’t know what I’m doing.”

Apologized inappropriately to the patient. E.g.

􀂃 “I’m sorry, but I have to examine you.”

􀂃 Shook hands firmly, etc.

Overly confident, cocky.

Never cocky, appropriately humble without

undermining the patient’s confidence.

When making suggestions, used tentative

language, e.g.

􀂃 “Maybe you should try…”

􀂃 “I’m not sure but …”

When making suggestions, used authoritative

language, e.g.

􀂃 “What I suggest you do is…”

Made excuses for his/her lack of skill or

preparation by making statements such as:

Offered to help the patient or get information if he

/ she could not provide it by saying, e.g.

􀂃 “I’m just a medical student.”

􀂃 “Let me ask the attending physician”

􀂃 “They didn’t explain this to me.”

􀂃 “Do you know what I’m supposed to do next?”

􀂃 “I don’t know but let me find out for you.”

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© 2007 NYCOM DO NOT DISCLOSE, DISTRIBUTE OR REPRODUCE WITHOUT PERMISSION 3/18/07

4 Use appropriate body language

The ability to use appropriate gestures, signs and body cues.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Overly casual posture, e.g. leaning against

the wall or putting feet up on a stool when

interviewing the patient.

Professional posture, i.e. carried himself / herself

like an experienced, competent physician.

Awkward posture, e.g.

• Stood stiffly when taking a history

• Stood as if he / she was unsure what to do

with his / her body.

Natural, poised posture.

Uncomfortable or inappropriate eye contact

e.g. stared at the patient too long and / or

never looked at the patient.

Used appropriate eye contact.

Avoided eye contact when listening.

Made eye contact when listening, whether eye

level of not.

Stood or sat too close or too distant from the

patient.

Maintained an appropriate “personal closeness”

and “personal distance.”

Turned away from the patient when listening.

Maintained appropriate body language when

listening to the patient.

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© 2007 NYCOM DO NOT DISCLOSE, DISTRIBUTE OR REPRODUCE WITHOUT PERMISSION 3/18/07

5 Elicit information clearly, effectively

Effectively ask questions in an articulate, understandable, straightforward manner.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Used closed-ended, yes / no questions

exclusively, e.g.

Used open-ended questions to begin an inquiry,

and closed-ended questions to clarify, e.g.

􀂃 “How many days have you 􀂃 “Tell me about the problem.”

been sick?” 􀂃 “What do you do in a typical day?”

􀂃 “Ever had surgery?” 􀂃 “How is your health in general?”

􀂃 “Any cancer in your family?”

Used open-ended questions / non-clarifying

questions exclusively.

Used open-ended questions to begin an inquiry,

and closed-ended questions to clarify.

Student’s questions were inarticulate, e.g.

mumbled, spoke too fast, foreign accent

problems, stuttered*, etc.

* NOTE: Consider stuttering a form of inarticulation for

rating purposes, i.e. do not make allowances for

stuttering

Student was articulate, asked questions in an

intelligible manner.

Asked confusing, multi-part or overly complex

questions, e.g.

􀂃 “Tell me about your past medical

conditions, surgeries and allergies.”

Asked one question at a time, in a straight-forward

manner.

􀂃 “Tell me about your allergies.”

Asked direct questions, e.g.

Asked leading questions, e.g.

􀂃 “No cancer in your family, right?”

􀂃 “No surgeries?” 􀂃 “Do you have any cancer in your family?

􀂃 “You only have sex with your wife, right?” 􀂃 “Any surgeries?”

􀂃 “Are you monogamous?”

Jumped from topic to topic Organized interview.

in a “manic,” disjointed or

disorganized way.

Stayed focused, asked follow up questions before

moving to another topic.

Asked questions in a robotic way, Asked questions in a conversational way, i.e.

listened to the response, and then asked another

question.

i.e. as if reading from a prepared

checklist.

Constantly cut off patient, i.e. did

not let patient finish sentences.

Allowed patient to finish sentences and thoughts

before asking the next question.

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© 2007 NYCOM DO NOT DISCLOSE, DISTRIBUTE OR REPRODUCE WITHOUT PERMISSION 3/18/07

6 Actively listen

Both listen and respond appropriately to the patients’ statements and questions.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Asked questions without listening to the

patient’s response.

Asked questions and listened to patient’s

response.

No overt statements made indicating he / she

was listening.

Said, e.g. “I’m listening.”

Turned away from the patient when listening.

Maintained appropriate body language when

listening to the patient.

Kept asking the same question(s) because

the physician didn’t seem to remember what

he / she asks.

If necessary, asked the same questions to obtain

clarification, e.g.

􀂃 “Can you tell me again how much you smoke?”

􀂃 “I know you told me this, but when was the last

time you saw your doctor?”

Wrote notes without indicating he / she was

listening.

When writing indicated he / she is listening, e.g.

􀂃 “I have to write down a few things down when

we talk, OK?”

Did not seem to be listening, seemed

distracted.

Attentive to the patient.

Kept talking, asking questions, etc. if the

patient was discussing a personal issue, a

health concern, fear, etc.

Was silent when necessary, e.g. if the patient was

discussing a personal issue, a health concern,

fear, etc.

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7 Provide timely feedback / information / counseling

Explain, summarize information (e.g. results of physical exams, provides patient education

activities, etc.), or provide counseling in a clear and timely manner.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Did not explain examination procedures, e.g.

just started examining the patient without

explaining what he / she was doing.

Explained procedures, e.g.

􀂃 “I’m going to check your legs for edema.”

􀂃 “I’m going to listen to your heart.”

Did not provide feedback at all, or provided

minimal feedback

Periodically provided feedback regarding what he /

she heard the patient saying.

􀂃 “It sounds like your work schedule makes it

difficult for you to exercise.”

􀂃 “I hear in your voice that your family situation is

causing you a lot of stress.”

Did not summarize information at all. Periodically summarized information.

􀂃 “You had this cough for 3 weeks, it’s getting

worse and now you’ve got a fever. No one is

sick at home and you haven’t been around

anyone who is sick.”

Provided empty feedback or unprofessional

feedback, e.g.

Feedback was meaningful, useful and timely.

􀂃 “OK…..OK…..OK…..OK…”

􀂃 “Gotcha..gotcha…gotcha,..”

􀂃 “Great ” “Awesome” “Cool”

Examined the patient without providing

feedback about the results of the exam.

Provided feedback about results of the physical

exam.

􀂃 “Your blood pressure seems fine.”

Refused to give the patient information he /

she requested, e.g.

“You don’t need to know that.”

“That’s not important.”

Give information to the patient when requested, or

offered to get it if he / she couldn’t answer the

patient’s questions.

Used medical jargon without explanation, e.g. Explained medical terms.

􀂃 “What you experienced was a myocardial

infarction.”

􀂃 “What you experienced is a myocardial

infarction, meaning a heart attack.”

Ended the exam abruptly.

Let the patient know what the next step was,

provided closure.

No closure, no information about the next

steps

􀂃 “Let’s review the exam and your health…”

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8 Conduct a thorough, careful physical exam or treatment

Conduct physical exams and / or treatment in a thorough, careful manner vs. a tentative or

superficial manner.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Conducted a superficial examination, e.g. Conducted a careful examination, e.g.

􀂃 Avoided touching the patient 􀂃 Examined on skin when appropriate

􀂃 Touched patient with great tentativeness

Hurried through the exam. Used the full amount of time allotted to examine

the patient.

Avoided inspecting (looking at) the patient’s

body / affected area.

Thoroughly inspected (looked at) the affected

area e.g. with gown open.

Consistently palpated, auscultated and / or

percussed over the exam gown.

Consistently palpated, auscultated and / or

percussed on skin.

Exam not bi-lateral (when appropriate). Bi-lateral exam (when appropriate).

Rough exam, e.g. Conducted a smooth exam from beginning to

􀂃 Started, stopped, re-started the exam. end.

􀂃 Fumbled with instruments

Did not look to see what patient’s expressions

were during an examination in order to assess

pain.

Looked for facial expressions to assess pain.

Did not thoroughly examine the site of the

chief complaint, e.g.

Thoroughly examined the site of the chief

complaint.

􀂃 Did not examine heart and / or lungs if

chief complaint was a breathing problem

69

© 2007 NYCOM DO NOT DISCLOSE, DISTRIBUTE OR REPRODUCE WITHOUT PERMISSION 3/18/07

9 Conduct the examination in an organized manner

Overall conduct the exam in an organized, systematic way vs. a disorganized or unsystematic

way.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

No clear opening, e.g. Clear opening, e.g.

􀂃 Did not set an agenda 􀂃 Set an agenda and followed it

􀂃 Abruptly began the exam 􀂃 Began the exam after a proper introduction

Medical interview not organized – history

jumped from topic to topic

Organize the medical interview vs. jumping from

topic to topic

No clear closure, e.g. Clear closure, e.g.

􀂃 Did not summarize information gathered

during the history and physical

examination

􀂃 Summarized information gathered during the

history and physical examination

􀂃 Did not ask patient “Any more questions?” 􀂃 Asked patient “Any more questions?”

􀂃 Did not clarify next steps 􀂃 Clarified next steps

70

SimCom-T(eam) Holistic Scoring Guide

The SimCom-T is a holistic health care team communication training program and rating scale. The nine-factor scale of SimCom-T

rates team members’ performance as a unit, i.e. individual team member performance should be considered a reflection upon the

entire team.

Rate each factor individually.

Ratings should be global, i.e. reflect the most characteristic performance of the team vs. individual incidents.

The following pages are a guide to SimCom-T, providing behavioral examples representative of each score for the SimCom-T

competencies.

Score Performance Level Description – The team…

1 Limited ….consistently demonstrates novice and / or dysfunctional team attributes

2 Basic ….inconsistently operates at a functional level

3 Progressing ….demonstrates basic and average attributes

4 Proficient ….proficient and consistent in performance

5 Advanced ….experienced and performing at a significant expert level

CNE Not applicable ….A factor could not be evaluated for some reason

Competency Lower

Quality

Higher

Quality

1 Leadership establishment and maintenance 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

2 Global awareness 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

3 Recognition of critical events 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

4 Information exchange 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

5 Team support 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

6 External team support 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

7 Patient support 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

8 Mutual trust and respect 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

9 Flexibility 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

10 Overall Team Performance 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

71

1. Leadership Establishment and Maintenance

Team members both establish leadership and maintain leadership throughout.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Leader not

established

▪ Roles not assigned

▪ No discussion

regarding role

assignment

▪ Unable to identify

leader

▪ Many leaders

▪ No clear role

definition

▪ Leadership not

explicit throughout

event

▪ Leadership not

maintained

throughout the event

▪ Role switching

without leader

involvement

▪ Leader explicitly

identified

▪ Roles defined

▪ Leadership explicitly

identified and

maintained

▪ Roles defined and

maintained

▪ Leader delegates

responsibility

Examples ▪ Team operating

dysfunctionally

without a leader

▪ Team members

taking on similar roles

and role switching

consistently

▪ Team members

unsure of who is

responsible for

different tasks

▪ Leader timid and

does not take charge

▪ Team member roles

unclear and/or

inconsistent

▪ A team member asks,

“Who is running the

code?” and another

says, “I am,” but does

not take communicate

leadership

responsibilities.

▪ Team members are

assigned roles but do

not take on the

assignment

▪ Team members

select a leader

▪ A team member

volunteers to handle

the situation

▪ Roles clearly defined

by team members

and/or leader

▪ Leadership and roles

are established very

early in the event and

is maintained

throughout the event

▪ Clarity of leadership

and roles is evident

throughout the event

and with the team

members

72

2. Global Awareness

Team members monitor and appropriately respond to the total situation, i.e. the work environmental and the patient’s condition.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Does not monitor the

environment and

patient

▪ Does not respond to

changes in the

environment and

patient

▪ Monitoring and

response to changes

in the environment

and patient rarely

occur

▪ Fixation errors

▪ Monitoring and

response to the

environment and

patient are not evident

throughout the event

▪ Monitors the

environment and

patient

▪ Respond to changes

in the environment

and patient

▪ Consistently monitors

the environment and

patient

▪ Consistently respond

to changes in the

environment and

patient

Examples ▪ There is no summary

of procedures, labs

ordered, or results of

labs

▪ Team is task oriented

and does not

communicate about

the event

▪ Event manager loses

focus and becomes

task oriented

▪ There is no clear

review of the lab

results and/or

summary of

procedures.

▪ Leader says, “Team,

lets review our

differential diagnosis

and labs,” and team

does not respond to

the leader.

▪ Some of the team

members discuss

among themselves

results and possible

problems.

▪ Leader says, “Team,

lets review our

differential diagnosis

and labs,” and team

reviews the situation.

▪ Event manager

remains at the foot of

the bed keeping a

global assessment of

the situation

▪ Leader announces

plan of action for the

event.

73

3. Recognition of Critical Events

Team promptly notes and responds to critical changes in the patient’s status and / or environment.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Does not monitor or

respond to critical

deviations from steady

state

▪ Fails to recognize or

acknowledge crisis

▪ “Tunnel Vision”

▪ Fixation errors are

consistently apparent

▪ Team reactive rather

than proactive

▪ Critical deviations

from steady state are

not announced for

other members

▪ Monitors and

responds to critical

deviations from steady

state

▪ Recognizes need for

action

▪ All team members

consistently monitors

and responds to

critical deviations from

steady state

▪ Anticipates potential

problems

▪ Practices a proactive

approach and attitude

▪ Recognizes need for

action

▪ “Big Picture”

Examples ▪ Patient stops

breathing, and team

does not recognize

the situation

throughout the event

▪ Patient is pulseless,

and no CPR is started

throughout the event

▪ Patient stops

breathing, and team

does not recognize

this situation for a

critical time period

▪ Patient is pulseless,

and no CPR is started

for a critical time

period

▪ ▪ Leader says, “Team,

lets review our

differential diagnosis,

are there any

additional tests that

we should request?”

▪ “John, the sats are

dropping, please be

ready, we might have

to intubate.”

▪ “Melissa, the blood

pressure is dropping.

Get ready to start the

2nd IV and order a

type and cross.”

74

4. Information Exchange

Patient and procedural information is exchanged clearly.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Communication

between team

members is not

noticeable

▪ Requests by others

are not acknowledged

▪ No feedback loop

▪ No orders given

▪ Vague

communication

between team

members

▪ Not acknowledging

requests by others

▪ Feedback loop left

opened

▪ Orders not clearly

given

▪ Communication

between team and

response to requests

by others inconsistent

▪ Feedback loops open

and closed

▪ Orders not directed to

a specific team

member

▪ Team communicates

and acknowledges

requests throughout

the event

▪ Feedback loops

closed

▪ Explicit

communication

consistently

throughout the event

▪ Team acknowledges

communication

▪ Closed loop

communication

throughout event

Examples ▪ No summary of

events.

▪ No additional

information sought

from the team

members.

▪ Event manager says,

“I need a defibrillator,

we might have to

shock this patient,”

and no team member

acknowledges the

order. The request

was not given

explicitly to a team

member.

▪ One team member

says to another in a

low voice, “We need

to place a chest tube,”

but the event

manager does not

hear the

communication.

▪ Event manager

requests a

defibrillator, but not

explicitly to a

particular team

member; several

team members

attempt to get the

defibrillator

▪ Jonathan says to

event manager, “We

need to place a chest

tube.” Event manager

responds, “OK, get

ready for it.”

▪ Leader says, “Team,

lets summarizes what

has been done so

far.”

▪ Leader says, “Mary

please start an IV.”

Mary responds,

“Sorry, I do not know

how, please ask

someone else to do

it.”

▪ Event manager

summarizes events.

▪ Event manager seeks

additional information

from all team

members

▪ Event manager says,

“Peter, I want you to

get the defibrillator,

we might have to

shock this patient.”

Peter responds, “Yes,

I know where it is and

I’ll get it.”

75

5. Team Support

The team works as a unit, asking for or offering assistance when needed vs. team members “going it alone.”

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ No assistance or help

asked for or offered

▪ Team members act

unilaterally

▪ No recognition of

mistakes

▪ Team members

watching and not

participating

▪ Team members take

over when not

needed

▪ Mistakes not

addressed to the

team

▪ Negative feedback

▪ Assistance is offered

when needed only

after multiple requests

▪ Team recognizes

mistakes and

constructively

addresses them

▪ Team member(s)

ask(s) for help when

needed

▪ Assistance provided

to team member(s)

who need(s) it

Examples ▪ During a shoulder

dystocia event, the

critical situation is

recognized, but no

help is requested or

attempts to resolve

situation on their own

▪ Wrong blood type

delivered and

administered, an no

backup behaviors to

correct the mistake

▪ Team member

administers

medication without

consulting the event

manager

▪ Charles knows that

the patient is a

Jehovah Witness and

does not let the team

know when a T&C is

ordered.

▪ Team does not

communicate that

he/she doesn’t know

how to use a

defibrillator and

attempts to do it

anyways and fails.

▪ ▪ ▪ During a shoulder

dystocia event, the

critical situation is

recognized, and event

manager calls for help

▪ Wrong blood type

delivered, attempt

made by team

member to administer

the blood but another

team member

recognizes the

mistake and stops the

transfusion before it

starts

▪ Team member

consults with the

event manager before

administering

medication

76

6. External Team Support

Work team provides “external team” (family members and / or other health care professionals) with information and support as

needed

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Team fails to

recognize or interact

with other significant

people who are

present during the

encounter

▪ Team recognizes

other significant

people who are

present during the

encounter but

ignores to interact

with them

▪ Team inconsistently

interacts with other

significant people who

are present during the

encounter

▪ Team interacts with

other significant

people who are

present during the

encounter

▪ Team effectively

interacts with other

significant people who

are present during the

encounter

Examples ▪ Team fails to interact

with a distraught

family member and/or

para-professional

▪ Team fails to interact

appropriately with a

distraught family

member

▪ Team does not

cooperate with a

para-professional

▪ ▪ ▪

77

7. Patient Support

Work team provides the patient and significant others with information and emotional support as needed.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Team fails to interact

with patient if

conscious

▪ Team fails to show

empathy or respect

for a patient

(conscious or

unconscious)

▪ Team fails to provide

appropriate

information when

requested to do so

▪ Teams interaction

with patient is

minimal and when

done so is lacking in

respect or empathy

▪ Team inconsistently

shows empathy or

respect for a patient

(conscious or

unconscious)

▪ Team inconsistently

provides information

when requested to do

so

▪ Team shows empathy

toward patient

▪ Team provides

appropriate

information when

requested to do so

▪ Team demonstrates

consistent and

significant respect

and empathy for

patient

▪ Appropriate

information is

provided consistently

Examples ▪ Team deals with an

unconscious patient

with a lack of respect,

e.g. by joking about

his / her condition

▪ Charles knows that

the patient is a

Jehovah Witness and

does not let the team

know when a T&C is

ordered.

▪ ▪ ▪ Charles lets the

leader know that the

patient is a Jehovah

Witness and that she

refused blood

products.

78

8. Mutual Trust and Respect

The team demonstrates civility, courtesy and trust in collective judgment.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Team exhibits e.g.

rudeness, overt

distrust/mistrust,

anger or overt doubt

or suspicion toward

each other

▪ Few team members

exhibit rudeness,

overt distrust, anger

or suspicion toward

each other

▪ Team inconsistently

demonstrates respect,

rudeness, distrust or

anger toward each

other

▪ Team exhibits e.g.

civility, courtesy, and

trust in collective

judgment

▪ Team is significantly

respectful of each

other

▪ Praise when

appropriate

Examples ▪ Angry, stressed event

manager says to team

member, “I can’t

believe you can’t

intubate the patient.

What’s the matter with

you?”

▪ Team member says

to another, “You don’t

know what you’re

doing-let me do it for

you.”

▪ Event manager

recognizes a chest

tube is needed, and

barks, “Michelle, I

want you to put in a

chest tube, I want you

to do it now, and I

want you to do it right

on your first attempt.”

▪ Leader overbearing

and intimidating

▪ ▪ Stressed but

composed leader

recognizes a team

member cannot

intubate the patient

and offers assistance

▪ Team member says

to another, “Are you

OK? Let me know if I

can help you.”

▪ Event manager

recognizes a chest

tube is needed and

says, “Michelle, this

patient needs a chest

tube-can you put it in

now?”

▪ Leader is clear, direct,

and calm.

▪ Team members will

thank each other

when appropriate.

79

9. Flexibility

The team adapts to challenges, multitasks effectively, reallocates functions, and uses resources effectively; team self correction.

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Team rigidly adheres

to individual team

roles

▪ Inefficient resource

allocation / use

▪ Minimal adaptability

and/or hesitation to

changing situations

▪ Team can adapt to

certain situations, but

not all

▪ Generally very flexible

▪ Multi-tasks effectively

▪ Reallocates functions

▪ Uses resources

effectively

▪ Team adapts to

challenges

consistently

▪ Engages selfcorrection

Examples ▪ Ambu-bag not

working, and no

reallocation of

resources established

▪ Team members stay

in individual roles,

failing to support each

other e.g. by failing to

recognize fatigue of

those giving CPR

▪ Patient’s hysterical

family member

disrupts the team and

team continues

providing care,

ignoring disruptive

relative

▪ ▪ ▪ Ambu-bag not

working, and an

airway team member

gives mouth-to-mouth

with a mask and

event manager asks

another team member

to retrieve a working

ambu-bag

▪ Team members

alternate giving CPR,

recognizing fatigue of

those giving CPR

▪ Patient’s hysterical

family member

disrupts the team and

a team manages the

situation, e.g.

removes, counsels, or

reassures the family

member

80

10. Overall Team Performance

Lower Quality Higher Quality

Score 1 2 3 4 5 CNE

Level Limited Basic Progressing Proficient Advanced

Description ▪ Consistently

operating at a novice

training level

▪ Demonstrates

inconsistent efforts to

operate at a

functional level

▪ Inconsistently

demonstrates below

and average

attributes

▪ Demonstrates

significant

cohesiveness as a

team unit;

▪ Performs proficiently

▪ Consistently operates

at an experienced

and professional

level; performs as

experts

Training

Level

▪ Team requires

training at all levels;

unable to function

independently

▪ Team needs training

at multiple levels to

function

independently

▪ Team needs focused

training to function

independently

▪ Team can function

independently with

supervision

▪ Team functions

independently

81

Case A – Dizziness, Acute

Student ___________________________ Student ID _________ SP ID _________

History Scoring: Give students credit (Yes) if they ask any of the following questions and / or SPs

give the following responses. If question(s) not asked or response(s) not give, give no credit (No).

HISTORY CHECKLIST Yes No

1 ONSET, e.g. “When did dizziness start?”

• “The dizziness started last night when I was cleaning up after dinner.”

2 PAST MEDICAL HISTORY OF PROBLEM, e.g. “Ever had this problem

before?”

􀂃 “I almost passed out once in restaurant a few months ago. The EMT

truck came and checked me out and they thought I was dehydrated

from exercising. I had just come from the gym.”

3 QUALITY, e.g. “Describe the dizziness.”

• “Every few minutes or so I get the feeling the room is spinning and I

feel a little nauseous, then it goes away and I feel OK. Then it starts all

over again.”

4 AGGRAVATING, e.g. “What makes the dizziness worse?”

􀂃 “Standing up with my eyes open makes me feel dizzy.”

5 PALLIATIVE, e.g. “What makes the dizziness better?”

􀂃 “Closing my eyes and laying down makes the dizziness better.”

6 HEAD INJURIES, e.g. “Have you bumped or injured your head?”

• “No head injuries.”

7 PAST MEDICAL HISTORY, e.g. “How is your health in general?”

􀂃 “In general I’ve been very healthy.”

8 MEDICATIONS, e.g. “Are you taking any medications for this problem or

anything else?”

􀂃 “I’m not taking anything. I thought of taking Dramamine but I wasn’t

sure it would help.”

9 DIET, e.g. “What do you eat in a typical day?”

􀂃 “A regular diet, toast and coffee in the morning, usually take out for

lunch, Chinese, a pizza or sub, something like that, and a regular meal

at night.”

10 TOBACCO USE, e.g. “Do you smoke?”

• “I used to smoke ó a pack a day, but now I’m down to 4 or 5,

sometimes a couple more if I’m stressed.”

11 ADLs, e.g. “How is this affecting your life?”

􀂃 “I couldn’t go to work today.”

82

Case A – Dizziness, Acute

PE SCORING:

􀂃 COLUMN 1: NO CREDIT: If any box is checked, exam was done “incorrectly” or

“incompletely.” Checked “Incorrect Details” box records reason(s) why.

􀂃 COLUMN 2: FULL CREDIT: If “Correct” box is checked, exam was done “Correctly /

Completely.”

􀂃 COLUMN 3: NO CREDIT: If “Not Done” box is checked, exam was not attempted at all.

Physical Examination Checklist 1

Incorrect

Details

2

Correct

3

Not

Done

12 Perform fundoscopic examination

􀂃 Did not ask the patient to fix their gaze at point in

front of them.

􀂃 Exam room not darkened.

􀂃 Otoscope used instead of ophthalmoscope

􀂃 “Left eye-left hand-left eye” or “right eye-right

hand -right eye rule” not followed.

􀂃 Exam not bilateral.

13 Assess Cranial Nerve II – Optic – Assess Visual

Fields by Confrontation

􀂃 Examiner not at approximate eye-level with

patient, and / or no eye contact.

􀂃 Examiner’s hands not placed outside of patient’s

field of vision.

􀂃 Did not ask “Tell me when you see my fingers.”

􀂃 Did not test both upper and lower fields, and / or

bilaterally.

14 Assess Cranial Nerves II and III – Optic and

Oculomotor: Assess direct and consensual

reactions

􀂃 Did not shine a light obliquely into each pupil

twice to check both the direct reaction and

consensual reaction.

􀂃 Did not assess bilaterally.

15 Assess Cranial Nerves II and III – Optic and

Oculomotor: Assess near reaction and near

response

􀂃 Did not test in normal room light.

􀂃 Finger, pencil, etc. placed too close or too far

from the patient’s eye.

􀂃 Did not ask the patient to look alternately at the

finger or pencil and into the distance.

83

Case A – Dizziness, Acute

PE SCORING:

􀂃 COLUMN 1: NO CREDIT: If any box is checked, exam was done “incorrectly” or

“incompletely.” Checked “Incorrect Details” box records reason(s) why.

􀂃 COLUMN 2: FULL CREDIT: If “Correct” box is checked, exam was done “Correctly /

Completely.”

􀂃 COLUMN 3: NO CREDIT: If “Not Done” box is checked, exam was not attempted at all.

1

Incorrect

Details

2

Correct

3

Not

Done

16 Assess Cranial Nerve III – Oculomotor: Assess

convergence

􀂃 Did not ask the patient to follow his / her finger or

pencil as he / she moves it in toward the bridge of

the nose.

17 Assess Cranial Nerve III, IV and VI – Oculomotor,

trochlear and abducens: Assessing extraocular

muscle movement

􀂃 Examiner did not assess extra-ocular muscle

movements in at least 6 positions of gaze using,

for example, the “H” pattern.

􀂃 Did not instruct patient to not move the head

during the exam.

18 Assess Cranial Nerve VIII – Acoustic / Weber test

􀂃 Did not produce a sound from tuning fork, e.g. by

not holding the fork at the base

􀂃 Did not place the base of the tuning fork firmly on

top middle of the patient’s head.

􀂃 Did not ask the patient where the sound appears

to be coming from.

19 Assess Cranial Nerve VIII – Acoustic / Rinne test

􀂃 Did not produce a sound from tuning fork, e.g. by

not holding the fork at the base

􀂃 Did not place the base of the tuning fork against

the mastoid bone behind the ear.

􀂃 Did not ask patient to say when he / she no longer

hears the sound, hold the end of the fork near the

patient’s ear and ask if he / she can hear the

vibration.

􀂃 Did not tap again for the second ear.

􀂃 Did not assess bilaterally.

20 Assess Gait

􀂃 Did not ask patient to walk, turn and come back to

look for imbalance, postural, asymmetry and type

of gait (e.g. shuffling, walking on toes, etc.)

21 Perform Romberg Test

􀂃 Did not direct patient to stand with feet together,

eyes closed, for at least 20 seconds without

support.

􀂃 Did not stand in a supportive position, e.g. behind

patient or with hand behind patient.

84

Case A – Dizziness, Acute

RELATIONSHIP QUALITY

To what degree did the student …

Lower Higher

Quality Quality

1 Establish and maintain rapport 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2 Demonstrate empathy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 Instill confidence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

4 Use appropriate body language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

EXAMINATION QUALITY

To what degree did the student …

Lower Higher

Quality Quality

5 Elicit information clearly, effectively 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

6 Actively listen 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

7 Provide timely feedback / information / counseling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

8 Perform a thorough, careful physical exam or

treatment

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

85

3. Clinical Clerkship Evaluations / NBOME Subject Exams

Data compiled from 3rd/4th year clerkships includes:

 Student Performance Evaluations from specific hospitals (attending/supervising

physicians, and/or residents) based upon the 7 core Osteopathic Competencies.

Data is broken down further by student cohort: traditional, BS/DO, and Émigré

and is quantified according to curricular track (Lecture Discussion-Based and

Doctor Patient Continuum);

 NBOME Subject Exam scores for each of the (6) core clerkships and OMM.

Core clerkships include:

a) Family Medicine

b) Medicine

c) OB-GYN

d) Pediatrics

e) Psychiatry

f) Surgery

NBOME Subject Exam statistics are shared with 3rd year students as a frame of

reference to determine their performance relative to their NYCOM peers. These

data also serve as a general guide for COMLEX II CE preparation and

performance;

 Students provide feedback on their clinical experiences during their clerkships,

via the “PDA project”:

a) The PDA is a tool utilized for monitoring clerkship activities. The

DEALS (Daily Educational Activities Logs Submission) focuses on

educational activities, while the LOG portion focuses on all major

student-patient encounters. A rich data set is available for comparing

patient encounters and educational activities across all sites for all

clerkships.

86

b) PDA data is used as a multimodal quality assessment tool for curricular

exposure as well as OMM integration across all hospitals (including

“outside” clerkships) for Patient Encounters and Educational Activities.

 Reports from student focus groups—these reports are based upon in-person group

interviews by a full-time NYCOM Medical Educator and feedback is analyzed in

order to ensure consistency in clerkship education and experiences, as well as for

program improvement indicators.

87

Specific forms/questionnaires utilized to capture the above-detailed information include the

following:

 Clinical Clerkship Student Performance Evaluation

Samples of the forms/questionnaires follow

88

NEW YORK COLLEGE OF OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE

OFFICE OF CLINICAL EDUCATION

Northern Boulevard -– Old Westbury, NY 11568-8000

Tel.: 516-686-3718 – Fax: 516-686-3833

(*) Only ONE form, with COMPOSITE GRADE & COMMENTS should be sent to the Hospital’s Office of

Medical Education

for the DME SIGNATURE .

COURSE # _______________________________(For NYCOM Purpose

ONLY)

STUDENT: _____________________,_______________Class Year:

______HOSPITAL:_______________________

Last First

ROTATION(Specialty)_____________________________ROTATION DATES:

____/____/____ ____/____/____

From

To

EVALUATOR: _________________________________________ TITLE:

_______________________________________

(Attending Physician / Faculty Preceptor)

A. Student logs by PDA  REVIEWED (at least 10 patients)  NOT REVIEWED

B. Student’s unique “STRENGTHS” (Very Important –To be incorporated into the

College’s Dean’s Letter)

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________

C. Student’s LIMITATIONS (areas requiring special attention for future professional growth)

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________

89

D. For items below CIRCLE the most appropriate number corresponding to the

following rating scale:

Exceptional=5 Very Good = 4 Average = 3 Marginal = 2 1 = FAILURE N/A OR no opportunity to observe

CORE COMPETENCY (See definitions on reverse side) RATING

Patient Care 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

Medical Knowledge 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

Practice-Based Learning & Improvement 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

Professionalism 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

System-Based Practice 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

Interpersonal and Communication Skills 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine 5 4 3 2 1 N/A

OVERALL GRADE 5 4 3 2 1(FAILURE

Evaluator Signature:____________________________________________________ Date:

_______/________/_______

Student Signature: ____________________________________________________ Date:

_______/________/_______

(Ideally at Exit Conference)

(*) DME Signature: _________________________________________________ Date:

_______/________/_______

Please Return to:  Hospital’s Office of Medical Education

OVER 

The Seven Osteopathic Medical Competencies

Physician Competency is a measurable demonstration of suitable or sufficient

knowledge, skill sets, experience, values, and behaviors, that meet established

professional standards, supported by the best available medical evidence, that are in

the best interest of the well-being and health of the patient.

Patient Care: Osteopathic patient care is the ability to effectively determine and

monitor the nature of a patient’s concern or problem; to develop, maintain, and to

bring to closure the therapeutic physician-patient relationship; to appropriately

incorporate osteopathic principles, practices and manipulative treatment; and to

implement effective diagnostic and treatment plans, including appropriate patient

education and follow-up, that are based on best medical evidence.

90

Medical Knowledge: Medical Knowledge is the understanding and

application of biomedical, clinical, epidemiological, biomechanical, and social and

behavioral sciences in the context of patient-centered care.

Practice-Based Learning & Improvement: Practice-Based learning

and improvement is the continuous evaluation of clinical practice utilizing evidence-based

medicine approaches to develop best practices that will result in optimal patient care

outcomes.

Professionalism: Medical professionalism is a duty to consistently demonstrate

behaviors that uphold the highest moral and ethical standards of the osteopathic profession.

This includes a commitment to continuous learning and the exhibition of personal and social

accountability. Medical professionalism extends to those normative behaviors ordinarily

expected in the conduct of medical education, training, research, and practice.

System-Based Practice: System-based practice is an awareness of and

responsiveness to the larger context and system of health care, and the ability to effectively

identify and integrate system resources to provide care that is of optimal value to individuals

and society at large.

Interpersonal & Communication Skills: Interpersonal and

communication skills are written, verbal, and non-verbal behaviors that facilitate

understanding the patient’s perspective. These skills include building the physician-patient

relationship, opening the discussion, gathering information, empathy, listening, sharing

information, reaching agreement on problems and plans, and providing closure. These skills

extend to communication with patients, families, and members of the health care team.

Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine: Osteopathic philosophy is a holistic

approach that encompasses the psychosocial, biomedical, and biomechanical aspects of both

health and disease, and stresses the relationship between structure and function, with

particular regard to the musculoskeletal system.

Definitions Provided by the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners

(NBOME)

91

4. Student feedback (assessment) of courses / Clinical clerkship / PDA project

 Data received on courses and faculty through the newly implemented, innovative

Course / Faculty Assessment program (see below-NYCOM Student Guide for

Curriculum and Faculty Assessment). Students (randomly) assigned (by teams)

to evaluate one course (and associated faculty) during 2-year pre-clinical

curriculum. Outcome of student-team assessment is presented to Curriculum

Committee, in the form of a one-page Comprehensive Report;

 Clerkship Feedback (quantitative and “open-ended” feedback) provided through

“Matchstix” (web-based feedback program): this information is shared with

NYCOM Deans and Clinical Chairs, Hospital Director’s of Medical Education

(DMEs), Hospital Department Chairs and Clerkship Supervisors. Also, the

information is posted on the “web” to assist and facilitate 2nd year students

choosing 3rd year Core Clerkship Sites (transparency). This data is also utilized

via two (2) year comparisons of quantitative data and student feedback shared

with NYCOM Deans & Chairs, as well as Hospital DMEs;

 Clerkship Feedback via PDA: quantitative and open-ended (qualitative) feedback

on all clerkships is collected via student PDA submission. The information is

utilized as a catalyst for clerkship quality enhancement. This data-set is used as a

multimodal quality assessment tool for curricular exposure as well as OMM

integration across all hospitals (including “outside” clerkships) for Patient

Encounters and Educational Activities;

92

 Reports from student focus groups—these reports are based upon in-person group

interviews by a full-time NYCOM Medical Educator and feedback is analyzed in

order to ensure consistency in clerkship education and experiences, as well as for

program improvement indicators;

93

Specific forms/questionnaires utilized to capture the above-detailed information include the

following:

 NYCOM Student Guide for Curriculum and Faculty Assessment

 Clerkship (site) feedback from Clerkship students

 Clinical Clerkship Focus Group Form

 4th Year PDA Feedback Questionnaire

 Student End-of-Semester Program Evaluations (DPC)

 DPC Program Assessment Plan

 Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (OMM) Assessment Forms

Samples of the forms/questionnaires follow

94

95

Site Feedback

Rotation: Surgery

Site: (*) MAIMONIDES MEDICAL CENTER

This is an anonymous feedback form. No student identification data is transmitted.

Questions marked with * are mandatory.

Section I. Please respond to each statement in this section according to the following

scale.

STRONGLY DISAGREE <-> STRONGLY AGREE

1* There were adequate learning opportunities (teaching patients, diversity of pathology and

diagnostic procedures)

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

2* There were opportunities to practice osteopathic diagnosis and therapy

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

3* There was adequate supervision and feedback (e.g., reviews of my H&P, progress notes and

clinical skills)

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

4* I had the opportunity to perform procedures relevant for my level of training

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

5* I was evaluated fairly for my level of knowledge and skills

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

6* Attending physicians and/or house staff were committed to teaching

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

7* Overall, I felt meaningfully engaged and well integrated with the clinical teams (e.g., given

sufficient patient care responsibilities)

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

96

8* The DME and/or clerkship director was responsive to my needs as a student

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

9* There were adequate library resources at this facility

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

10* A structured program of directed readings and/or journal club was a component of this

rotation.

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

11* The lectures were appropriate for this rotation (e.g., quality, quantity and relevance of

topics)

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

12* Educationally useful teaching rounds were conducted on a regular basis.

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

13* This rotation reflected a proper balance of service and education

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

14* This rotation incorporated a psychosocial component in patient care

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

15* Overall, I would recommend this rotation to others

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

Section II. Psychomotor skills

Indicate the number you performed on an average week during this rotation for each of

the following:

16* History and Physicals

97

17* Osteopathic structural examinations

18* Osteopathic Manipulative Treatments

19* Starting IVs

20* Venipunctures

21* Administering injections

22* Recording notes on medical records

23* Reviewing X-Rays

24* Reviewing EKGs

25* Urinary catherizations

26* Insertion and removal of sutures

27* Minor surgical procedures (assist)

28* Major surgical procedures (assist)

29* Care of dressings and drains

98

30* Sterile field maintenance

Section III

31* Comment on unique STRENGTHS and Positive Features of this rotation

32* Comment on the LIMITATIONS and Negative Features of this rotation

33* Comment on the extent in which the Learning Objectives for the rotation were met (e.g.,

specific topics/patient populations to which you were or not exposed)

Section IV. Please list your clinical instructors with whom you had substantial contact

on this rotation and provide a general rating of their effectiveness as Teachers using the

scale below.

5=EXCELLENT, 4=VERY GOOD, 3=AVERAGE, 2=BELOW AVERAGE,

1=POOR

For example – John Smith – 4

34* List clinical instructors and rating in the box below

To submit your feedback, enter your password below and then click on Submit Feedback button

Submit Feedback

Cancel

99

Focus Groups on Clinical Clerkships

NAME OF HOSPITAL:

LOCATION:

DATE OF SITE VISIT:

The student’s comments on the clinical rotations are as follows:

(Name of Clerkship)

STRENGHTS:

WEAKNESSES:

100

4th Year PDA Feedback Questionnaire

1. Clinic Site

2. Rotation

3. Date

4. There were adequate learning opportunities

5. There were opportunities to practice Osteopathic diagnosis & therapy

6. I was evaluated fairly for my level of knowledge and skills

7. Attending physicians and/or house staff were committed to teaching

8. Overall, I felt meaningfully engaged and well integrated with the clinical teams

9. The DME and/or clerkship director was responsive to my needs as a student

10. This rotation reflected a proper balance of service and education

11. Overall, I would recommend this clerkship to others

12. Comments

13. Strengths/Positive Features of Rotation

14. Limitations/Negative Features of Rotation

15. List and Rate Clinical Instructors

101

Student End-of-Semester Program Evaluations

The DPC Student End-of-Semester Program Evaluation is an assessment of

each course that occurred during the semester and the corresponding faculty

members.

DPC END OF SEMESTER EVALUATION

Directions:

1. Please write in your year of graduation here: .

2. Enclosed you will find a blank scantron sheet.

3. Please make sure that you are using a #2 pencil to fill in your answers.

4. Please fill in the following Test Form information on the Scantron Sheet:

 DPC Class 2011 – Bubble in Test Form A

 DPC Class 2012 – Bubble in Test Form B

5. No other identifying information is necessary.

6. Please complete each of the following numbered sentences throughout

this evaluation using the following responses:

A. Excellent – couldn’t be better

B. Good – only slight improvement possible

C. Satisfactory – about average

D. Fair – some improvement needed

E. Poor – considerable improvement needed

7. There are spaces after each section in which you can write comments.

(When making comments, please know that your responses will be shared with DPC faculty,

Dept. chairs, and deans, as part of ongoing program evaluation.)

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL SCIENCES COURSE EVALUATION:

102

I. CASE STUDIES COMPONENT

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

1. This course, overall is A B C D E

2. My effort in this course, overall is A B C D E

3. The case studies used in small

group are A B C D E

4. My preparation for each group

session was A B C D E

5. Other available resources for use in

small group are A B C D E

6. Facilitator assessments are A B C D E

7. Self assessments are A B C D E

8. Content Exams – midterm and final

are A B C D E

9. The group process in my group can

be described as A B C D E

10. The wrap-ups in my group were A B C D E

11. The quality of the learning issues

developed by my group was A B C D E

Overall comments on Case Studies

II. STUDENT HOUR COMPONENT:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

12. The monthly student hours are A B C D E

Overall Comments On The Student Hour

103

III. FACILITATOR RATINGS

Please circle your group number/the name of your group facilitator(s).

Group Facilitators

A Dr. _____________________ and Dr. _______ ______________

B Dr. _____________________ and Dr. ________ ______________

C Dr. _____________________ and Dr. ______________________

D Dr. _____________________ and Dr. _______________________

Please bubble in your response to each of the following items:

Strongly

Agree Agree Disagree Strongly

Disagree

13. Maintained appropriate directiveness 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

14. Supported appropriate group process 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

15. Supported student-directed learning 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

16. Gave appropriate feedback to group 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

17. Ensured that learning issues were

Appropriate 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

18. Overall, these facilitators were

effective 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

Overall Facilitator Comments

(Comments on individual facilitators are welcome)

104

IV. PROBLEM SETS/DISCUSSION SESSIONS COMPONENT

A. Course Evaluation:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

19. These sessions, overall were A B C D E

20. My effort in these sessions, overall

was A B C D E

21. The organization of these sessions

was A B C D E

22. Handouts in general were A B C D E

Problem Sets/Discussion Sessions Comments

(Please comment as to whether problem sets were too many, too few, too involved.)

105

V. PROBLEM SETS/DISCUSSION SESSIONS COMPONENT

B. Presenter Evaluation:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

23. The Problem Set topic on

was A B C D E

24. The instructor,

, for the problem set named

in #23 was

A B C D E

25. The Problem Set topic on

was A B C D E

26. The instructor,

, for the problem set named

in #25 was

A B C D E

27. The Problem Set topic on

was A B C D E

28. The instructor,

, for the problem set named

in #27 was

A B C D E

29. The Problem Set topic on

was A B C D E

30. The instructor,

, for the problem set named

in #29 was

A B C D E

31. The Problem Set topic on

was A B C D E

32. The instructor,

, for the problem set named

in #31 was

A B C D E

Problem Sets/Discussion Sessions Comments

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)

106

VI. ANATOMY COMPONENT

A. Course Evaluation:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

33. This component, overall was A B C D E

34. My effort in this component was A B C D E

35. My preparation for each lab session

was A B C D E

36. Organization of the component was A B C D E

37. Quizzes were A B C D E

38. Resource Hour / Reviews were A B C D E

Anatomy Component Comments

107

VII. ANATOMY COMPONENT

B. Teaching Evaluation:

Please bubble in your response to each of the following items:

Strongly

Agree Agree Disagree Strongly

Disagree

39. The faculty were available to answer

questions in the lab 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

40. The faculty Initiated student

discussion 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

41. The faculty were prepared for each

lab session 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

42. The faculty gave me feedback on how

I was doing 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

43. The faculty were enthusiastic about

the course 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

44. Overall, the instructors were effective 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

Anatomy Component Comments

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)

108

CLINICAL SCIENCES COURSE

I. CLINICAL SKILLS LAB COMPONENT

A. Course Evaluation:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

45. This component, overall was A B C D E

46. My effort in this component was A B C D E

47. My preparation for each lab session

was A B C D E

48. Organization of the component was A B C D E

49. Examinations were A B C D E

50. Handouts/PowerPoints were A B C D E

51. I would rate my physical exam and

history taking skills at this time to

be

A B C D E

Overall Comments on Clinical Skills Component / Individual Labs

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)

109

I. CLINICAL SKILLS LAB COMPONENT

B. Teaching Evaluation:

Please bubble in your response to each of the following items:

Strongly

Agree Agree Disagree Strongly

Disagree

52. The faculty were available to answer

questions in the lab 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

53. The faculty initiated student

discussion 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

54. The faculty were prepared for each

lab session 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

55. The faculty Gave me feedback on

how I was doing 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

56. The faculty were enthusiastic about

the course 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

57. Overall, the instructors were effective 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

Overall Comments on Clinical Skills Component / Individual Labs

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)

110

II. OMM COMPONENT

A. Course Evaluation:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

58. This component, overall was A B C D E

59. My effort in this component was A B C D E

60. My preparation for each lab session

was A B C D E

61. Organization of the component was A B C D E

62. Presentations / Lectures were A B C D E

63. Handouts were A B C D E

64. Quizzes were A B C D E

65. Practical exams were A B C D E

66. Resource Hour / Reviews were A B C D E

Overall Comments on OMM Component / Individual Labs

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)

111

II. OMM COMPONENT

B. Teaching Evaluation

Please bubble in your response to each of the following items:

Strongly

Agree Agree Disagree Strongly

Disagree

67. The faculty were available to answer

questions in the lab 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

68. The faculty Initiated student

discussion 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

69. The faculty were prepared for each

lab session 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

70. The faculty gave me feedback on how

I was doing 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

71. The faculty were enthusiastic about

the course 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

72. Overall, the instructors were effective 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

Overall Comments on OMM Component / Individual Labs

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)

112

III. ICC COMPONENT

A. Course Evaluation:

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

73. This component, overall was A B C D E

74. My effort in this component was A B C D E

75. My preparation for each lab session

was A B C D E

76. Organization of this component was A B C D E

77. The helpfulness/usefulness of the

ICC standardized patient

encounters was

A B C D E

78. The helpfulness/usefulness of the

ICC robotic patient encounters was A B C D E

79. Are Clinical Skills laboratory

exercises appropriate for the ICC?

[A] YES [B] NO

A YES B NO – – –

Overall Comments on the ICC Component

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)

113

IV. CLINICAL PRACTICUM COMPONENT

80. I participated in Clinical Practicum this semester: [A] YES [B] NO

If you answered NO to this question, you have finished this evaluation, if you answered YES,

please continue this questionnaire until the end. Thank you.

A. Course Evaluation

Excellent Good Satisfactory

Fair Poor

81. This component, overall was A B C D E

82. My effort in this component was A B C D E

83. My preparation for each lab session

was A B C D E

84. Organization of this component was A B C D E

85. The helpfulness/usefulness of the

Clinical Practicum was A B C D E

86. The organization of the case

presentations was A B C D E

87. Are Clinical Skills laboratory

exercises appropriate for the

Clinical Practicum?

A YES B NO – – –

Please bubble in your response to each of the following items:

Strongly

Agree

Agree Disagree Strongly

Disagree

88. The case presentation exercise was a

valuable learning experience 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

Overall Comments on Clinical Practicum Course

114

IV. CLINICAL PRACTICUM COMPONENT

B. Mentor Evaluation:

Please bubble in your response to each of the following items:

Strongly

Agree Agree Disagree Strongly

Disagree

89. The preceptor was available to

answer my questions 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

90. I was supported in my interaction

with patients 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

91. Student-directed learning was

supported 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

92. I had appropriate feedback 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

93. Overall, this preceptor/site was

effective 5 (A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D)

Preceptor Name _______________________

Overall Comments on Clinical Practicum Mentor

(Comments on individual instructors are welcome)

115

DPC: Program Assessment Plan

I. Pre matriculated Evaluation – What determines that an applicant will pick the DPC

program?

 Comparison of the students who chose the LDB program vs. the DPC program with

regard to the following outcome measures:

 GPA scores (overall, science)

 MCAT scores

 Gender

 Age

 Race

 College size

 College Geographic location

 Prior PBL exposure

 OMM understanding

 Research Background

 Volunteer Work

 Employment Experience

 Graduate Degree

 Scholarships/Awards

II. Years at NYCOM – How do we evaluate if the DPC program is accomplishing its goals

while the students are at NYCOM?

 Comparison of Facilitator Assessments for each term, to monitor student growth

 Comparison of Clinical Practicum Mentor Evaluations from Term 2 and Term 3, to

evaluate the student’s clinical experience progress

 Comparison of Content exam scores from terms 1 through 4.

 Comparison of entrance questionnaire (administered during first week of medical

school) responses to corresponding exit questionnaire administered at the end of year

4

 Evaluation of the Student DPC End-of-Term Evaluations

 Comparison of the following measures to those outcomes achieved by the students in

the LDB program:

 OMM scores

116

DPC: Program Assessment Plan

 Anatomy scores

 ICC PARS scores

 ICC OSCE scores

 Summer research

 Summer Volunteerism

 Research effort (publications, abstracts, posters, presentations)

 Shelf-exams

 COMLEX I, II, III scores and pass rate

 Fellowships (Academic, Research)

III. Post Graduate Training Practice – What happens to the DPC student once they leave

NYCOM? How to they compare to those students who matriculated through the LDB

program?

 Comparison of the following measures to those outcomes achieved by the students in

the LDB program:

 Internships

 Residencies

 Fellowships

 Specialty (medicine)

 Specialty board certifications

 AOA membership

 AMA membership

 Publications

 Research

 Teaching

117

OMM Assessment Forms

118

119

5. COMLEX USA Level I, Level II CE & PE, and Level III data (NBOME)

a) First-time and overall pass rates and mean scores;

b) Comparison to national averages;

c) Comparison to college (NYCOM) national ranking.

Report provided by Associate Dean for Academic Affairs

120

6. Residency match rates and overall placement rate

Data compiled as received from the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) and

the National Residency Match Program (NRMP).

Report provided by Associate Dean for Clinical Education

121

7. Feedback from (AACOM) Graduation Questionnaire

Annual survey report received from AACOM comparing NYCOM graduates

responses to numerous questions/categories (including demographics, specialty

choice, overall perception of pre-doctoral training, indebtedness, and more) to nationwide

osteopathic medical school graduating class responses.

122

Specific forms/questionnaires utilized to capture the above-detailed information include the

following:

 AACOM Survey of Graduating Seniors

Samples of the forms/questionnaires follow

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

135

136

137

138

139

140

141

8. Completion rates (post-doctoral programs)

Percent of NYCOM graduates completing internship/residency training programs.

Report provided by Office of Program Evaluation and Assessment

142

9. Specialty certification and licensure

Data compiled from state licensure boards and other specialty certification

organization (board certification) on NYCOM graduates.

Report provided by Office of Program Evaluation and Assessment

143

10. Career choices and geographic practice location

Data includes practice type (academic, research, clinical, and so on) and practice

location. Data obtained from licensure boards, as well as NYCOM Alumni survey.

Report provided by Office of Program Evaluation and Assessment

144

11. Alumni Survey

Follow up survey periodically sent to alumni requesting information on topics

such as practice location, specialty, residency training, board certification and

so on.

145

Specific forms/questionnaires utilized to capture the above-detailed information include the

following:

 Alumni Survey

Samples of the forms/questionnaires follow

146

ALUMNI SURVEY

NAME

LAST FIRST NYCOM CLASS YEAR

HOME ADDRESS

PRACTICE ADDRESS

HOME PHONE ( ) OFFICE PHONE ( )

E-MAIL ADDRESS

________________________________ _______________________________ _______________________

INTERNSHIP HOSPITAL RESIDENCY HOSPITAL FIELD OF STUDY

FELLOWSHIPS COMPLETED:

CERTIFICATIONS YOU HOLD:

IF SPOUSE IS ALSO A NYCOM ALUMNUS, PLEASE INDICATE SPOUSE’S NAME AND CLASS YEAR:

EXCLUDING INTERNSHIP, RESIDENCY AND FELLOWSHIP, HAVE YOU EARNED ANY ADDITIONAL ACADEMIC DEGREES OR CERTIFICATES BEYOND

YOUR MEDICAL DEGREE (I.E., MPH, MBA, MHA, PHD, MS)? (PLEASE LIST)

CURRENT PRACTICE STATUS: FULL-TIME PRACTICE___ PART-TIME PRACTICE _____ INTERN/RESIDENCY _____ RETIRED/NOT PRACTICING _____

147

What specialty do you practice most

frequently? (Choose one)

 Allergy and Immunology

 Anesthesiology

 Cardiology

 Colorectal Surgery

 Dermatology

 Emergency Medicine

 Endocrinology

 Family Practice

 Gastroenterology

 Geriatrics

 Hematology

 Infectious Diseases

 Internal Medicine

 Neruology

 Neonatology

 Nephrology

 Neurology

 Nuclear Medicine

 Obstetrics & Gynecology

 Occupational Medicine

 Ophthalmology

 Oncology

 Otolaryngology

 Orthopedic Surgery

 Psychiatry

 Pediatrics

 Plastic/Recon. Surgery

 Physical Medicine/Rehab

 Pathology

 Pulmonary Medicine

 Radiology

 Rheumatology

 Surgery (general)

 Thoracic Surgery

 Radiation Therapy

 Urology

 Other (Please specify)

____________________

Current military status (if applicable):

 Active Duty

 Inactive reserve

 Active Reserve

What is the population of the

geographic area of your practice?

(Choose one)

 5,000,000 +

 1,000,000 – 4,999,999

 500,000 – 999,999

 250,000 – 499,999

 100,000 – 249,999

 50,000 – 99,999

 25,000 – 49,999

 10,000 – 24,999

 5,000 – 9,999

 Less than 5,000

How would you describe this

geographic area? (Choose one)

 Inner City

 Urban

 Suburban

 Small Town – Rural

 Small town – industrial

Other ______________________

What functions do you perform in

your practice? (check all that apply)

 Preventive care/patient education

 Acute care

 Routine/non-acute care

 Consulting

 Supervisory/managerial responsibilities

 Research

 Teaching

 Hospital Rounds

What best describes the setting in

which you spend the most time ?

 Intensive Care Unit of Hospital

 Inpatient Unit of Hospital (not ICU/CCU)

 Outpatient Unit of Hospital

 Hospital Emergency Room

 Hospital Operating Room

 Freestanding Urgent Care Center

 Freestanding Surgical Facility

 Nursing Home or LTC Facility

 Solo practice physician office

 Single Specialty Group practice physician

office

 Multiple Specialty Group practice physician

office

 University Student Health facility

 School-based Health center

 HMO facility

 Rural Health Clinic

 Inner-city Health Center

 Other Community Health Center

 Other Freestanding Outpatient facility

 Correctional facility

 Industrial facility

 Mobile Health Unit

 Other (Please specify)

__________________________________

Do you access medical information

via the internet ?

 Never

 Sometimes

 Often

What percent of your time is spent in primary

care? (family medicine or gen. internal medicine)

 0%

 1 – 25%

 25 – 50%

 50 – 75%

 75 – 100%

What percent of your practice is outpatient?

 0%

 1 – 25%

 25 – 50%

 50 – 75%

 75 – 100%

148

Do you engage in any of the following

activities? (check all that apply)

 Professional organization

leadership position

 Volunteer services in the

community

 School or team physician

 Free medical care

 Leadership in church,

congregation

 Local government

 Speaking on medical

topics to community

groups

How many CME programs or other

professional training sessions did you

attend last year?

 none

 1-5

 5-10

 10-15

 more than 15

Have you ever done any

of the following?

 Author or co-author

a professional paper

 Contribute to an article

 Direct a research project

 Participate in clinical

research

 Present a lecture at a

professional meeting or

CME program

 Serve on a panel

discussion at a

professional meeting

How often do you read

medical literature regarding

new research findings?

 Rarely

 Several times a year

 Monthly

 Weekly

 Daily

How frequently do you apply

osteopathic concepts into

patient care?

 Never

 Rarely

 Often

 Always

In your practice do you employ any of

the following?

(check all that apply)

 Structural examination or

musculoskeletal

considerations in

diagnosis

 Indirect OMT techniques

 High Velocity OMT

 Myofascial OMT

 Cranial OMT

 Palpatory diagnosis

Please indicate how important each of the following skills

has been in your success as a physician, and how well

NYCOM prepared you in that skill.

Biomedical science knowledge base

Clinical skills

Patient educator skills

Empathy and compassion for patients

Understanding of cultural differences

Osteopathic philosophy

Clinical decision making

Foundation of ethical standards

Ability to communicate with other health care providers

Ability to communicate with patients and families

Knowing how to access community resources

Ability to understand and apply new medical information

Understanding of the payor/reimbursement system

How important to my practice



Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

How well NYCOM prepared me



Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

149

Ability to search and retrieve needed information

Manipulative treatment skill

Ability to use medical technology

Diagnostic skill

Skill in preventive care

Understanding of public health issues & the public health

system

Professionalism

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak

Strong  Moderate Weak 

Please return to:

NYCOM of NYIT, Office of Alumni Affairs

Northern Boulevard, Serota Bldg., Room 218

Old Westbury, New York 11568

or

fax to (516) 686-3891 or (516) 686-3822

as soon as possible.

Thank you for your cooperation!

150

NYCOM Benchmarks

1-Applicant Pool

Benchmark: To maintain relative standing among Osteopathic Medical Colleges based on

the number of applicants.

2-Admissions Profile

Benchmark: Maintain or improve current admissions profile based on academic criteria such

as MCAT, GPA, or Colleges attended.

3-Academic Attrition Rates

Benchmark: To maintain or improve our current 3% Academic Attrition rate

4-Remediation rates (pre-clinical years)

Benchmark: A 2% a year reduction in the students remediating in pre-clinical years.

5-COMLEX USA Scores

Benchmark: Top quartile in the National Ranking of 1st time pass rate and Mean Score.

6-Students entering Osteopathic Graduate Medical Education (OGME)

Benchmark: Maintain or improve the current OGME placement.

7-Graduates entering Primary Care (PC) 12

Benchmark: Maintain or improve the current Primary Care placement.

8-Career Data -Licensure (within 3 years, post-graduate), Board Certification , Geographic

Practice, and Scholarly achievements.

Benchmark: TBD

12 Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Pediatrics

151

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gonnella, J.S., Hojat, M., & Veloski, J.J. Jefferson Longitudinal Study of Medical Education.

Retrieved December 17, 2008, from http://jdc.jefferson.edu/jlsme/1

Hernon, P. & Dugan, R.E. (2004). Outcomes Assessment in Higher Education. Libraries

Unlimited: Westport, CT

152

APPENDICES

153

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

1 Assess Cranial Nerve I

– Olfactory

Examiner checks for

patient’s sense of smell by,

e.g. coffee, soap,

peppermint, orange peels,

etc.

2 Assess Cranial Nerve II

– Optic: Assessing Visual

Fields by Confrontation

􀂃 Examiner stands at

approximate eye-level

with patient, making eye

contact.

􀂃 Patient is then asked to

return examiner’s gaze

e.g. by saying “Look at

me.”

􀂃 Examiner starts by

placing his / her hands

outside the patient’s field

of vision, lateral to head.

􀂃 With fingers wiggling (so

patient can easily see

them) the examiner

brings his / her fingers

into the patient’s field of

vision.

Hands diagonal

Or, hands horizontal

􀂃 Examiner must ask the patient “Tell me when you see my

fingers.”

􀂃 Assess upper, middle and lower fields, bilaterally.

154

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

3 Assess Cranial Nerve II –

Optic: Accessing Visual

Acuity

􀂃 For ICC purposes,

handheld Rosenbaum

Pocket Screener (eye

chart)

􀂃 NOTE: Use handheld

Snellen eye chart if

patient stand 20’ from

the chart

􀂃 Ask patient to cover one

eye while testing the

other eye

􀂃 Rosenbaum eye chart

is held in good light

approximately 14” from

eye

􀂃 Determine the smallest

line of print from which

patient can read more

than half the letters

􀂃 The patient’s visual

acuity score is recorded

as two numbers, e.g.

“20/30” where the top

number is the distance

the patient is from the

chart and the bottom

number is the distance

the normal eye can

read that line.

􀂃 Repeat with the other

eye

155

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

4 Assessing Cranial Nerves II and III

– Optic and Oculomotor:

Assessing direct and Consensual

Reactions

􀂃 Examiner asks the patient to look into the

distance, then shines a light obliquely into

each pupil twice to check both the direct

reaction (pupillary constriction in the same

eye) and consensual reaction (pupillary

constriction in the opposite eye).

􀂃 Must be assessed bilaterally.

5 Assessing Cranial Nerves II and III – Optic

and Oculomotor: Assessing Near Reaction

and Near Response

􀂃 Assessed in normal room light, testing one

eye at a time.

􀂃 Examiner holds a finger, pencil, etc. about

10 cm. from the patient’s eye.

􀂃 Asks the patient to look alternately at the

finger or pencil and then into the distance.

􀂃 Note pupillary constriction with near focus.

Close focus

Distant focus

156

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

6 Assessing Cranial Nerve III

– Oculomotor: Assessing Convergence

􀂃 Examiner asks the patient to follow his / her

finger or pencil as he / she moves it in

toward the bridge of the nose to within about

5 to 8 centimeters.

􀂃 Converging eyes normally follow the object

to within 5 – 8 cm. of the nose.

7 Assessing Cranial Nerve III, IV and VI

– Oculomotor, Trochlear And Abducens:

Assessing Extra Ocular Muscle Movement

􀂃 Examiner assesses muscle movements in at

least 6 positions of gaze by tracing, for

example, an “H pattern” with the hand and

asking the patient to follow the hand with

their eyes without turning the head.

157

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

8 Assessing Cranial Nerve V

– Trigeminal (Sensory) Ophthalmic Maxillary

Examiner assesses sensation in 3

sites:

􀂙 Ophthalmic

􀂙 Maxillary

􀂙 Mandibular

􀂃 Examiner may use fingers,

cotton, etc. for the

assessment.

􀂃 Assess bilaterally.

Mandibular

9 Assessing Cranial Nerve V

– Trigeminal (Motor)

􀂃 Examiner asks the patient to

move jaw his or her jaw from

side to side

OR

􀂃 Examiner palpates the

masseter muscles and asks

patient to clinch his / her teeth.

􀂃 Note strength of muscle

contractions.

OR

158

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

10 Assessing Cranial

Nerve VII – Facial:

Motor Testing

Examiner asks patient to

perform any 4 of the

following 6 exams:

􀂃 Raise both eyebrows

􀂃 Close eyes tightly,

then try to open

against examiner’s

resistance

􀂃 Frown

􀂃 Smile

􀂃 Show upper and lower

teeth

􀂃 Puff out cheeks

Note any weakness or

asymmetry.

Raise eyebrows Opening eyes against resistance

Frown Smile

Show teeth Puff cheeks

159

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

11

Assess Cranial Nerve VIII

– Acoustic

Weber test – for

lateralization

􀂃 Use a 512 Hz or 1024

Hz turning fork.

􀂃 Examiner starts the fork

vibrating e.g. by tapping

it on the opposite hand,

leg, etc.

􀂃 Base of the tuning fork

placed firmly on top of

the patient’s head.

􀂃 Patient asked “Where

does the sound appear

to be coming from?”

(normally it will be

sensed in the midline).

160

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

12 Assessing Cranial Nerve

VIII – Acoustic

Rinne test – to compare

air and bone conduction

􀂃 Use a 512 Hz or 1024

Hz turning fork.

􀂃 Examiner starts the fork

vibrating, e.g. by

tapping it on the

opposite hand, leg, etc.

􀂃 Base of fork placed

against the mastoid

bone behind the ear.

􀂃 Patient asked to say

when he / she no longer

hears the sound

Mastoid Bone

􀂃 When sound no longer

heard, examiner moves

the tuning fork (without

re-striking it) and holds

it near the patient’s ear

and ask if he / she can

hear the vibration.

􀂃 Examiner must vibrate

the tuning fork again for

the second ear.

􀂃 Bilateral exam.

NOTE: (AC>BC): Air

conduction greater than

bone conduction.

Ear

161

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

13 Assessing Cranial Nerve VIII –

– Gross Auditory Acuity

􀂃 Examiner asks patient to

occlude (cover) one ear.

􀂃 Examiner then whispers

words or numbers into nonoccluded

ear from

approximately 2 feet away.

􀂃 Asks patient to repeat

whispered words or

numbers.

􀂃 Compare bilaterally.

OR

􀂃 Examiner asks patient to

occlude (cover) one ear.

􀂃 Examiner rubs thumb and

forefinger together next to

patient’s non-occluded ear

and asks the patient if the

sound is heard.

􀂃 Compare bilaterally.

162

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

14 Assessing Cranial Nerve IX

and X – Glossopharyngeal

and Vagus: Motor Testing

􀂃 First, examiner asks the

patient to swallow.

Swallowing

􀂃 Next, patient asked to say

‘aah’ and examiner

observes for symmetrical

movement of the soft

palate or a deviation of the

uvula.

􀂃 OPTIONAL: Use a light

source to help visualize

palate and uvula.

NOTE: sensory component of

cranial nerves IX and X is

testing for the “gag reflex”

Saying “Aah”

163

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

15 Assessing Cranial Nerve XI

– Spinal Accessory:

Motor Testing

􀂃 Examiner asks the patient to

shrug his / her shoulders up

against the examiner’s

hands. Apply resistance.

􀂃 Note strength and

contraction of trapezius

muscles.

􀂃 Next, patient asked to turn

his or her head against

examiner’s hand. Apply

resistance.

􀂃 Observe the contraction of

the opposite sternocleidomastoid

muscle.

􀂃 Assess bilaterally.

164

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

16 Assessing Cranial Nerve

XII – Hypoglossal:

Motor Testing

􀂃 First, examiner inspects

patient’s tongue as it

lies on the floor of the

mouth.

􀂃 Note any asymmetry,

atrophy or

fasciculations.

􀂃 Next, patient asked to

protrude the tongue.

􀂃 Note any asymmetry,

atrophy or deviations

from the midline.

􀂃 Finally, patient asked to

move the tongue from

side to side.

􀂃 Note any asymmetry of

the movement.

Inspect tongue Protruding Tongue

Side to Side Movement

165

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

17 Assessing Lower Extremities –

Motor Testing

With patient in supine position, test

bilaterally

􀂃 Test flexion of the hip by placing

your hand on patient’s thigh, and

ask them to raise his / her leg

against resistance.

􀂃 Test extension of the hip by

having patient push posterior

thigh against your hand

CONTINUED

166

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

18 Assessing Lower Extremities –

Motor Testing

With patient in seated position, test

bilaterally

􀂃 Test adduction of the hip by

placing hands firmly between the

knees, and asking them to bring

the knees together

􀂃 Test abduction of the hip by

placing hands firmly outside the

knees, and asking patient to

spread their legs against

resistance

167

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

19 Assessing Upper Extremities –

Motor Testing

􀂃 Examiner asks patient to pull (flex)

and push (extend) the arms against

the examiner’s resistance.

􀂃 Bilateral exam.

Flexion

Extension

20 Assessing Lower Extremities –

Motor Testing

􀂃 Examiner asks the patient to pull

(flex) and push (extend) the legs

against the examiner’s resistance.

􀂃 Bilateral exam.

Flexion

Extension

168

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

21 Assessing Lower Extremities –

Motor Testing

􀂃 Examiner asks patient to dorsiflex

and plantarflex the ankle against

resistance

􀂃 Compare bilaterally

169

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

22 Assessing the Biceps Reflex

􀂃 Examiner partially flexes patient’s

arm.

􀂃 Strike biceps tendon with reflex

hammer (pointed or flat end) with

enough force to elicit a reflex, but not

so much to cause patient discomfort.

OPTIONAL: Examiner places the thumb

or finger firmly on biceps tendon with the

pointed end of reflex hammer only.

􀂃 Reflexes must be assessed

bilaterally.

􀂃 Examiner must produce a reflex for

credit.

OR

23 Assessing the Triceps Reflex

􀂃 Examiner flexes the patient’s arm at

the elbow, and then taps the triceps

tendon with reflex hammer.

􀂃 Reflexes must be assessed

bilaterally.

􀂃 Examiner must produce a reflex for

credit.

170

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

24 Assessing the Brachioradialis

Reflex

􀂃 With the patient’s hand resting

in a relaxed position, e.g. on a

table, his / her lap or supported

by examiner’s arm, the

examiner strikes the radius

about 1 or 2 inches above the

wrist with the reflex hammer.

􀂃 Reflexes must be assessed

bilaterally.

􀂃 Examiner must produce a reflex

for credit.

171

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

25 Assessing the Patellar Tendon Reflex

􀂃 First, patient asked to sit with their legs

dangling off the exam table.

􀂃 Reflexes assessed by striking the

patient’s patellar tendon with a reflex

hammer on skin.

􀂃 Reflexes must be assessed bilaterally.

􀂃 Examiner must produce a reflex for

credit.

OPTIONS:

􀂃 Examiner can place his / her hand on

the on patient’s quadriceps, but this is

optional.

􀂃 Patient’s knees can be crossed.

172

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

25 Assessing the Achilles

Reflex

􀂃 Examiner dorsiflexes the

patient’s foot at the ankle

􀂃 Achilles tendon struck with

the reflex hammer on skin,

socks completely off

(removed at the direction

of the examiner).

􀂃 Reflexes must be

assessed bilaterally.

􀂃 Examiner must produce a

reflex for credit.

173

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

26 Assessing the Plantar, or Babinski,

Response

􀂃 Examiner strokes the lateral aspect of

the sole from the heel to the ball of

the foot, curving medially across the

ball, with an object such as the end of

a reflex hammer.

􀂃 On skin, socks completely off

(removed at the direction of the

examiner).

􀂃 Assessment must be done bilaterally

􀂃 Note movement of the toes (normally

toes would curl downward).

174

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

27 Assessing Rapid

Alternating Movements

Pronate Supinate

Examiner must do all three

assessments for credit:

􀂃 Examiner directs the

patient to pronate and

supinate one hand

rapidly on the other.

Touching Thumbs Rapidly 􀂃 Patient directed to

touch his / her thumb

rapidly to each finger

on same hand,

bilaterally.

Slapping Thighs Rapidly

􀂃 Patient directed to slap

his / her thigh rapidly

with the back side of

the hand, and then with

the palm side of the

hand, bilaterally.

175

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

29 Assessing Finger-to-Nose

Movements

􀂃 Examiner directs the patient to touch

the examiner’s finger with his or her

finger, and then to place his or her

finger on their nose.

􀂃 Examiner moves his / her finger

randomly during multiple movements.

176

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

30 Assessing Gait

Examiner asks patient to perform the

following:

Walk, turn and come back

􀂃 Note imbalance, postural asymmetry,

type of gait (e.g. shuffling, walking on

toes, etc.), swinging of the arms, and

how patient negotiates turns.

Heel-to-toe (tandem walking)

􀂃 Note an ataxia not previously obvious

Shallow knee bend

􀂃 Note difficulties here suggest

proximal weakness (extensors of

hip), weakness of the quadriceps (the

extensor of the knee), or both.

177

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

31 Performing the Romberg Test

􀂃 Examiner directs the patient to stand

with feet together, eyes closed for

at least 20 seconds without support.

􀂃 During this test, examiner must stand

behind the patient to provide support

in case the patient loses his / her

balance.

32 Testing for Pronator Drift

􀂃 Examiner directs the patient to stand

with eyes closed, simultaneously

extending both arms, with palms

turned upward, for at least 20

seconds.

􀂃 During this test, examiner must stand

behind the patient to provide support

in case the patient loses his / her

balance.

178

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION

©2009 New York College of Osteopathic Medicine 011509

SPECIAL TESTING

1 Sensory Testing

􀂃 First, examiner

demonstrates what

sharp vs. dull means by

brushing the patient

with a soft object, e.g. a

cotton ball or smooth

end of tongue

depressor, and a semisharp

object, e.g.

broken end tongue

depressor.

􀂃 Examiner performs this

test on arms and legs

bilaterally by randomly

brushing the patient’s

arms and legs with the

soft and semi-sharp

objects, e.g. a cotton

ball, semi-sharp object,

etc..

􀂃 Patient directed to keep

his / her eyes closed

during the examination

as he or she identifies

sharp vs. dull on skin.

􀂃 Bilateral exam, upper

and lower extremities.

179

TASKFORCE MEMBERS

John R. McCarthy, Ed.D. Associate Director, Clerkship Education

Pelham Mead, Ed.D. Director, Faculty Development

Mary Ann Achziger, M.S. Associate Dean, Student Affairs

Felicia Bruno, M.A. Assistant Dean, Student Administrative

Services/Alumni Affairs/Continuing Education

Claire Bryant, Ph.D. Assistant Dean, Preclinical Education

Leonard Goldstein, DDS, PH.D. Director, Clerkship Education

Abraham Jeger, Ph.D. Associate Dean, Clinical Education

Rodika Zaika, M.S. Director, Admissions

Ron Portanova, Ph.D. Associate Dean, Academic Affairs

180

Featured

The Future of the College, Secondary and Elementary Classroom 2020+.

Due to the coronavirus Education in College and other levels will never be the same. Protection against the coronavirus and future pandemic viruses will require Social Distancing and the wearing of face masks to prevent spreading of a virus from one student to another or to the teacher. I have a solution for Elementary, Secondary and College schools to still have classrooms with live students instead of complete online courses. The average Secondary school grades 7-12 usually has 32 student except in some States it may rise to 45 in a classroom to one teacher. To allow for social distancing in the future the number of students in a classroom is going to have to drop from 32 to half that amount or 16 students.

This change would impact the Teacher contracts and agreements with the teacher Unions. Instead of having 8 classes a day of which teachers teach five, the new norm will be twice that number or 16 short classes a day. Short classes would be twenty minutes long instead of the usual 50 minutes. Teachers will have to teach ten short classes a day. Department chairpersons who use to be excused for teaching several classes a day would have to return to a full teaching regiment of 16 classes a day.

Online in school classes can be made available to help make the new curriculum easier to apply. Music auditoriums are the largest room in most schools next to the gyms. In auditoriums student could sit every other seat for social distancing with their own laptop or iPad and log on to the online course they were assigned for that period.

Lunch or cafeteria would have to change to allow social distancing . Every other seating might not work, so chairs might have to be placed in hallways near the cafeteria. Schools in warm climates could have an expanded outdoor picnic area with plenty of extra permanent seating installed.

Online course can supplement in class courses with support and guidance after school at home.

In College money walks and money talks. College Presidents will be tempted to go the all class online route to save massive amounts of money, while at the same time charging tuition to students who log on from home. Dormitories could become problem as the students at UCSD have complained, “why should they pay for a dorm or apartment when they can log on from home? At the NY College of Osteopathic medicine where I worked as. Director of Faculty Development and Assessment they had streaming for all lectures. The lucky thing is that only had two lectures going on at the same time. If a University were to apply instant streaming of all lectures and classrooms the cost would be prohibited due to the need for massive computer server storage space. The down side of streaming other than cost is that the students did not come to the lectures and instead remained at home with a cup of coffee and a donut. The administration at the NY College of Osteopathic medicine could not figure out how to get the students to attend the lectures. The solution was simple. Stop streaming the lectures and handing out of lecture notes in advance. Online course can be bought from third party companies or developed over time with the existing faculty. The problem there is intellectual property rights. Does the Professor had full rights to the classes and curriculum they write and teach or does the University or College have the full property rights to the recorded video copies of the lectures? That depends on the employment contract the Professors sign when they are hired. If they agree to give the University or College full legal rights to replay a Professor’s lectures for eternity than the Professor has no rights. Online courses save Colleges and Universities millions of dollars by not having to provide classroom space or pay a live professor to teach the course.

Some Universities provide a Professor at the beginning of the course and at the end for the final exam and the rest of the course is online. Blackboard is an online administrative system that I was certified and trained in that makes online teaching easy with computer testing, online grading reporting, lock boxes to record when an assignment is handed in onetime and the full curriculum can be posted in advance. Some textbook companies will provide the full text of their books to be uploaded to Blackboard for students to read and not have to pay for an expensive textbook.

Obviously the human interaction between student and teacher is going to suffer. There might be a decline in Teachers due to the new non personal online teaching approach? One big glitch is what happens when the servers go down? No server, no internet, no classrooms broadcast. Hacking will be a major problem and colleges, schools and universities will have to learn how to protect their online systems.

E-mailing a professor is always going to be risky if the student can upload a virus or deliver a link or app that tracks a Professors keyboard. Protected institution e-mails are the only way to prevent this.

Will the online system come the fall of 2020 be good? Probably not because schools have not had the time to train their teachers how to teach online. Early Kindergarten and first grade students will need software that is good for their age level. Who is to pay for these iPads or laptops, the district or college or the student. Many students come from poor families that cannot afford an iPad. They will need financial assistance to secure an iPad and the training how to use one on cds or dvds.

The shorter class time is actually a plus for student with a short attention span. It makes teaching more concentrated. Teachers tend to blab a lot and this will teach them to be concise. Online projects must be completed in 20 minutes.

Physical Education is more essential than ever as an outlet from being cooped up all day and for character development. Online instruction is not a good venue for character development. Good sportsmanship carries over into adult life and provides guidelines for interaction with others in sports. Learning to lose as well as win and profit from losses to eventually win says a lot about Physical Education. We live in an age of overeating students who are so obese they cannot do many things like run or hike. They run out of breath when walking or riding a bike. They are made fun of by their peers. Physical Education will teach students what they cannot learn on a computer. Live body practice is a great way to teach a person’s muscles how to coordinate a skill or sport. Just watching on a computer is not the same. Muscles have memory and the more you repeat a skill, the better you become using that skill.

This is only the beginning of the discussion. Next time the mathematics of setting up a school master schedule with 20 minute classes and 16 sections a day.

Dr. Pelham Mead, June 2020

Kozaisho

a movie script about one of the greatest Samurai in Japan in 940 CE

by Dr. Pelham Mead

The flag logo of the Japanese Taira clan of 900’s

I just finished my 24th movie script called, “Kozaisho.”She was the concubine of Samurai Taira No Masakado 900-940 CE in Northern Japan. Based on his true story I told his story through the eyes of his concubine. Japanese wives in those days lived with their fathers even after getting married as a tradition. Especially when the father was richer than the husband. Masakado’s father died when he was 13 and his Taira clan Uncle Kunika took over Masakado’s father’s ranches and homes and sent Masakado to serve under the Minister of the Right in the capital city of Koyoto. Fourteen years later Masakado returns as a trained warrior to claim his father’s estate only to be ambushed in 935 CE by his Cousins, sons of Uncle Kunika. Masakado and his small group of body guards managed to fight off the assassins killing all of the cousins attacking him. With that victor behind him he set out to kill Uncle Kunika, whom he found hiding in a farm house. He burnt the farm house down with Uncle Kunika inside.Upon returning to his home compound in Hitachi the other Uncles from the Taira clan began to plot against him and organized an army to kill Masakado. Masakado appealed to the Emperor and was forgiven for killing his cousins. The Taira clan sought out Masakado regardless and for several years attacks and counter attacks occurred. Masakado defeated all of the Governors in the Northern provinces and returned tax forffeited land to the farmers that the Governors had taken away. This made Masakado very popular with the farmers. Eventually, the Emperor was afraid Masakado would march on Koyoto and kill the Emperor so he hired two Samurai, one was a cousin Sadamori and the other a Samurai for hire. They track down Masakado with an Army of five thousand and did battle agains Masakado’s small army of five hundred. Masakado was killed with an arrow to his eye and Sadamori beheaded the dead corpse and took Masakado’s head back to the Emperor. When the head was hung from an Apple tree in the Koyoto market place for many weeks it shouter out for it’s body. The eyes of the head remained open and the people were afraid that the head was cursed. Eventualy, the head disappeared and reappeared in a small fishing village called Edo which is now the modern day Tokoyo. He head was buried there in a sacred mound. Ten years later his daughter and son tried to raise a revolution against the Emperor and failed. They did succeed in expanding and building a large Shinto shrine to their father in Edo which remains even to this day. Every time over the hundreds of years someone tried to move the shrine or negatively affect the shrine bad fortune came to them. In WWII, General McArthur tried to move the shrine and put in a truck facility until a local Japanese businessman went to General McArthur and explained that the shrine was a sacred Shinto shrine for a great deity and disturbing it was a disgrace and bad fortune. General McArthur apologized and stopped the building of the truck garage and restored the Masakado shinto shrine to it’s original glory. It stands today in the financial district of Tokyo and Masakado has a holiday once a year celebrating his greatness and kindness to the Japanese farmers.LikeCommentShare

Integrating Technology into Medical Colleges

Integrating instructional technology into the 21st Century

Medical College

1- The changing role of the teacher

a. The one room school house generalist

b. The specialist teacher in the 20th and 21 century

c. The adjunct Medical Doctor instructor

Changing the Pedagogy of Medical College Faculty in Lectures

By Dr. Pelham Mead, retired Director of Faculty Development at NYiT, College

of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, L.I., N.Y.

The problem in most medical colleges is their over-dependence on the lecture method of

instruction to get across information to first, and second year, medical students. The pedagogy

of “lecture and leave,” is out of date, and ineffective. The pedagogy for faculty for the 21st

century is to engage the students in the process of analytical thinking so that it becomes natural

in the real- life profession of medicine.

There has been a growing trend since the late 1990’s to move from large lectures to small

groups at most Osteopathic, and Allopathic medical colleges across the United States. (Cite)

Lectures are convenient and require less space in terms of many classrooms vs. one large

lecture hall. Using lectures only allows a medical school to have a smaller faculty since it takes

more faculty members to facilitate many classrooms than it does to have one person lecturing to

a large body of students at one time. The pedagogy of the instructor has to change from

lecturing and depending 100% on Powerpoint to engaging students with case study scenarios,

motivating medical students to read and prepare the assignments in advance of the group

discussion class. As the class gets larger the distance of the instructor from the back of the class

increases. An effective instructor will move away from the podium and use a remote clicker for

Powerpoint and walk down the aisles to communicate with the students at the back and the

middle of the room. What an instructor can do with a class of 30 students, they can do with 200

or 300. The same rules apply. Engage the student in discussion. Wait for their answer. Allow

them to consult with a student on either side of where they are sitting as they do on the show

“Millionaire,” “Consult an Expert.”

Even the way a professor speaks to a medical student makes a difference. “Student Physician

Smith, can you tell me the solution is to this case and how you determined that solution?” By

using the term student Physician or student doctor the instructor has given the medical student

some power and pride. This style of teaching is the pedagogy of medical education for the 21st

century. It is used at Univ. of Texas Osteopathic School of Medicine, at NYCOM and many

other medical schools. Treating medical students with respect and giving them the

responsibility to solve case studies empowers them and gives them the motivation to perform

better.

Another method of student empowerment is to get the students to assess the classes, labs, and

lectures as well as the faculty teaching. At NYCOM we adapted an approach used by Mayo

Medical School in randomly assigning teams of students to each course and have them compile

a professionally written Executive report on the course in two pages. Likewise, one to two

pages summarized briefly regarding the faculty and their performance. The Executive report is

first made to the end of course round table with the Director of the course; thread coordinators,

and faculty who taught the course. The student assessment group of CFA (class/faculty

assessment) team selects a few representatives to give their recommendations regarding the

course to the faculty at the round table. After discussion, the recommendations that are

approved by the round table are then presented to the NYCOM Curriculum Committee for a

brief 5-minute presentation regarding just the course recommendations. The faculty

recommendations are kept confidential and are reported to the Associate Dean of Academic

affairs, which in turn follow up on the positive and negative reports on faculty by sharing the

information with the appropriate Department Chairperson.

At the NY College of Osteopathic Medicine, streaming video has been provided for almost a

decade. It first replaced television broadcasts, and was a unique tool in learning. Eventually by

2008, it became so good that is threatened to leave the lecture halls empty. The administration

struggled to find a solution to the attendance problem without removing streaming. Attendance

was mandatory and the administration was not about to change this policy.

In addition to computer streaming of lectures, the NY College of Osteopathic Medicine

provided all first ,and second year, medical students with notes on Moodle, outlined in advance.

The notes and Powerpoint presentations were printed out and put in all students’ mailboxes. On

the surface this seemed like a great sup portative idea to provide the students with all the study

aids possible to improve learning and test scores. In reality, however, students took the notes

into the lecture and yellow highlighted all the facts deemed necessary. Little real learning was

going on and as research has shown they only remembered 20-30% of the whole lecture after

they left the lecture hall.

Quizzes and test scores seemed to indicate a lack of comprehension on the student’s behalf.

Professors were teaching rote when they should have been teaching concepts through case

studies. One case study was presented each week and not covered in the lectures as a rule, even

thought it was supposed to be included.

The top down mandate from the College administration that lecture attendance be mandatory

did not work. Students were doing what ever they wanted to do without consequences. The

administration felt attendance should be mandatory because the students needed to interact with

the faculty. The interaction did not exist except for one or two professors. Many adjunct faculty

as well as full time faculty did not understand how to teach an interactive lecture and felt

comfortable rather than just repeating what the Powerpoint slide had on it.

Solution.

That lecture/discussion approach had become a big problem in terms of fluctuating attendance

by the fall of 2008. The problem of the student’s poor attendance, lack of professionalism,

punctuality, and student engagement was becoming a problem that needed a solution.

In the fall of 2008 change was needed. A strategy was developed to approach the

lecture/discussion aspect of the medical student education.

Strategy for Change

1. Get the full-time faculty and visiting lecturers to buy into establishing a new approach to

lectures.

2. Survey all faculty opinions as to what works in lectures and what doesn’t work.

3. Compare previous quiz and test scores from the previous three years with any change

pilot program to see if student test scores improve.

4. Survey student satisfaction before any pilot program is initiated and after a pilot is

introduced to the lecture program.

5. Interview and bring on-board the most outstanding interactive Professors on the staff and

encourage them to help change in the lecture program by modeling correct approaches to

lecturing. Video these presentations and make them available in streaming and podcast

format to all faculty.

6. Provide a new form of Faculty evaluation that only looks at the pedagogy of the professor

in utilizing an interactive lecture approach with collaborative student learning groups.

7. Attempt to recruit 3rd year and 4th year clinical students to come back to help part-time as

discussion group leaders after lectures for first and second year medical students.

8. In exchange for working as group discussion leaders the medical students would be given

a tuition rebate.

9. The Lecture schedule would be modified to allow for a 60-minute discussion group

session immediately following the lecture.

10. Some lectures would involve a lecture facilitator and Collaborative Learning Groups.

Note: the same groups as the discussion groups.

11. The new Interactive Lecture approach would not be implemented until the fall of 2009 to

phase in the change with the first year medical students only.

12. In the fall of 2010 the second cohort of first year medical students would get the

Interactive Lecture approach as well as the second year medical students who were

introduced to this approach the year before.

Faculties who know how to model an interactive lecture were chosen to be filmed for a podcast

for the other faculty to see. A faculty party was planned in which to gather opinions, and

comments from adjunct faculty and full-time faculty. The social aspect of the party drew a lot of

adjunct professors who were a great part of the problem. Comments were sought how to best

improve the lectures. These comments were recorded and then sent out after the party for all

faculty to review and make additional suggestions. From these suggestions some pilot studies

were planned having the best interactive pedagogical faculty on the staff taking the lead.

Students were evaluated before interactive lectures were used for the same professor and after

he or she utilized academic games, demonstrations, collaborative learning, walking down the

isle asking questions, and installation of 6 microphones for students to ask questions during a

lecture also.

The design of the lecture hall with 350 fixed seats bolted into the ground and swing out lecture

arm style was not conducive to collaborative learning groups. No change could be made

immediately as to the seating arrangement, but it was recommended to the Dean of the College

to have the chairs removed next year and replaced with round tables and free standing chairs

that would enable collaborative learning groups to sit around each table and have a discussion

on the lecture of the day.

The officers of the first year medical students and the second year medical students met with the

Director of Faculty Development to voice their opinions. Their suggestions were taken into

consideration. They were informed as to what planned changes would occur after the faculty

was surveyed for their opinions.

The next step was to phase out the streaming to get the students to come to the lectures or

change the mandated attendance policy. Since the Virtual Medical Center pulled groups of

students from lectures a backup such as streaming was necessary. This access could be limited

to those students who missed a lecture due to being pulled from the lecture to attend Virtual

Medical Center sessions. Podcasts could be a more practical approach rather than streaming

lectures. Podcasts can be edited down to represent a portion of the lecture but not the entire

lecture. Eventually NYCOM administration will need to address this problem and move

forward to new educational outcomes.

d. Adjunct technical instructors

2- The changing role of the student

a. The students of yesterday

b. The students of today 21st century

i. Surrounded by media, technology, laptops, ipods, cell phones

3- The generational conflict

a. Education is always a generation behind the trends

b. Textbooks vs, experience

4- The fear of technology and change

a. The fear of computers, ipods, iphones, ipads, new tools

b. The comfortable teacher

c. Being open to change

5- Technology tools in the 21st Century Classroom

a. Blackboard

b. Electronic Whiteboards

c. Manual and auto podcasting

d. Streaming

e. Student response systems

1. Clickers

2. remotes

f. Laptops in the classroom

1. Empowering the student

2. Using laptops as part of a lecture

3. The evils of laptops

g. Smart Classrooms

i. Trends past and present

ii. Keeping up with the trends

iii. Do they really work?

6- Solutions to large and small classrooms

a. Large lecture hall solutions

b. Small classroom solutions

c. Online courses

7- Engaging students in lectures

a. Getting out from behind the lectern

b. The “Phil Donahue” approach

c. Setting up collaborative groups

d. Projects within the lecture hall

e. Student participation

8- Embracing Technology tools

a. Student clicker response programs

b. Electronic Whiteboards for student interactive lectures

c. Wireless access in classrooms and lecture halls

d. PowerPoint that blows the students out of their chairs

e. Sound effects that can be heard clearly in all corners of a lecture hall

f. Blackboard as a backup support system

g. WEBsites or Blogs to keep up the narrative between teacher and students or

students and students.

h. Using group e-mail to alert your students as to reminders, homework due,

reading preparation

i. Provide a study guide for each reading or homework assignment with

questions to be answered

j. Give Quickie 1 minute quizzes using PowerPoint to keep students preparing,

to check attendance, instant feed back, assessment as to whether students are

keeping up with the assignments and lectures.

k. Another assessment technique. Give 10 slides and a one question quiz after

relating to the ten slides just given.

l. Have students come up to the Electronic Whiteboard and write answers

m. Have students give PowerPoint slide presentations on Project or Research

assignments.

n. Move around the classroom with a wireless microphone and ask students

questions on the fly. Bring in group discussion

o. Divide the class into collaborative learning groups and give each group the

same assignment in class to do or different assignments. Walk around the

room and join in listening to their research and discussion process. Encourage

the use of laptop computers in class to do these projects. Wireless printers

provide within 50 ft. range to print out project results.

p. Live demos using a document camera

q. Live microscope hooked up to a computer demonstrations

r. Introduce 3D graphics into presentations

s. Streaming or podcasting of lectures

t. Storing lectures on Blackboard

u. Using an iPad or iTouch hooked up to a digital HD large 60”+ TV for display

v. Create your own manual podcast clips in video and or audio or both. Store

online.

w. Use cloud to syn all your computers with the same files

x. Introduce music as a background to lectures; keep it soft and low unless you

want an upbeat response with a pop song.

y. Don’t ever post a Facebook page and communicate with students on a

personal basis. It may backfire on you.

z. Never post blogs expressing your political or personal views. Keep the blogs

focused on course content only.

aa. Don’t tweet personal comments to students

bb. Use Second Life if you are familiar with it and have taken time to buy

land.

cc. Educate your students in Second Life. Use it as an out of class instructional

tool.

dd. Use Second Life to drop in on worldwide conferences to learn what is

happening in other countries.

ee. Create online clinics as information centers for basic medical knowledge.

ff. Give a quiz using 3×5 cards with student name and the quiz answers on it.

gg. Try different approaches such as small skits using students as actors; debate

teams, dividing the class in half and have one side play checkers on an

electronic white board by answering course content questions created by the

students; Play Jeopardy

9- Technology drives Education and Education trains for Technology

10- Writing Syllabi for Faculty development

a. CMSV curriculum

College of Mount St. Vincent

Teacher Learner Center

TLC Course (45 hrs.) Syllabus-Year One- 2001

Developed by Dr. Pelham Mead

Tentative fall 2001- TLC Syllabus

I-Making Teaching even easier with the third arm of Education; Technology

• Computer Basics, CPU speed, Ram speed, Storage peripherals (zip disk, cd-rw, internet)

• Scanners, digital cameras, monitor projectors, DVD and DVD-rom.

II- File and Folder basics for Teachers (MAC or PC)

• Using My Computer and the old Explorer programs to read disks, hard drives and cdroms.

• Making folders, copying, cutting, deleting and pasting files and folders.

• Saveas vs save features

• Making backups on cd-rom-rw, zip disks and Internet.

III-e-mail and electronic communication for teachers

• Types of e-mail programs

• Using the e-mail at CMSV.

• Making an attachment.

• Requiring a receipt

• Sending free e-mail notes and greeting cards http://www.bluemountain.com

• Making a class group mailing list.

• Using the group mailing list in http://www.blackboard.com.

• IMing in AOL- INSTANT MESSENGING.

• Across the Internet IMing.

• Bulleting Boards

• Newsgroups

• Cookies and databases on the Internet

IV- The Internet and the Teacher/Professor of the 21st Century

• As the expression says, “time is money.” Everything about software today and computers

is about “speed.” Speed in Internet access time, speed in cup computer time, and speed

in RAM memory time, speed in printer page per minute time, speed in Internet download

time. This coupled with the framework of a one, two or three hour class makes

technology in the classroom not only possible but also desirable.

• Access time is everything on the Internet.

• Instant information access and printout. Printing out information rapidly is a great backup

for Professor lecture or discussions.

• Textbooks can be replaced by using “live” information off the Internet.

• CNBC, Yahoo, MSNBC, CBS, ABC, CNN are all on the Internet with instant news

information for courses using current news information. CNN offers a news download at

3:00 in the morning each day for Channel One viewers that might also be available for

anyone else with TV cable access.

• Consider a generation entertained by multi-media vs. traditional lecturing:

o TV Games- Station Playstation;

o DVD and Video children’s movies start from infancy as an entertainment medium.

The new babysitter is the video recorder and all the children’s videos. By Junior

High and High school students are mesmerized by TVs and video recorders and

multi-media is all that garners attention in College today.

o Research has shown the in lecturing only 30% is retained upon exit from the class

and the retention rate drops lower the next day. Slow learners cannot keep up with

notes with fast speaking lecturers.

o Lecturing is an easy method of communication for a Professor, not the student.

o Lecturing assumes all students are highly motivated

o Lecturing throws the material out there but does not want feedback.

o Lecturing does not meet the needs of students with special needs, language

barriers, learning disabilities, unclassified learning disabilities, slow students,

• We (Professors) become the facilitators rather than lecturers in the 21st Century in using

partnering learning, collaborative learning, cooperative learning, group projects

especially with laptops in the classroom or using a computer Lab as a classroom.

• It is never too late to change a “teaching style” or the pedagogy of teaching.

• Change is inevitable (chalk-less classrooms, smart classrooms, multi-media surround

sound theaters, cabled TV sets with videos and DVD, and multi-media computer carts

with printer and computer LAN accessed and LCD projector connection)

V -Teaching Students How to Access information on the Internet

Internet Drivers Test-

• Metaphor of an auto driving tests, including Parallel parking, U-turn, Getting the signals

right, speeding, etc.

• Get a digital copy of the form from Dr. Mead

VI- The battle of Microsoft Explorer Browser and Netscape.

• Search engines. Project in collecting the top 10 Search engines and documenting their

strengths and weaknesses.

• Portals-mega size sell everything, offer everything, shopping, search engines, bots, etc.

all in one

• Bots and specialty search engines

VII- How to research properly and quickly.

• Knowing when to change the search.

• Saving pictures from the internet: Right button, Save Picture as..

• Looking at source code on the internet

• Saving Text from the Internet: several approaches, Save the entire website in .html or

highlight the text, copy and paste into Word and Save.

• The new emphasis in Office 2000 and XP version suite programs emphasize hyperlinking

within a document to the Internet. XP Office 2000 will take that Internet access

even further.

VIII- Web Publishing in about an hour for Professors (MAC or PC)

• Why Web Publishing for Professors?

> To allow slower learners, students with learning disabilities and or language barriers such as

Hispanic students, Chinese and other foreign born to have another source to get class notes or

materials. Web Sites can be a great form of communication and course support for students.

• Using Microsoft Publisher 2000/XP (XP has been released, but is due for an update in the

fall of 2001) it is possible to create a Web Site using the Web Wizard in five minutes.

The harder part is putting in the content for students and the most difficult part in less

than an hour is to ftp (file transfer protocol) publishing to the Internet. Uploading a web

site folder to a host ISP on the Internet.

IX- Free HOST ISPs on the Internet:

Update this section

X- Hosting on the Blackboard.cmsv.edu system.

• Blackboard.cmsv.edu offers a Web Course design alternative to publishing a Web Page.

The difference is the Blackboard program is menu controlled and designed. Blackboard is

not the same as posting your own web page. It is a proprietary system that is already on

the Internet.

• Blackboard offers additional support for students who may or may not need it.

• Blackboard increases communication in new venues (e-mail, bulletin board discussion,

chat rooms, downloading additional readings and helpful files.

• Blackboard offers a display showcase for each Professor’s course for students to review

as a guest for possible future enrollment.

XI-Using an inexpensive commercial Host ISP.

• When using Frontpage (no longer produced by Microsoft), MS Publisher or

Dreamweaver, the extensions making publishing to the Internet difficult. Few free sites

can handle the .htm extension or the special components in dhtml found in Frontpage.

• When you want to remove any ads and the hassle of contacting a web site to ftp a file or

files a commercial site for only $7.95 a month is available.

• A small program called “Coffee Cup,” is a neat web site software program but it not free.

http://www.addr.com and many other low cost dependable host sites are available.

• Many other low cost sites are also available.

XII- Getting Started with MS Publisher

What works for Professors is a program that can develop a web site quickly and easily.

Publisher 2000/XP is perfect for that reason. It provides web templates, walks you through an

easy wizard program and creates 1-5 pages in just a few minutes.

XIII- Web Publishing in about an hour approach

1. Speed through the Publisher Web Wizard to establish 3-5 pages.

2. Edit the content

3. Link the navigation buttons

4. Saveas

5. Saveas Web site (default directory will be C:\publish

6. Use and easy ftp program or AOL built in ftp

7. Ftp each file or the entire folder to an ISP host.

8. For AOL ….http://members.aol.com/your screen name

XIV-Using the MS Publisher

Skills to learn:

• Adding or changing colors, adding sound, adding a form, choices of templates and

automatic navigation links.

• Editing the content first

• Activating the navigation links to each page and back to the main page. Save.

• Save as a WEB site in .html.

• Open the Web Publish Program and ftp the folder up to the Internet.

• Two page Web-converting from Professor’s Notes

• Five page Web-Converting from Professor’s Notes, Feedback form, URL link page and

course outline page.

• Adding features: Web Page Counter http://www.bravenet.com to keep track of the number of

visitors. Frames for Text.

• Shadow effects

• Graphics, clipart and pictures

XV-Hyper-linking pages, bookmark or anchoring, e-mail, outside links and other links.

• Highlight the word or phrase to link and click the Icon that shows the globe with a chain

link. The menu for linking will come up and you have the following choices:

o Link to another page

o Link to an external internet URL

o Link to an anchor or the same word further down the screen

o Link to an e-mail

o Link to a file to allow downloading

• When the link is established the word or phrase become underlined and change to blue or

some other color other than black.

XV1 Publishing to the Internet Easily with Blogs

Best free blogs

http://www.wordpress.com the basic Blog templates are free but WordPress will want you

to buy the expensive advanced templates which are not necessary. The basic template

allow you to copy and paste your text and pictures. They even provide small apps that

track your blogs activity.

http://www.blogger.com Has been around for a while and provides free templates for a

blog. You can create more than one blog if you wish.

XVII- MS Word for the Professor (MAC and PC)

Alternative instructional techniques using Word.

• A Professor who can type fast it is conceivable to actually type the notes while talking on

a computer and project the notes on the movie screen.

• Another useful technique is to print out the notes for the class using Word and hand them

out before the class to help students who are having learning difficulties, language

barriers or who are slow in note taking.

• A hyper-link to a web site right in the notes allows a Professor to divert off to an

information site on the Internet as part of the class instruction.

• Word basics that are helpful in note typing, letters, syllabus and curriculum materials.

• Use of Word Tables for definitions, words, menus, listings

• Graphics in Word, Inserting clipart and pictures.

• Word Art for headings and special effect such as the Marcella technique.

• Templates for Word

• Macros for Word.

• How to make a hyper-link in Word or e-mail link.

• When done with the document saveas a Web Site. This converts the Word document to

.html format so it can be uploaded to the Internet. If one page only the name of the

document must be renamed to index.html in order for the Internet browsers to be able to

read the .html document. An index file in a web site is the control and index to all other

pages or images in the web site.

XVIII- Powerpoint Beginner to Advanced

Jump Start Powerpoint

The Powerpoint Auto Wizard

Slide Sorter View

Change the background

Change the template

Edit the content

Add the whipped cream

Sample Online lesson-Hamilton

Online Lesson Plan Template

SUBJECTTEACHERGRADEDATE
Lesson 3Teacher Name112020

OVERVIEW

We love the look of this professional lesson plan just as it is. But we also think you should have choices. To easily customize this template and make it your own, on the Design tab, check out a wide range of options in the Themes, Colors, and Fonts galleries. Or, to use your school colors, tap Colors and then select Customize Colors. To replace any placeholder text, such as this, just tap it and type.

PhasesTeacher GuideStudent Guide
Objectives1-Learn the life of Hamilton.1-Watch the Broadway play called, “Hamilton.”
InformationIn class Discussion. Who is Alexander Hamilton and what was his contribution to the 13 Colonies?What are the names of the songs in Hamilton? Who sings the songs? Make a list and submit when finished. Discuss.
VerificationFederalism vs States Rights.Hamilton supported Federal control of the colonies and established what part of the government?Federalism and States rights exists today with President Trump. What are five States rights issues the President Trump had tried to override?Racism and Hamilton. What country was Alexander Hamilton born in? How did he get an education?How did Hamilton feel toward slavery? Where did Hamilton live?Is his house still in existence? Where is the house located if it exists? 
Fast forward ProjectWhat President was responsible for helping to pass the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in the 1960’s?What does the Elementary and Secondary Education Act provide for.Discussion.Would Alexander Hamilton approve of the Elementary and Secondary act? Is that act a form of federalism or not?
SummaryDiscussion.Who wrote the play, Hamilton?What type of song style is used in the play?Who shot and killed Hamilton?Was the killer ever tried for his crime?Who was the killer’s daughter?Hamilton Puzzle tg solve.One week single person project.Find a free crossword puzzle app on the internet and create a 20 word cross-word puzzle using 20 names or terms from the Hamilton bio or play.Create answer sheet and submit both to teacher in one week.No pasting or cutting or copying.
REQUIREMENTSRESOURCESNOTES
• Requirement 1• Requirement 2• Requirement 3• Resource 1• Resource 2• Resource 3Add your notes here.

2

The Letter from Queen Ann of Cleves July 1540

Letter of Anne of Cleves to her husband, King Henry VIII11 July 1540

Soon to be finished my movie script called, “Anne of Cleves Personal Diary.” In my research I came across Anne’s letter to her six month husband King Henry VIII that probably saved her from having her head cut off. She let the King off easy and he rewarded her with many castles and a monthly stipend. She became one of the richest women in the court.

Pleaseth your most excellent majesty to understand that, whereas, at sundry times heretofore, I have been informed and perceived by certain lords and others your grace’s council, of the doubts and questions which have been moved and found in our marriage; and how hath petition thereupon been made to your highness by your nobles and commons, that the same might be examined and determined by the holy clergy of this realm; to testify to your highness by my writing, that which I have before promised by my word and will, that is to say, that the matter should be examined and determined by the said clergy; it may please your majesty to know that, though this case must needs be most hard and sorrowful unto me, for the great love which I bear to your most noble person, yet, having more regard to God and his truth than to any worldly affection, as it beseemed me, at the beginning, to submit me to such examination and determination of the said clergy, whom I have and do accept for judges competent in that behalf. So now being ascertained how the same clergy hath therein given their judgment and sentence, I acknowledge myself hereby to accept and approve the same, wholly and entirely putting myself, for my state and condition, to your highness’ goodness and pleasure; most humbly beseeching your majesty that, though it be determined that the pretended matrimony between us is void and of none effect, whereby I neither can nor will repute myself for your grace’s wife, considering this sentence (whereunto I stand) and your majesty’s clean and pure living with me, yet it will please you to take me for one of your humble servants, and so determine of me, as I may sometimes have the fruition of your most noble presence; which as I shall esteem for a great benefit, so, my lords and others of your majesty’s council, now being with me, have put me in comfort thereof; and that your highness will take me for your sister; for the which I most humbly thank you accordingly. Thus, most gracious prince, I beseech our Lord God to send your majesty long life and good health, to God’s glory, your own honor, and the wealth of this noble realm. From Richmond, the 11th day of July, the 32nd year of your majesty’s most noble reign. Your majesty’s most humble sister and servant, Anne the daughter of Cleves.

My Educational Philosophy

My Educational Philosophy

By Dr. Pelham K. Mead III

Introduction

I have always believed in Dewey’s position on Education on “pragmatism” since I am a pragmatist. I believe in God, and that he/she has a purpose for our lives.  Of the idea of God, Dewey said, “it denotes the unity of all ideal ends arousing us to desire and actions.” 

I agree with Dewey that education and learning are social and interactive processes. Education or schooling is where a child spends 6 ½ hours a day. It becomes their social focus. Thus as Dewey has stated, the school itself is a social institution through which social reform can and should take place. It is also my firm belief that students do well in an environment in which they are allowed to experience things and interact with the curriculum. This is another tenet of Dewey, and still today we are striving to allow students to actively engage in their learning in lecture halls in colleges, and in classrooms in elementary and secondary education.

Being a pragmatic teacher I believe programs that arise in education can be worked out. I also believe in Existentialism in which students learn in their own way.  I believe students to be unique and no set curriculum will work unless it allows for their individualism to exist. Dewey believed, as do I that a teacher needs to model the right way of doing things and to prepare a student not only for the subject being taught, but also for the future where their values will continue.

Today, I received an e-mail letter from a student I had in my physical education classes and my Boys Gymnastics team over 40 years ago, thanking me for all I did for him. When I first saw the name, I had to think, “Who was this student.” Then it occurred to me it was one of my smallest gymnasts that I always gave encouragement to, that one day he would grow taller, and become stronger. He never forgot that modeling, and even though it took 40 years, he finally thanked me. Thanks were not needed because I was doing my job, and then some. I was being not just a teacher or a leader, but an adult role model, something which had stuck with this student even though after he graduated from high school I never saw him again.

Satisfactions and Challenges of the Teaching Profession

The satisfactions of teaching are when like the student just mentioned comes back or contacts me, and says thanks. I use to always get excited when my students who had graduated from high school would come back, and tell me how they were doing in college, and how gymnastics or physical education in knowing me made a difference for them. I recruited a great deal of students to the profession of teaching even at the young ages of 14, 15, and 16. When I saw that special talent in working unselfishly with others I knew this student would one day make a great teacher. I gave them opportunities to teach by becoming what I called Junior Instructors, and when they went off to high school from Junior High, I asked them to come back and help me after-school in the gymnastic practice sessions. After a few years I had over 30 Junior Instructors helping my gigantic team of 110 students. Out of the 30 students 19 went on to become teachers, which is quite a record. Many became Gymnastic Captains at their College teams. Three such students became Captains of the Springfield College Gymnastic Team, my Alma Mata. These successes were very satisfying rewards for me in my career in teaching.

There are always cons in all professions, however despite the politics of my school where I taught for 31 years, I managed to survive. We had three major strike threats in which our Union tried to force the Board of Education to give us at least a 3% pay increase every four years that was below the cost of living.

Student diversity seems to be a key word in today’s education, however when I started teaching I saw no diversity in having as many black students on my gymnastic team as white students. I did not see the difference between special students, and normal students. I remember going out of my way to encourage a tall black student who was considered a   special education student to succeed in gymnastics, when his friends all wanted him to play Basketball. My support of this student paid off because  he actually became a NY State Gymnastic finalist. After high school graduation he attended the local community college, and started a Gymnastic Club there. He went on to transfer after two years to SUNY Cortland University, where he became a star male gymnast. Even though he was a special education student with a reading level of second grade in eighth grade and being a black American in a generally “white” sport, he achieved. My major philosophy in my Gymnastic Exhibition Team was that everyone that kept up their attendance and show motivation and effort would participate in some way in all of our traveling gymnastic shows at other elementary and secondary schools in our district and later on in other school districts. If they weren’t good at tumbling, I put them in the parachute event. If they are too weak for the parallel bars or uneven parallel bars I made them a vaulter so they could be a part of the “Elephant Vaulting” event. (Vaulting over parallel bars with a mat laid over the rails using a springboard or trampolette, with me on the other side catching many of them as they cleared the mat.)

It never occurred to me that there was diversity of religious backgrounds, or ethnic backgrounds until my school had an International Day, and I noticed that all of my students came from 21 different countries, and spoke 21 different languages at home. In the 1960’s and the 1970’s my school district was 60% Jewish students from Spring Valley, Monsey, Pomona, and Montebello, NY.  Monsey itself was a self-sufficient Ultra-orthodox Jewish community where Jewish people owned all of the stores, and all the schools were Jewish Yeshivas. By the 1980’s the population changed, and Haitian students became the next population to move into Spring Valley bringing the overall Haitian student population to almost 40% by the end of the decade. 

Much of the liberal and conservative Jewish population moved out of Spring Valley to New City. Out diversity increased more and more each decade with an influx of different nationalities moving out of New York City to the suburbs where the schools were better than the city and housing was available for a cheaper amount. By the 1990’s the Indian population and the Russian population had become larger along with Chinese families. Our diversity became out strength as we struggled to learn from one another and to identify with the ethnic cultures that had moved into our community over 30+ years. Diversity was the keyword then as it is now and it meant treating students equally and fairly with sensitivity for their religious and ethnic cultural values.

Scope of my Teaching Profession

My first teaching experience other than my field-teaching placement was as a Graduate Teaching Fellow in Biology, Botany, and Anatomy at Springfield College. In my senior year I was fortunate to get a part-time position as a Teaching Fellow in Botany when another Teaching Fellow left suddenly. Because of this opportunity I stayed on as a Graduate Teaching Fellow in Botany and Zoology the next year. I was in charge of four Biology labs a week and had to teach once a month using 35 mm slides to a lecture hall of 350 Freshman Students. 

After a summer in Los Angeles as Assistant Director of the LA Board of Education “School Camp” experience at Point Fermin Park, I concluded my graduate field experience, and headed back to New York. I started teaching Physical Education and Health that fall of 1967 and Coach of Cross Country, Track and Field, and Assistant to the Wrestling coach. After one year of teaching Physical Education I realized the school was in the “ice age” when it came to Gymnastics.  The Men’s Physical Education staff had no clue what gymnastics really was as a sport. They called rope climbing and obstacle course-gymnastics.  I had to demonstrate everything and strive to up grade the equipment, which was 20 years out of date. After I developed an intramural gymnastics program for the boys that were too small to play basketball in the winter, I inherited the girls gymnastic program the second year of my job when the girl’s coach left for a college job. I knew nothing about Girls gymnastics since in the 1960’s and early 1970’s before the Federal Title 9 rule came into effect demanding equal programs and equipment for girls. I went to gymnastic clinics every year. I bought records for Floor Exercise, and read  books on Girls Gymnastics. I later became a Nationally Certified USGF Safety Gymnastic Instructor and Coach. I went on to pass the Men’s USGF National Judging test and was certified as a Men’s Gymnastic Judge for ten years.

My teaching experience was diverse in public school with 31 years at a Physical Education Teacher, Health Education teacher, Darkroom Photography Teacher, and Dean of Students for grades 7,8, and 9, called Junior High in New York State. I coached practically every sport that existed including Girls Softball but no Field Hockey. I coached French Foil fencing on a club basis and Lacrosse that was a new and upcoming sport at the time. I was supposed to be the Swimming Coach but the pool in my building was turned down by public vote and we never got a swimming pool and instead had to rent a college pool for the team to practice.

As I was retiring in 1998 the junior high system of education was being replaced by a Middle School concept of grades 6,7, and 8, leaving the 9th grade in High school where it belonged. In the 1970’s Physical Education which used to teach separate gender classes. Getting my Doctoral degree in 1992 opened a future door for me since I knew that I could not be a Physical Education Teacher forever and keep the same stamina and energy I had when I was younger. When I retired in 1998, it was just the beginning of another wonderful career in higher education where my Doctoral degree opened the doors to college and university jobs. My Dewey and James philosophy had stayed with me all my career and always made me reach out to the underdog, the underserved, the small the large, the slow and the fast students that came across my career path.

Responsibilities and Requirements of Teaching

My legal responsibilities as a teacher were “en loco parente,” in Latin, in place of the parent. It was my responsibility to prepare my lesson plans in advance, both for Health Education and Physical Education and have it approved by the Department Chairman. It was my job as a teacher and leader to present a moral presence to my students and to show them by my actions that act of kindness, good sportsmanship, good ethical values and fairness in judgment mattered both in school and in society.

My skills as a gymnast in high school and college gave me an edge in teaching Physical Education since most Physical Education teachers were poorly educated in Gymnastics and other minor sports like Fencing, Lacrosse, and Judo. These specialty areas made the difference between an average Physical Education teacher and a great Physical Education teacher. I found that in my first ten years on the job, I not only had to introduce real gymnastics to my colleagues, but I had to also educate other Physical Education teachers at the two high schools, the other two Junior High schools and the 13 elementary Schools. This opportunity came around once a year when we started off the year with the first Day of the year with the Superintendent’s Conference. I contacted several Olympic Gymnasts and one National Trampoline Expert that were employed by the Nissen Corp. and American Gymnastic Equipment Corp. as field reps and good will ambassadors. They came and put on demonstrations and clinics on three different occasions that sparked a lot of interest on the elementary school level in proper gymnastic progressions.

In 1975 I was asked to serve on the District-wide Curriculum Committee for Physical Education.  I had the opportunity to write the complete Gymnastic Curriculum from K-12 grade with the skills progressions that were appropriate for each age and skill level. Later on in 1982, I was again invited to join the combined Health and Physical Education Curriculum rewrite committee to meet State requirements that had changed in Health Education and Physical Education. Trampoline has been outlawed and dropped due to insurance rates and local Doctors lobbying to drop it. Health Education was fighting with the AIDS/HIV curriculum which little was known at the time and was changed each year beginning in 1985 until 1992. These curriculum writing experience would go on to help me later in my second career in higher education where I wrote curriculums for instructional technology in the classroom, and in software programs like Powerpoint, MS Publisher, Podcasting, Electronic Whiteboards, and Student Response clickers. Still to this day my concern for the social life of the student, their learning environment, and getting them to participate in their education as Dewey and James advocated so many decades ago.

Conclusion

In conclusion I have tried to demonstrate how my philosophy of life with the tenets of Dewey and James in mind, have helped me to be a good lifelong teacher. I have shown by example how I deal with diversity in students and how I have always attempted to treat every student equally and with sensitivity to their cultural and religious backgrounds. I have tried in my teaching career to model what a highly motivated person would be like. I have tried to demonstrate that I achieve above the norm and that I have always tried to do more than expected and more than anticipated by my peers and colleagues, as well as my students. Proudly I have always remembered my College’s motto “spirit, mind, and body.” Treat the whole person was the theme at Springfield College, former YMCA Training School and the college where Basketball and Volleyball were invented. In retrospect I have been fortunate to have had two teaching careers, one in the New York State Public school Secondary level for 31 years, and after retirement for 12 years of higher education experience at some of the best Universities in the Northeast; New York University, St. Johns University, the NY College of Osteopathic Medicine and the College of Mount Saint Vincent.

References

Alfred, A. (2010). Surviving the APA requirement. American Research Journal, 47 (2), 75-83.

Curz, M.J. & Smith, C.D. (2009).  APA format for dummies.  American Psychological

 Association Journal, 58.  Retrieved July 1, 2010, from Academic Search Premier.

Dewey, John,  “My Pedagogic Creed” (1897), “The School and Society “(1900), “The Child and the Curriculum,”  (1902), Democracy and Education, (1916) Experience and Education (1938).

Henniger, M.L. (2004).  The teaching experience:  An introduction to teaching.  Upper Saddle

River, NJ:  Pearson Education, Inc.

Henniger. M.L. (2008).  Educational philosophies and you. (Rev. ed.). Athens, OH:  Universal

Publications.

Longfield, J.A. (1997).  A survival guide for f200 students.  Retrieved July 1, 2010, from

http://www.iun.edu/~edujal/f200/survival.doc

James, William, “ Principles of Psychology (1890), “ Psychology: The Briefer Course,” (1892). A

The Summer of 1967

The Summer of ‘67

By Dr. Pelham K. Mead III

Chapter one- Departure from Springfield College, Springfield, Mass.

It was June 1, 1967, a Thursday, and I was trying to finish grading the final exam for the four Botany lab sections I was responsible for. It was a blisteringly humid day in Springfield, Massachusetts, however the cool basement air in the Botany labs that were under Alumni Hall helped make the weather more bearable. Dr. Brainerd the Director of the Botany program at Springfield College had given a particularly hard final exam to the freshman taking, “Introduction to Botany,” for the spring tri-semester. I was a graduate teaching fellow in the Biology department at the time making $2,000 a year and receiving free tuition toward my Masters Degree in Outdoor Education. Dr. Brainerd liked to give lectures using 35mm slides from the thousands he had stored in his office and at his home. If a student missed a Botany lecture, then it would have been extremely difficult to recognize the same slide during the final exam when Dr. Brainerd repeated some of his favorite slides and asked the standard question. “What does this slide represent? Or he might ask, “The burrow holes in the sides of this clay river wall were caused by what animal? As I checked off the right and wrong answers on each answer sheet my mind began to wander off to my big summer adventure. Dr. Charles Weckwerth, my advisor and Department Chairperson for Recreation had arranged for me to do my Masters Field work in Los Angeles board of education School camps in Clear Creek camp, high in the Los Angeles mountains, and the Point Fermin Lighthouse Camp on the palisades of the Pacific ocean in San Pedro, California. Fortunately for me, Dr. Weckwerth had a personal friend who just happened to be the Superintendent of the Los Angeles Board of Education. As a favor for me, Dr. Weckwerth called his friend in Los Angeles and asked if he could do him a favor by allowing me to serve my master’s field experience at Clear Creek School Camp, and Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp. The deal was made, and I was to report to Clear Creek on June 12, 1967, Monday. It was only 3500 miles away from Springfield, Mass.

In anticipation of having to drive to California with my wife Jeri and my two-year-old son Dean Michael I decided to trade in my Chevy Corvair that was not running at the time anyway. Jeri and I had looked at a brand-new Volkswagen Camper in the dealer on Worthington Street in downtown Springfield. The dealer offered me a few thousand for my used Chevy Corvair sight unseen if I put down $500 deposit to purchase the brand new 1967 VW Camper. The camper was white and had stick shift. The inside of the camper had a bunk for sleeping two adults, a ice box refrigerator, a small sink with a small water tank and cabinets all around the top and bottom of the camper. For my son, a canvas hammock stretched over the front two seats. Curtains could be pulled across the inside of the front windshield. The side windows had curtains also with louver opening windows with screens to keep out the bugs. The camper was expected to get 30-35 miles to a gallon that cost $.28 a gallon. We were picking up the camper this Saturday June 3rd and I was already getting excited to have my first new car. Being a graduate student at Springfield College gave me potential credit that was good enough for the Volkswagen dealer. I had already signed for a full-time position as a Physical Education teacher in the East Ramapo School District in Spring Valley, New York (exit 14 on the New York State thruway). With the guarantee of a full-time job and the reputation of Springfield College in the community my credit was good.

I finished grading all the final exams that afternoon and turned them into the Botany office secretary for Dr. Brainerd to review and got on my 50cc Yamaha motorcycle and headed home. I live in a four-story walkup apartment on Worthington Street in downtown Springfield Mass. It was cheap at $135 dollars a month with a balcony and large bedrooms, living room, Kitchen and bathroom. My two-year old son Dean Michael had his own bedroom that was 15 feet long by 12 feet wide. His room was filled with toys and a child’s crib bed. The kitchen was very room and had a table to eat in the kitchen. The pantry was walk in size with plenty of room for storage. Walking up the four floors of steps was very tiring, but I was in the best physical shape of my life at the time at the ripe old age of 23 turning 24 the end of the month. Jeri was cooking spaghetti and meatballs one of our family favorites. I collapsed on the couch in the living room and looked at the brochure showing pictures of the VW camper. I could not wait until Saturday.

I yelled to my wife from the living room that I had to go into work tomorrow on Friday to pick up my final paycheck for my graduate teaching fellow position and have Dr. Brainerd sign off on my graduate teaching fellow duties. My office was cleaned out already and I had packed up my files and put them in storage until I had time to have them sent to Spring Valley New York next fall. We watched television that evening and packed clothes into boxes for the trip to California. I made sure we had trip insurance with the Automobile Association of American and a trip-tek book and a map of the southern route to Los Angeles from Springfield Mass.

Friday came quickly and I met with Dr. Brainerd that day and he signed off on my final exam grades and my lab grades for the four sections I was assigned. I told him I would be leaving for Los Angeles the following Monday since I had to be in California at Clear Creek camp on June 12th. He wished me well and told me some of the stories he often repeated of his trips around the USA. My greenhouse duties were all completed, and the greenhouse was clean enough to pass his rigorous standards. Dr. Brainerd thanked me for the work I had done in the Biology and Botany departments in the last two years and shook my hand and wished me well. I felt a twinge of sadness when I left the underground labs in the Alumni Hall dormitory that day.

I headed for the administration building after meeting with Dr. Brainerd to pick up my final teaching fellow paycheck. After getting the check I would take it to our bank in downtown Springfield and deposit it so that we would be able to withdraw a large amount on Monday when we were planning to leave. I sold the trusty 1966 50cc Yamaha motorcycle to another Springfield College student and he would be coming by on Sunday to pay $400 for the motorcycle.

When I got back to my apartment on Worthington Street, I parked my motorcycle next to my Chevy Corvair and got in it and tried to start it. The motor turned over and then died. I tried several times and succeeded in flooding the engine. I guess getting the car to the VW dealer was going to be a problem tomorrow when I was supposed to pick up the VW camper and trade in the Corvair. Luckily, the VW dealer was at the bottom of Worthington Street and if I rolled the car down the hill in neutral, I could probably make it to the dealer’s parking lot. I hope to hell he doesn’t demand to check out the car at the last minute. He told me he was selling the car to a wholesaler as soon as I trade it in, so the chances of him caring what condition the engine was in might not matter?

The next morning, I had an appointment at 11:00 in the morning to pick up the VW Camper, and trade in the Corvair, and sign all the final papers. I was nervous, because I wasn’t sure if I could get the car to roll safely down Worthington Street to the dealer at the bottom of the hill. I got in the car and tried to start it, but it was still not turning over. I put on the emergency blinkers and released the hand brake and slowly the car began to move down the hill to the dealer’s parking lot at the bottom. I made it halfway up the driveway to the parking lot and had to leave the Corvair there where it came to a stop. I walked inside the dealer’s office and there he was standing next to the VW Camper in the giant showroom. It was a tan color and it looked great under the showroom lights. Wow, I remarked it looks better than I had imagined. The dealer had just gotten the VW Camper from another dealer in Connecticut a few days before and had the mechanics change the oil and set the car up, ready to go. I signed the final loan papers and pointed to the Corvair sitting in the driveway of the parking lot. The dealer didn’t even look out the showroom windows at the Corvair. He handed me the keys to the VW Camper and wished me good luck. A mechanic slid the glass showroom doors apart and before I knew it I was driving the camper out of the showroom and up Worthington Street to my apartment at the top of the hill. When I got home, I ran up the stairs to get my wife Jeri and son Dean to give them a ride in our new family car or camper.

Shifting with a floor shifter takes some getting used to but I managed to adjust to clutching and easing on the gas pedal. Jeri sat in the other front seat and Dean sat on the couch in the back of the camper. We were all excited as I drove the camper out of Springfield toward Wilbraham out in the country. The engine was noisy but pulled up the hills easily. We drove around for a few hours, and then headed home for Dean’s afternoon nap. Two-year-olds must have their rest.

The weekend went by fast and on Monday morning we were at the bank at 9:00 withdrawing enough money to get through the summer in California. I had saved money all year for this trip across the country and the stay in Los Angeles for the summer. As soon as we left the bank we gassed up the VW camper and we were off on our big journey.

I took route 91 down to Hartford and then route 95 south to New York City. We made it to New York City and the George Washington Bridge in just three hours which is amazing because the VW camper does not travel that fast. Before we knew it we were on the New Jersey turnpike headed for Delaware. We stopped for lunch and to get gas at one of the rest stops on the turnpike. By late afternoon we were crossing Delaware entering Maryland. We stopped again for dinner and more gas and continues onto Washington, D.C.. We went around D.C. to avoid the traffic and entered Virginia. Our destination was Wheeling West Virginia. We took the turn suggested on the map and headed across Virginia to West Virginia. It was dark now and getting late. We got to Wheeling, West Virginia around midnight and got lost in the many hills that dotted the geography. Feeling to tired to continue we pulled over on the side of the road and went to sleep. About 4:00 am that morning there was a tapping sound on the side of the camper. I woke up and looked out the window to see a State Trooper standing there. It was still dark and he had a flashlight shining on the camper. I got up and went out to talk to the State Trooper. He informed me that I was right in the middle of an off-ramp on the highway and had to move the camper immediately. I complied and got in the camp and drove for the horizon. Eventually we reached the wooden bridge in Wheeling that crosses the Ohio river. It seemed like the bridge would fall into the river at any moment. I drove very slow over the wooden planks of the ancient bridge, holding my breath the entire way.

Finally, we made it into Ohio and stopped for breakfast sometime in the morning. Dean was keeping busy looking at the cows in the fields as we drove by. It was as if he had never seen so many cattle before. I was exhausted having driven since 4:00 am that day. We were headed toward Columbus, Ohio where we would connect with route 70 which would eventually take us south to connect with route 66. Once we got off the interstate highway in Ohio and headed south on route 71 south, the trip slowed down due to single lane roads with speed traps everywhere. We stopped at some burger places and ate a burger for breakfast. Bathroom stops were far and few between, so it was good to stop occasionally. That night we stayed at a State roadside rest area which was full of RVs and campers. We left the next morning headed for Cincinnati, Ohio. The sun glare on the flat dash of the Camper was so bad we had to stop at a Convenience store and buy some dark cloth to tape to the inside of the windshield to absorb the bright reflection off the white dash. Not having air-conditioning in the camper made it difficult when it got hot. We had all the windows open in the camper to cool it off when driving. Several hours later we went by Cincinnati and headed for Memphis, Tenn. on route 71 south. We stopped at another rest stop that evening and cooked our first dinner of hotdogs over a portable charcoal grill we brought with us. Dean was thrilled to be cooking outdoors and sitting at a picnic bench in the middle of nowhere.

The next morning, we reached Memphis, Tenn. and continued around it to Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. It was getting very windy on the open flat plains of Oklahoma, so we stopped to get a soda and some soft ice cream. I got out of the camper and when to order three sodas for us and three soft ice cream cones. It was so windy that the wind blew the soda out of the cups, and I had to go back and ask for a refill. Wow I thought to myself, it was windy here in Oklahoma. Next, I got the soft ice cream cones, and half the ice cream blew off before I could get back to the camper. I turned on the radio to the local AM stations to hear that a tornado had just hit the area where we were 20 minutes before we got there. No wonder it was so windy? Trucks and RVs were laying on their sides as we drove down the road. It was a scary looking aftermath of a tornado. I drove as fast as I could to put the tornados behind us. We drove late into the night headed for Amarillo, Texas. We stopped and rested for the night and left early the following morning after eating some dry cheerio oats cereal. We were out of milk at the time. We stopped at the next gas station to get more ice for the ice box and a quart of milk for cereal. We were supposed to stop in a Canyon Park for campers somewhere near Amarillo. As we approached the turnoff for the campgrounds, I noticed we were on empty with the gas gauge. Feeling very nervous we drove down into the canyon with no gasoline feeling we would stall at any minute. Fortunately, we got to the bottom and found a campsite for the night. The next morning, I told Jeri to pray that we make it back up to the rim of the canyon and find a gas station somewhere. We creeped up the steep canyon road in second gear until we reached the top and headed west. Twenty miles down the road we pulled into a gas station and filled up the tank. Apparently, there was some reserve gas that didn’t show on the gas gauge that the VW camper had. We stopped at a Texas breakfast place where I had hash browns, steak , and eggs for the first time in my life. I had never had hash browns before or steak with my eggs, so it was a big treat for me.

We traveled on toward Albuquerque, New Mexico slowly traveling down the single lane route 66. It was impossible to pass the big 18-wheeler trucks because the camper did not have the horsepower to pass them. We drove behind some trucks for hundreds of miles sometimes until they finally pulled off for gas. By the fourth day we had reached Flagstaff, Arizona where I had a gas station change the oil on the air-cooled VW engine. After that one-hour break, we headed for Grand Canyon on rt. 180 north. We arrived several hours later at the south rim of the Grand Canyon and took many pictures. Being that it was getting late we drove down to south to the desert view stone tower where there was a camping area. We camped out there for the night at this beautiful site where we could see the painted desert in the distance. Early the next morning we were awakened by the sound of dirt bikes starting up. I looked out the door of the camper to see many people on dirt bikes (motorcycles) headed out into the desert. Off they went in a cloud of dust not to return until later that morning. We rested and took pictures and planned our return to Flagstaff and then onto Kingman, Arizona.

We arrived at Kingman late that afternoon and headed north toward Las Vegas where we would pick up rt. 15 to cross over the mountains into California. We had to stop at a rest stop in the Mohave desert that night. It was freezing cold that night but when the sun came up the temperature jumped into the 90’s quickly. We arrived at Las Vegas later that day where I had my first burrito. The lady asked me whether I wanted red or green sauce and since I was not familiar with Mexican sauces, I choose the green chili sauce. I took one bike, and it was so hot I had to spit it out in the parking lot. So much for my first real Mexican food. I guess I had much to learn.

By the seventh day of our journey, we were crawling up route 15 over the mountains heading toward Los Angeles. Everyone passed us climbing up the mountains. VW campers had no hill climbing ability whatsoever. When we finally reached the top of the interstate road, we flew down the other side at 70 miles an hour. Los Angeles county was in the distance, and we were finally nearing our goal. I must make some turns to get to the road into the Los Angeles mountains where at 5500 feet above sea level the Clear Creek School camp was situated. The Los Angeles Board of Education sponsored this year-round School camp for their students in grades 4-8. They also had a marine theme School called the Point Fermin Lighthouse camp in San Pedro, California right on the palisades of the Pacific Ocean. After climbing back into the mountains for another hour or so we saw the sign for the LA Clear Creek School Camp. We turned off at that point and drove up a dusty dirt and asphalt road to the cabins high on a hill in the mountains. Finally, we had arrived.
Chapter two- Clear Creek School Camp, Los Angeles mountains 5,000 feet above sea leve.

(The approach road to Clear Creek) (The Hawks cages at Clear Creek)

The approach road to Clear Creek School Camp in the Los Angeles Mountains at 5500 feet above sea level.
As we approached the Clear Creek School Camp the director came out to meet us and welcomed us. He showed us a log cabin that we would be staying in for the next two weeks. My first impression as well as my wife’s was, “God it is hot here.” For the most part there were some trees to provide shade, however the majority of the campgrounds was exposed to the elements and the sun. Nearby on another mountaintop a beekeeper was raising bees that flew over to the camp area and alloyed the Hawks that were in cages.

In the picture above my wife Jeri and son Dean, n the background are seeking shelter from the broiling sun in the cabin. A view of the mess hall from the back of the building is in the next photo.

After we had unpacked and settled in we joined the Director and the staff in the mess hall where they were serving dinner. The Director and I talked about the philosophy of School Camps and about my major in Outdoor Education at Springfield College. My advisor, Dr. Charles Dr. Charles Weckwerth was well known nationally in the field of Recreation because he was the President of the National Recreation Association that accredits day and resident camps around the U.S.A. We talked about the Curriculum that was to integrate different academic subjects together. Combining Science and history together or Math and Outdoor survival skills. At night since the sky was so clear the camp offered Astronomy for lots of School groups. The overall theme at the camp was Ecology of natural resources. Unlike the Point Fermin Lighthouse School camp, Clear Creek had established permanent buildings and operated year-round. The Point Fermin Lighthouse Camp was only open in the summer for 8 weeks. Clear Creek also kept Hawks in captivity and many other local animals in cages for the campers to see. Point Fermin had no animals in cages at all. Clear Creek in addition to the camper log cabins had staff cabins, a mess hall, a classroom building and an outdoor pool.

The second day at Clear Creek the Director invited me to take a hike in the canyon with him and a camper group. He told me to wear high boots and pants because of the threat of rattlesnakes along the trail. I thought to myself, “rattle snakes,” I guess I will not be bringing my son or wife along the hike. We met after breakfast the following morning, and the Director and two staff members explained the rules for hiking into the canyon and the danger of rattle snakes. Campers were forbidden to bother the rattlesnakes or provoke them in any manner. If they saw a rattler, they were to yell SNAKE loud enough for everyone to hear. Then remain in place until a staff member did something about the snake. The side of the trail was surrounded by chaparral that is a woody bush that grew as high as four to six feet and was extremely dry in the summer months that caused a fire hazard. The director explained to the camper group that it only took a small spark or a streak of lightening to ignite a forest fire in a matter of minutes. We were five minutes down the trail when the first rattlesnake was spotted. SNAKE someone yelled and a staff member with a hiking stick that had a curled wire on one end came back to inspect the snake. He felt the snake was out of range and the entire group of campers slowly gave the snake a wide birth and continued down into the canyon where the stream ran through the mountains. We spotted twelve more rattlesnakes that day and I was a nervous wreck. Four of the snakes had to be removed from the hiking trail by a staff member using a snake stick which had a loop on one end that could ensnare the snake around the head and lift it and drop it some where away from the camper group. The chaparral was sharp and could cut you easily you so long sleeves were a form of protection.

(Reforestation of trees on the slopes) (Stone amphitheater at Clear Creek Camp)

(Stream coming down the mountain) (The outdoor Pool at Clear Creek)

The stream running down the mountain in the canyon. The photo on the fight is actually a white glare of a wide-open outdoor pool area. Over the past 40 years when this photo was taken the silver nitrate in the photo has faded making the picture look greenish.

While in the canyon the director and one of his interpretative staff members explain the ecology of the mountains and the importance of preventing erosion and fires. The stream ran down some steep rocks and often froze in the cold winter months of January and February. She shade from the trees was a welcome break. When we finished with the hike, we started back up the hill to the camp and of course spotted several more rattle snakes.

When I got back to my cabin, I informed my wife that are was infested with rattle snakes and to be careful about her and Dean. Wearing high ankle boots was a safety measure that we would have to abide by. Fortunately, we had brought high ankle hiking boots for all of us. I instructed Jeri and Dean to wear only high ankle boots at the camp because there were a lot of rattle snakes.

In the afternoon we went to look at the Hawks that were kept in cages on the campgrounds. Most of the Hawks had been injured at one time or another and were recovering or had been raised from chicks in abandoned nests. When it got real hot the staff would hose the Hawks down to cool them down from the high 90’s heat. I noticed that several Eagles were soaring overhead looking for prey.

At dinner that night staff members introduced some songs after eating and short skits about nature. It was standard procedure to have a pre-hike session in a classroom to introduce the campers as what they should be looking for in terms of plants and animals. The classroom building was another well-constructed log cabin building that could hold fifty campers at a time. Most groups were ten or so at a time.

When the groups were not doing Astronomy there were campfire activities, singing, skits and lots of fun for the staff and campers. By 10:00 pm each night was lights out time. There was no television at the camp or radios except an emergency weather and fire radio the Director kept in his cabin. Basically, the camp was as primitive and free from modern conveniences as possible. Oil lanterns were used at night and flashlights to navigate the paths from building to building. The campers were warned not to bring any food to camp or leave any papers or food outside their building because many animals came through the camp at night in search of food. Skunks, raccoons, possums, porcupines, wildcats, and sometimes bears had been known to tear apart garbage cans that were locked up in woodsheds.

After a week of the excessive heat and the fear of rattle snakes my wife had enough of our stay at Clear Creek and wanted to leave early. She was afraid Dean would be bitten by a snake and die.
I tried to calm her fears but spoke to the Director the second week asking him if we could leave early because my wife was very uncomfortable at the altitude, heat, and fear of snakes. He agreed since I had to report to Point Fermin Lighthouse camp the next weekend on Sunday anyway. We agreed to let me leave early on Thursday and I would take my wife and son and visit my aunt

(Clear Creek Weather facility sign) (Weather Station at Clear Creek)

Penny who lived in Apple Valley, California.

(Camp Hi-Hill belonging to the Long Beach (Camp Hi-Hill Modern Mess Hall)
School District outdoor education association)

On Monday of the second week, I was invited to travel to Hi-Camp School Camp for the Long Beach School District outdoor education program. The Director of Clear Creek had a staff member drive us over to the Long Beach camp after breakfast. I took Jeri and Dean with me to keep them busy. The buildings at Hi-Camp were more modern than Clear Creek and the whole campsite was newer with a good size mess hall and many modern cabins for the staff and campers. We had lunch at the mess hall of Camp Hi-Hill, and I had an opportunity to talk with the Director. He was very impressed that I was completing a Master’s Degree in Outdoor Education and that I and my family drove from Springfield, Mass. To do my field work at the LA Board of Education School Camps. He was so impressed that he offered me a job after I finished my summer field experience. I was very excited about the offer, but I had already signed a contract with the East Ramapo Central School district in Spring Valley to work full-time at Kakiat Junior High School as a Physical Education Teacher and Health Education Teacher. I had a dual degree in both areas when I received my Bachelor of Science degree from Springfield College. The Director at Camp Hi-Hill was most impressed with the fact that I was an Eagle scout when I was in the Boy Scouts of America. I told him about the many interesting camping experiences I had in the Boy Scouts in Winter and Summer camping. I spent one summer when I was 16 at a Boy Scout Camp called Onterora in the Catskills mountains of New York as a Nature and Survival Counselor. I had to take Boy Scout troops for a three-day survival trip on weekends at the camp where all we had to survive was a knife and a survival kit.

After lunch we returned to Clear Creek camp, and I told my wife about the offer for a full-time position as Director of the Hi-hill camp for the Long Beach school district in the fall. My wife’s response was that I could take the job if I wanted it but she would be returning with my son Dean to her home in Freeport, New York without me. She would then send me the divorce papers from New York. I got the message which was a definitive NO. I was disappointed but realized that she did not sign on to live in the mountains of the Los Angeles mountains with me when she married me. I dropped the issue after that discussion.

The Clear Creek Director asked me how I liked the Hi-Camp School Camp and I told him I was most impressed with their modern buildings and shady environment. I told me that Clear Creek had been around a lot longer than Hi-Camp and that the Long Beach school district floated a bond issue to build the camp from scratch just a few years ago. I figured that the Hi-Camp was newer because all the buildings and facilities were much more modern and larger than Clear Creek Camp. I did not tell the Clear Creek Director that I was offered a director’s position at Hi-Camp in the fall. I figured it was a personal matter and would do no good to mention it since I was a dead issue as far as my wife Jeri was concerned.

We departed the Thursday of the second week to stay at my Aunt Penny’s ranch in Apple Valley for a few days and then continue onto Point Fermin Lighthouse camp on that weekend on Sunday when I was supposed to arrive and meet with the Camp Director of the Point Fermin School Camp.

The stay at my Aunt Penny’s was great. We had an opportunity to ride horses and visit Roy Rogers Museum down the road and personally meet Roy Rogers and Dale Evans at an Episcopalian church service in which my aunt and uncle were parishioners. Roy was a lot shorter in person than I had imagined but he was a real gentlemen and leader of the church parish in Apple Valley. Sunday morning came faster than we had imagined and after checking the map and getting directions from my Aunt Penny and Uncle Johnny, we departed for Point Fermin School camp in San Pedro, California. San Pedro was down on the ocean next to Long Beach Harbor. In fact we took the Long Beach harbor freeway down from Los Angeles to get to San Pedro. It took us several hours and we stopped for lunch at a Taco shop to sample some real Mexican food. Eating Tacos and burritos was a real treat for us Easterners.

(Rocky trail down into the canyon) (Our cabin at Clear Creek Camp)

(Field trip by campers into the canyon (My son Dean entering the cabin)
where the stream was located)

Chapter THREE- Arrival at Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp in San Pedro, California

After leaving my Aunt Penny’s ranch in Apple Valley we headed to San Pedro, California to meet the Camp director of the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp. After several hours driving we finally arrived at San Pedro. I checked the map and it appeared that the Lighthouse Park was a public park on the palisades of the Pacific Ocean. Finally, we arrived at the park and drove in looking for the camp buildings. All I noticed were picnic benches and a playground in a nicely shaded park where you could see Catalina out in the ocean. As we drove around the park, I noticed a maintenance man cutting grass and I stopped and asked him where the School Camp was. He pointed to an area near the base of the Victorian style Lighthouse on the edge of the ocean. As we drove into the driveway, I noticed there were three garages and a mobile trailer. I still did not see any classrooms or permanent building like they had in Clear Creek. After I parked the Camper and got out, I noticed a man getting out of the mobile home parked in the circular driveway. I introduce myself and realize I was talking to the Director of the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp. The director was Chris Lambu, and he was living in the mobile home with his wife Jenny. He welcomed me to the camp and gave me a tour of the facilities. He explained that the Point Fermin Lighthouse Camp was much different than the Clear Creek camp because the land did not belong to the LA Board of Education. It was leased from the California State Parks Association and everything on the public parks grounds was temporary and set up only for the summer and then removed after the summer season. The only thing permanent was the three garages that became storage areas for the army tents when the season was over. Needless to say, I was very disappointed in the appearance and lack of permanent facilities. I tried to hide my displeasure with the lack of permanent structures. Chris the Camp director sensed my displeasure. “I guess you are in shock after visiting Clear Creek,” he said. “Yes, quite a bit,” I responded. “Well this camp is all about location, location, location, “he said. It was the only way the LA Board of Education could get a Marine Camp concept on the ocean. The partnership with the US Coast Guard and the California State Department of Parks made this camp all possible. Chris showed me what was in the three garages. The first garage was the camp store. The second garage was a classroom setup and the staff lounge. The third garage was a storage area for equipment, supplies, etc. Behind the garages were a dozen or so large green Army tents that had 10 metal cots with mattresses in each tent. He showed me to one smaller tent was to be my home for the next eight weeks. I could tell from the look on my wife’s face that she was not happy, but she said nothing as we toured the camp. Chris explained that each week a different area of Los Angeles County would come to the camp, 80 campers in all with 10 to a tent. The uniqueness of this camp he explained was the dedication to marine life and the ecology of marine life. We walked over to the edge of the fence with warning signs that the public was prohibited from going beyond the fence and down the sandy trails to the ocean below. Chris told me that only the camp staff with campers were permitted to use the eroded trails and that they had special permission from the Coast Guard and the State of California to use the trails. Special care had to be exercised using the trails because it was washed out in many sections and the campers had to be careful not to fall or damage the trails. “We do tide pooling twice a week,” Chris said. “It is one of our favorite camp activities,” he explained. Pointing over to a small restaurant in the middle of the park he explained that the local school that provided us with heater-stacks of food did not provide coffee because the menu is designed for children and not adults. If we wanted coffee in the morning we would have to go to the restaurant and buy our own cup of coffee before the campers got up at 8:00 in the morning. I was shocked that there was no coffee. They did not even have a coffee machine in the camp store or staff lounge. Chris pointed out that there were no showers in the camp except for the staff at the back of the restaurant in an outdoor enclosure. Women had Tuesdays and Thursdays to use the shower and Men had Wednesday and Fridays. The campers had to shower at the local public beach when on beach trips. The only place the campers could eat was on the public benches right in the middle of the park. I asked what happened if it rained? Chris told me it never rains in LA. I doubted that statement, but after eight weeks at the camp I learned he was right, “it never rains in LA in the summer.” It did, however, have fog in the morning or a marine layer as it was called. The campers came in each Monday morning sometime between 9:00 and 11:00 depending on how far away their school district was located from the park. The staffs were called Skippers or Mates would unload the luggage that came in trucks in advance of the busses by 30 minutes. When the campers arrived the Camp Director would assign each Skipper to a group of campers for the entire week. There would be four female Skippers and four male Skippers, all college students from local colleges. Chris and I were the only Directors or administration of the camp. There was no camp Nurse or Doctor or custodian on the staff. Chris also mentioned that for the entire summer the Skippers and Directors were to assume a marine style name that fit the theme of the camp. He told me he had chosen the name Captain Flogg and his wife Jen would be called Mrs. Flogg to the campers and staff. I thought about it and decided I would choose a name like Sharkie. I would be Captain Sharkie for the entire summer and Jeri; my wife would be Mrs. Sharkie. Dean would be the camp mascot as it turned out and he used just his name, Dean. The skippers would be reporting to camp around 6:00 pm that evening for an orientation session and to receive their camper group assignments and learn the rules and policies of the camp. The schedule for the week was flexible as follows:

That night when Jeri, Dean and I were eating at Jack in the box nearby we talked about the camp and it’s lack of permanent facilities. I explained that this was my master’s degree fieldwork worth ten credits toward my degree and mandated by the master’s degree Program. I explained we would have to make it work no matter how primitive the camp appeared to be.

The camp director explained that I had some very specific duties to do each week because he was responsible for the weekly staff evaluations and all the camp paperwork. I was to take all the groups to the beach-on-beach days. I was to also learn the harbor tour talk and give that talk once a week when the camp went on the harbor tour on Wednesdays. I would also assist in evaluating the Skippers and fill the Camp Director in on situations where he was not present. The effort as he explained was a team effort and everyone pitched in on feeding the campers at meals, unloading, and loading suitcases, and supervising campers on field trips in and out of camp.

The lack of privacy was difficult to get use to at the camp. The only thing that separated the camp from the public was a ten-foot-high hedge that hid the tents from view of the public in the park. During the week we had reserved signs on the ten tables we needed to feed the campers and staff. On the weekends the signs were removed, and the park filled up with adults and children. On the weekends the camp closed however, Chris or Capt. Flogg, and I were responsible to watch out for anyone from the park going through the tents or trying to access one of the garages. As it turned out I had to lock up my stuff in my camper on the weekends because there was no security in leaving stuff in our tent.
I had some concerns about the 300-foot-high cliffs and keeping my two-year old son Dean away from those cliffs. We did not take the campers down the steep cliffs fortunately. We used a sandy trail off to the side of the park where there were no rocky cliffs and only a sandy eroded dirt cliff to the tide pooling area.

6:00 that night the staff/Skippers began to arrive, and Capt. Flogg had everyone meet and sit down in the staff lounge where we could have an orientation meeting. He explained all the rules and policies that he told me and had each staff member select their marine theme name for the summer. The names selected were:

Rip
Windy
Jimmer
Splutz
Kip
Sandy
Ketch
Mrs. Flogg (Jen)
Captain Sharkie
Captain Flogg
Mrs. Sharkie (Jeri)

Each of the Skippers explained what college they were attending and what their major was at that school. They also explained why they choose to work at the Point Fermin Lighthouse camp for the summer. Most of the counselors were in Teacher education, Biology, Marine Biology and Communications. We did a survey of personal skills, and we had some surfers, guitar players, singers, painters, and storytellers on the staff. After the formal orientation the Skippers set up their tents and bunks and came back to the staff lounge to chat and relax the rest of the evening. Captain Flogg posted the schedule for the entire week and the Camper group assignments. He pointed out the team effort concept with serving food to the Campers before eating themselves. Unloading the suitcases of the campers before they arrived and giving a general orientation of the rules and policies and tent assignments when the campers arrived. It looked like we had a really motivated and talented group of Skippers for that summer, and everything seemed positive. None of the Skippers had every been a Skipper before but a few had come to the camp when they were in elementary school many years before.

And so the sun went down over the pacific and the view of Catalina Island faded in the fog. We sat around the lounge telling stories and jokes. Dean amused himself with some of the toys that were lying around the staff lounge while we talked and laughed. Captain Flogg explained that he was a professor at UCLA and that Jenny was one of his graduate students whom he married the spring before the summer of 1967. What a honeymoon at the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp. Paychecks were discussed and Capt. Flogg explained that the checks would be delivered every other week. My paycheck situation he explained was not clear since I was doing fieldwork for my degree. I informed him that my advisor arranges for me to get the standard assistant Director paycheck because I assumed all the travel expenses driving across the country with my family in my own vehicle. The LA Board of Education was supposed to pay me on the same schedule as the Skippers. That however, as time went, by never happened.

Chapter 4- The First Week of Camp, July 1967.

The first Monday began bright and early at the Point Fermin Lighthouse camp. Everyone on the staff was nervous since this was the first time, they had a camp group arrive. The orientation yesterday on Sunday covered a lot of rules and policies and the counselors or Skippers as they would now be called had a lot to absorb and memorize. Captain Flogg was up early and his wife Jen, Mrs. Flogg camp out of their mobile home and headed directly to the coffee shack in the middle of the park. Jeri, Dean, and I joined them since there would be no breakfast delivered on the first Monday of each week. I sat down and ordered some coffee and a donut for Jeri and I, and a bowl of milk and shredded wheat for Dean. We talked about the first day and how we were going to organize it. Capt. Flogg had made up a schedule of Skipper assignments for each of our counselors to one of the eight groups of ten campers arriving this morning. The schools had already tagged the campers with a number to indicate what tent they will be assigned to and what Skipper they will report to when they arrive. The first thing we had to do this morning was unloading the trunks and suitcases that will arrive an hour earlier than the campers around 9:00 am that morning. This would give us time to arrange the suitcases according to the predetermined number code of 1-8. By the time the campers arrived in busses we would be able to line them up by group number and show them where their luggage was located and introduce them to their assigned Skipper for the week. Capt. Flogg would introduce all the skippers and me first thing and then we would have each Skipper get their assigned group together with their luggage. The next thing would be the raising of the American flag by two Skippers appointed by Capt. Flogg. Skippers Kip and Windy would raise the flag this morning. Capt. Flogg gave me a checklist he prepared to make sure we cover all the rules and regulations before we sent the campers to their tents. He said we would share telling the rules to the campers so that they realize him, and I will be working together as directors of the camp. The coffee never tasted so good that morning. Dean and Jeri were anxious to see how the morning kicked off with the campers since they would be observers and nothing more. This was all new for Dean, like a big adventure. For Jeri it was just something new since she had never been to a camp as a child.

(Captain Flogg assigning the Campers to the Skippers) ( Skippers unloading the suitcases)

9:00 are that morning the trucks with the luggage arrived on time and all the Skippers and myself began unloading the luggage. Once we got the luggage off the trucks they left and we sorted the baggage according to the number code. Numbers 1-4 were the first four girls’ groups and Numbers 5-8 were the boys groups. Captain Flogg announced the Windy had group 1; Jimmer group 2; Sandy group 3 and Jen or Mrs. Flogg had group 4. For the boys, Kip had group 5; Splutz had group 6; Kip had group 7 and Ketch had group 8.

A few minutes after 10:00 the school busses rolled into camp. The morning fog or marine layer was beginning to burn off and the sun was starting to come out. The campers began pouring out of their busses excited to be at the seashore and at a camp dedicated to Marine shore ecology. This week’s group was from Lincoln School District in the Los Angeles Board of Education system. Camp Flogg had a portable bullhorn that he used to project his voice over the excited noise of the campers. “Welcome to the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp. My name is Captain Flogg, and I am the camp director here at the camp. To my right is the Assistant Camp director, Captain Sharkie. Shortly, I will call out your pre-assigned group number and the Skipper or counselor you will be assigned to for the entire week. All the counselors are called Skippers at the camp and all of them have a seaworthy nickname they will use the entire summer. Let me introduce Skipper Rip from UCLA, Skipper Windy from USC, Skipper Jimmer from Long Beach City College, Skipper Splatz from Long Beach City College, Skipper Kip for Los Angeles College of Technology, Skipper Sandy from California State at Northridge, Skipper Ketch from USC and finally Skipper Jen or Mrs. Flogg from UCLA.

Now when I call your number you will line up behind the Skipper that has a cardboard number that they are holding. After you find your assigned group, we will raise the American flag. Following that each Skipper will take their group to get their baggage and trunks and carry their trunks to their assigned tent. While at the assigned tent your Skipper will go over the schedule for the day and week and review some of the camp rules and policies.

So, the roll call went smoothly, and campers lined up behind their Skipper. Let’s all sit down for a few minutes while Capt. Sharkie and I review the camp rules and policies you must while attending this camp. First and foremost, no one should have any money or candy on them. We have a credit system already set up at the Camp store for you to buy candy, popcorn or treats. As for food, please do not store or take any food to your tent because it will attract animals at night such as possums and mice. Secondly, all boys are to remain in their tent area and not to visit any of the girls’ tents. If you violate this rule or any other rules you may be sent home to your parents. The Coffee shop in the middle of the park is off-limits to any Campers. We are on the edge of a 300-foot cliff above the ocean that could be very dangerous. Do not go over the fence near the cliff at any time. When we go tide pooling, we will guide you down the sandy trail on the side of the park away from the steep cliffs. The public is not allowed to use these trails; however, we have special permission to use the trails to go tide pooling. When you are tide pooling you may see and touch the animals and shells but no shells, starfish, crab or any animal is to be brought back to camp. Rotting starfish, live shells or any animals can stink up an entire tent and make it unbearable for anyone in the tent to sleep at night. Also ants are attracted to these shells or animals and will come by the thousands to eat the specimen you brought up from the sea. We go to Cabrillo beach in the afternoon when the sun comes out and you must wear your Point Fermin t-shirt and Hat and your Skipper will put zinc oxide on your nose to prevent you from burning and to make it easy for us to identify you at the crowded public beach. Out food is delivered right here to the park beginning today at noon for lunch and ending on Friday at noon lunch. The Skippers will serve every camper and each group 1-8 will sit together with their Skipper and fellow campers or Mates as we call them. After the meals each group will clean up its table and surrounding area and throw the trash in the garbage cans provided. We are using a public park by permission and must leave the park nice and clean after our meals just the way we found it.

Regarding cuts or scratches or any illnesses at Point Fermin Lighthouse camp. We do not have a Nurse on duty. Skippers will take care of cuts and scratches and upset stomachs. If you are really sick we will call an ambulance and have you taken to the emergency room of a nearby hospital. Do not hide your illnesses or injuries and report them immediately to your Skipper so that they can provide the proper care.

The Camp Store is open on Monday, Wed., and Thursday nights after dinner from 6:00-8:00 pm. No money is used, only credit accounts. Every camper has five dollars in their account and can buy whatever they want with the five dollars all week. Any balances left over after your departure on Friday will be erased and returned to the general fund. No refunds in real money will be allowed at any time.

Now I am going to dismiss each group that will go with their Skipper to get their luggage and take the luggage to their assigned tent for the week. So each of the Skippers and their groups were called out and went and got their luggage and carried their bags to their tents. In the tents were ten army metal frame beds and cots. With each bed came a pillow and pillowcase and one sheet to cover the cots. Each camper was to store their luggage under their bed or at the foot of the bed. Skippers reminded each Mate that they must keep their luggage or trunks always locked. Skippers asked if everyone understood the rules and if they had any questions.

The Skippers then walked the Mates around the park for a tour. They were shown the Camp Store which was garage number one and the classroom which was garage number two which also doubled as a staff lounge at night or when it was not being used by Mates. The Lighthouse was manned by the US Coast Guard and was off-limits. The Mates were then shown the fence along the sea wall and warned not to go over the fence at any time. As they walked south along the sea wall fence the groups came to a large sign Warning, No Public us of Trails permitted. Here is where the camp would access the tide pooling ledges along the ocean edge at low tides. No public people were allowed down the trails because they were eroded, sandy and dangerous enough for someone to trip and fall. Cabrillo beach was a mile away from the entrance to the beach and the water taxi was two miles away at the San Pedro docks. School busses would come to the park and pick up all the mates and take them to the Harbor tour that was on Wednesdays and on beach days.

All the tours were completed by 12:00 and the heater-stack truck arrived at the park for the Skippers to unload and setup for lunch. Once the food and drinks were set up the Skippers served the mates the lunch meal and drink. Once they had their meals they went and sat down at their group table. Sometimes one of the Skippers would lead the camp in a song or story while they were waiting to be fed. After all the mates were fed the Skippers were allowed to get their lunches and sit down with their assigned groups. After lunch each group policed the area or cleaned up their tables. In the afternoon from 1:00 to 4:00 there would be a pre-tide pool discussion in the classroom garage for each assigned group. Skipper Jen would lead the pre-tide pool discussion regarding the ecology of marine life and what to look for when tide pooling. The camp had a shell identification board that was helpful in identifying different shells. Mates were reminded not to pick up or bring back any live or dead shells, starfish, crabs, or animals to their tents. While some of the groups were in the pre-tide pool classes other groups were introduced to camp songs that would be sung at night at the campfires. Almost all of the Skippers could play a guitar or sing well enough to lead a group. Some Skippers like Splutz had special story songs to teach that all the mates got to act out as they all went Walrus hunting. Skipper Windy had her own guitar and a whole list of camp songs she could play. Every Skipper had their own set of skills, stories and songs that made every campfire at night a fun event.

5:00 rolled around quickly and the entire camp assembled to take the flag down. Soon after that the heater-stacks truck pulled in and the Skippers unloaded the heater-stacks onto the picnic tables and set up the serving trays for the hot meal for dinner and the drinks. The header-stacks were pressurized under steam to keep the food warm from the Elementary school several miles away and when the food was delivered to the park. Milk containers and cool aide were always available for drinks. The Skippers dished out the food to each mate as they went down the line with their paper plates. After dinner Capt. Flogg announced the schedule for the evening that was a Campfire in the middle of the park at 8:30 when it got dark. Until then, the groups could go to the Camp store and buy something from their credit account. The Camp Store was open from 6:00 to 8:00 pm on Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday nights only.

On days when the camp was going to Cabrillo beach, box lunches were provided, and each Mate took his or her box lunch and drink to the beach when they got picked up on the school busses to go to the beach. It was my job to supervise the loading and unloading of the busses and to go and stay the entire afternoon with the groups at the beach. Tuesday and Thursday were tide pooling days if we could match the low tide to our schedule. Every Wednesday was the Harbor cruise in which all 80 campers got to go on a water taxi for a two-hour tour of the Long Beach harbor. Forty campers went on a trip at one time, and it was my job to do the speaker talk about parts of a boat, types of ships in the harbor, maritime terms, flags of foreign countries and special places around the harbor. At first, I had to work off a list Capt. Flogg gave me and after the second harbor tour the first week I was much more proficient at the two-hour harbor tour. After eight weeks of two tours every Wednesday I was an expert at the Harbor tour. We went over the bow and stern of the water taxi, the fore and aft terms, the head, the galley, starboard side and port side of the ship and many other terms. I showed the mates how to determine if a ship was full of cargo or oil or not by looking on how low they were in the water. We searched for US Coast guard cutters and boats and pointed out the Harbor Master’s house and his job in the Long Beach harbor. We talked about the international quarantine area for ships to remain at anchor until cleared by the Coast Guard and the difference between the Coast Guard and the Navy. Each week as I got better and better with the dialogue the two-hour tour got easier. The key to success was keeping the mates involved with answering questions and keeping alert for certain types of ships and vessels.

The harbor tours by Water Taxi Every Wednesday

(Here is the actual Captain of the Water Taxi)

(I learned to do the Harbor cruise the first Wednesday of camp for two trips and every Wednesday after that for eight weeks. By the time the summer was over I had become an expert on Long Beach harbor. That is my two year old son Dean Mead sitting behind me.)

When the first group camp back from the Harbor tour the second 40 mates got aboard the water taxi for their tour. The group that just finished the tour went back to the camp where Capt. Flogg was waiting for them, and lunch would be served. The second group would eat their lunches before they departed for the San Pedro docks for their Harbor tour. The excitement of the harbor tours and the exposure to sun burn on the boats usually tired the mates out and they had some free time when returning to camp with their Skippers. Tuesday night was mates’ skit night and their skippers would teach them the skit to perform after or before the Harbor tour.

Dinner was at 5:00 again with the heater-stacks coming in on time and the Skippers unloading the stacks and serving the mates. The flag ceremony was just after dinner after which the mates returned to their tents to practice their skits one more time before they got to perform at the campfire that night. A special treat was to occur that night after the campfire. The camp was all taking school busses down to Cabrillo beach to witness the Grunion fish run. The Grunion fish come up on the beach by the thousands around 11:00 pm and the Mates get to see and touch the fish during this incredible event. Needless to say the following morning many Mates were so tired they found it difficult getting out of bed.

Sometimes if the schedule permitted, we ran half the camp down the trail for tide pooling at low tide while the other half were engaged in another activity or the Harbor tour. Everything depended on when low tide occurred, and we had to stay flexible to work around when low tide occurred to access the tide pool area. The weather was always a marine layer of fog until 10:00 or so and then out came the sun for a hot day. The beach trips were always scheduled for the afternoons after lunch or with a box lunch to take because it was always sunny and warmer at the beach at the afternoon. When the campers got back from Cabrillo beach they relaxed for a while in their tents until flag time and then dinner.

Some nights some Astronomy was planned when it got dark before the nightly campfire. One or more of the Skippers who were acquainted with the stars and planets would do a presentation. Other Skippers learned from the first talks and eventually got to do their own introduction to the stars. We had a few charts and books in the classroom garage for them to study from in their free time.

(Camp Fire at Cabrillo beach. Notice the sailboats in the bay)

The Typical Weekly Schedule of the Point Fermin Lighthouse Camp 1967
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Weekend survival
Arrival of Camper busses Staff wakeup 7:00 am- coffee at coffee shack (public)

Wakeup time 8:00 am
Washup at faucet in campsite
Staff wakeup
7:00 am-shower optional behind coffee shack-female day- coffee at shack

Wakeup time campers
8:00 am, washup at faucet in campsite Staff wakeup-7:00 am- Men shower day-coffee in shack

Wakeup time campers
8:00 am
Washup Staff wakeup=7:00 am No showers; coffee in shack

Wakeup time campers 8:00 am; washup,
Wakeup optional for Capt. Flogg and Capt. Sharkie, etc.
Mates unpack luggage Breakfast-9:00 am outdoors on picnic benches- Mates serve breakfast Breakfast
9:00 am
outdoors on picnic benches. Mates serve food Breakfast
9:00 am
Outdoors on picnic benches. Mates serve food. Breakfast
9:00 am Outdoors on picnic benches in the park. Mates serve food Breakfast not provided by camp on Sat. or Sun. Eat foods saved in refrig or buy breakfast out.
Boys orientation and Girls orientation separately Pre-trip Orientation for Tide Pooling with Sandy or Skipper assigned that week 10:00 Depart busses for Water Taxi tour of Long Beach harbor
10:15 arrive docks for water taxi tour given by Capt. Sharkie 10:00 am
Tidepooling or Beach day depending on low tide schedule. If low tide, then tidepooling 10:00- Operation cleanup the tents, take out all mattress and stack in the sun, Pack all camp bags, Move camp bags to one central location Monday Breakfast not provided by camp. Provide own breakfast or eat out before campers arrive at 10:00 am.
12:30 -Lunch-Heater stacks- Mates serve lunch to campers and then eat 12:30-Lunch-Heater Stacks-Mates serve Lunch Return for Lunch 12:30
Mates serve lunch Return for Lunch 12:30.
Mates serve lunch 11:00- Mates load Truch with camp bags before lunch
Assigned tents and Skippers to each group Tide Pooling if low tide in the afternoon. Alternate activity shell crafts 1:30- Beach day at Cabrillo beach, swimming, all campers must wear camp t-shirts, camp hat and white zinc oxide on their nose for ID purposes 1:30 Tidepooling or beach day depending on low tide. 12:00- Lunch early- Final assembly..Good bye songs. Final inspection of all camper tents.

Busses arrive 2:00
Campers depart 2:30-3:00 pm Lunch not provided Sat. or Sun. Eat out Jack in the box or Taco Bell.
Some milk in the refrigerator in camp.
Camper setup time 4:00-5:00 Rest period 4:00-5:00 return from beach day 4:00-5:00 Follow-up Ecology talk for tide pooling. Identifying specimens. 3:30 Skippers meeting, Evaluation of Skippers weekly evaluation by Capt. Flogg and Capt. Sharkie.
5:00-Dinner-Heater Stacks- Mates serve dinner

Monday night Camp Store open

Monday Night Campfire- songs, guitar, skits, funny stories, marshmellow roast 5:00-Dinner Heater Stacks-Mates serve dinner
Camp Store closed Tuesday night

Table games, checkers, chess, cards

Tuesday Night Campfire

Late night Grunnion run (fish laying eggs on beach) 5:00-Dinner-heater stacks. Mates serve dinner.

6:00-Camp outdoor movies

8:30-Darkness-Camp fire activities

10:00 pm-All campers lights out in their tents 5:00 Dinner heater stacks. Mates serve dinner

Camp Store Open 6:00-8:00 pm

8:30 Darkness Last Night Mates Night campfire, special events, awards, summary of week
10:00 pm lights out Review problems and solutions and make corrections for the next camper group.

4:00 Skippers leave camp for home

5:00 No Heater stacks dinner

5:00 pm Camp Closed except for Capt. Flogg and Jen who live in Mobile trailer and Capt. Sharkie and Mrs. Sharkie and Dean Mead Dinner not provided by Camp Sat. and Sun. Eat off campus.

Chapter 5- The Second Week of Camp
Monday morning

The second week things began to run more smoothly. The Skippers were getting used to the routine and knew what to expect. At 9:00 a.m. the trucks arrived with the suitcases and the Skippers eagerly began unloading the suitcases and organizing them by assigned groups 1-8. Everything was neat and ready for the campers from the Watts School District to arrive. At 10:05 the school busses arrived and the excited campers got off the buses and waited to see what was going to happen. Capt. Flogg got on the portable bull horn and had the entire group sit down while he explained the names of the Skippers and what number tent they would be supervising. When he finished the Skippers held up their numbers and the campers all headed toward their assigned tent number.

Captain Flogg selected two campers/mates at random and two skippers to help raise the flag of the United States of America. Right after the salute to the flag each skipper took their group to get their suitcases and then took them to their tent. I remember commenting to Captain Flogg how well the first morning went and he agreed.
This time each Skipper explained the rules and policies to their own group in their tent after they set up their bunks with new sheets and pillows. This more personal approach allowed for questions and answers. By 12:00 the lunch heater-stack truck had arrived, and the Skippers marched their groups out of the tents to the picnic tables set aside for the camp in the middle of the park. The Skippers all pitched in and served the food to the mates and rejoined their groups after dishing out all the food. Cleanup followed lunch and the mates were most helpful. Each Skipper then took their groups on a tour of the park, the Camp Store, the pre-trip classroom, the lighthouse, the 300 foot cliff and restrictive railing and stay off sign, the sandy trail down to the tide pooling, the bathrooms, and the view of Long Beach harbor from the south end of the park.
That night around 5:00 the heater-stack food truck arrived again and the Skippers organized their group at the picnic tables and the Skippers began serving food to the mates. By know every Skipper knew the other Skipper’s marine theme nickname and real names were no longer used.
The Camp store opened at 6:00 p.m. that evening and the Skippers took their groups to line up for buying candy and other snacks at the store. While the mates were waiting on the line for the Camp Store, some of the Skippers took some wood and carried it to the concrete campfire circle in the park for the Monday night campfire. Some of the Skippers had brought guitars the second week and a few were practicing new songs and skits for the campfire. I personally learned how to finger pick a guitar from Skipper Windy who was an excellent musician. I played guitar a little in High School but lost interest in taking lessons. Now I had an opportunity to relearn the cords on the guitar so that I could contribute at the nightly campfires. Some of the Skippers taught the other Skippers short little skits and mate participation games. The Monday night campfire for the second week was one of the best campfires we had since camp began the week before. The Skippers learned at night in their free time to work on their music, routines and group presentations for the campfires to improve the experience for the mates and to get a better evaluation from Captain Flogg at the end of the week. Each week for all eight weeks of the summer Captain Flogg had to do the Skipper evaluations which were important for being rehired the next year or using as a reference for school or a job. Captain Flogg asked me on Tuesday to take notes on the Skipper’s performance levels especially at field activities where Captain Flogg was not in attendance. At the beach and the Harbor Tour I had to take notes on how well Skippers controlled their groups and whether there were any problems or not. When Thursday night came around Captain Flogg told me it took forever to do the Skipper evaluations and asked if I would help him for the rest of the summer. I agreed to help not realizing how difficult the process was on an evaluation form set up by administrators from the L.A. Board of Education. Carbon copies of all the evaluations had to be kept and sent to the main office at the L.A. Board of Education each week by Friday morning. Every Friday afternoon after the last mates bus left Captain Flogg handed out the Skipper evaluations and then spent two hours discussing each evaluation for five minutes or so with each of the eight Skippers. Some Skippers did not take the evaluations easily and sometimes a few of them did not agree with the evaluation. We tried not to give to high an evaluation grade in the first few weeks so they did not get to confident in their duties. Sometimes a low evaluation was a way in motivating a Skipper to improve and not sit back and do the minimum. We also wanted “Team” workers so that things went smoothly and if a problem or emergency occurred a team effort could resolve it better than a one-person attempt.

Tuesday morning of the second week low tide was late in the morning which meant we had to give pre-trip talks right after breakfast and then save time to go tide-pooling before lunch. It made the schedule a little rushed but we managed to pull it off. One mate was caught stuffing a Starfish in his pocket. He was warned and the Starfish was released back into the ocean. The rest of the day went well. Heater-stacks arrived on time and lunch was served. In the afternoon the entire camp when to Cabrillo beach by school busses Captain Flogg called up and ordered. The mates always loved being at the beach and it made for an easy afternoon for the Skippers also.
Wednesday the busses arrived for the first group to go on the Harbor tour and off they went. I had prepared notes I researched after giving last week’s Harbor Tour. Two Harbor Tours in one day was tiring and difficult but I felt much more confident the second week when I gave my guide talk about the Long Beach harbor.
Wednesday night we prepared for a new format for the Campfire by having it at Cabrillo beach. We had permission from the Parks department to set a campfire in a concrete fire pit for our entire camp. It was breezy and cool that evening, yet we had the greatest time. I sang a duet with Windy as she played the guitar about a French folk song. We taught the song to the mates and had them sing along with us.
Better organization of Skippers
Improved Campfire activities
Improved Harbor Tour
Camp Store better equipped
Daily routine better organized
Keeping up the morale of the staff
End of the Week Staff Evaluation
Thursday night Staff Evaluations with Capt. Flogg

Diagram of Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp 1967

(Picnic benches)

CHAPTER 6- Looking back 50 years later at the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Marine Ecology Summer Camp

In looking back at the summer of 1967 and comparing it to where the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp should be today, I would make the following recommendations:

1-Safety must come first regardless of rationalizations. If the tide-pooling trail ever became unsafe for children to walk down to the ocean at any time then the trail must remained unused. Conversely, the trails should be repaired by putting in stone barriers to prevent erosion and wooden railroad ties as path guides by the State Park Association. The tide pooling was the main ecological opportunity for the students/mates to experience live and Dead Sea animals, plants and fish firsthand. I can still remember 40 years later the excitement the mates had every trip we made down to the tide-pooling area each week.
2-Health- the single public bathroom for 40 males and another for 40 females was a Health hazard then and still is today. Portable bathrooms should be rented by the week and be cleaned out each week. The risk of students meeting the public in the bathrooms is great and there is always the risk of perverted adults using the bathrooms as their place of refuge.
3-Technology- in the summer of 1967 portable tape recorders had just come on the market. A portable tape recorder was most helpful in recording the sounds of the waves and ocean for the marine diorama that was created in the basement of the lighthouse. Fast speed forward, today at lease one laptop computer with internet access and a compact project would be a great education took for showing PowerPoint slide shows of ecology themes daytime or nighttime.
4-Weather protection- There is no weather protection if it breaks the mold and rains despite many summers without rain in the past. A large tarp could be permanently set up for the summer over the picnic tables to shade the students or protect them against the rain. This did not exist in the summer of 1967 and there was always a risk and a chance that rain could easily ruin the day since there were no places for the students to hide from the rain except in their tents.
5- Assessment follow-up and marketing- In the summer of 1967 the assessment was all about the Skippers and their function as a Camp Leader. There was no assessment of the curriculum or the summer program to support future funding for continuing the program for many years to come. Fast forward to today, cameras should be provided to the staff of temporary loaner cellphones to continually take digital pictures of all the aspects of the camp experience to use for PowerPoint Marketing promotions at all of the participating School districts during the off season.
6-Movies of Point Fermin lighthouse School camp- along the theme of using PowerPoint slide presentations for marketing the curriculum and school camp experience at Point Fermin Lighthouse school camp, which is so unique, digital movies can provide an even more exciting opportunity for potential students and parents to see the opportunities offered at the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp.
7- Archival after 40 years- I have tried to tie together 2014 and the summer of 1967 and bring forward the valuable experience that all LA Board of Education students should have at least once in a lifetime. Recently, I read on the Internet that the funding for the Point Fermin Lighthouse camp was in jeopardy and that was a sad moment because anyone who has ever experienced this program firsthand would support keeping it well funded for all time.
8-The lighthouse as a major resource- 40 years ago in the summer of 1967 the lighthouse was owned and operated by the US Coast Guard who had no interaction with the Camp program. Students were not allowed to tour or view the inside of the lighthouse at any time. Several years later in the early 1970’s I have read that the Lighthouse was abandoned or closed by the US Coast Guard that is typical of their mission in the 21st Century. A private group has taken over the Lighthouse and preserved it as a historical site. If campers were allowed to tour the inside of the Lighthouse and use it for educational purposes in learning navigation, marine ecology, Astronomy, and other academic subjects, it would greatly improve the curriculum of the LA Board of Education School Camp at Point Fermin Park. Had we had the opportunity to tour the Lighthouse back in 1967 that would have been one of the highlights of the camp with the same interest level as tide pooling? I would strongly recommend that the LA Board of Education supervisors of the School Camp program at Point Fermin Park work in cooperation with the private preservation group that now owns the Lighthouse to provide expanded educational opportunities for the summer campers. A similar lighthouse located on the Hudson River was slated to be destroyed after the US Coast Guard abandoned using it until the local private citizens, as in the Point Fermin park, stepped in and saved the little lighthouse on the Hudson river in Sleepy Hollow, Westchester county, New York. Schools now visit the lighthouse museum on a regular basis during the school season and Earth science students get to examine Marine Ecology and Navigation on the Hudson River as well as other Social Studies classes and Science classes. The little lighthouse is in the shadow of the Tappan Zee Bridge by the way and can be seen from the bridge by the thousands of cars that travel across the bridge everyday.

Nautical terms-Harbor Cruise Long Beach
Word Definition
abaft – toward or at the stern of a ship; further aft affreightment – hiring of a vessel
afterdeck – deck behind a ship’s bridge
afterguard – men who work the aft sails on the quarterdeck and poop deck ahull – with sails furled and helm lashed to the lee-side
amidships – midway between the bow and stern of a ship
astern – at the stern of a ship
backstay – stay extending from ship’s mastheads to the side of the ship ballaster – one who supplies ships with ballast
bargemaster – owner of a barge
bee – hardwood on either side of bowsprit through which forestays are reeved belay – to secure a rope by winding on a pin or cleat
bilge – lower point of inner hull of a ship
binnacle – case in which a ship’s compass is kept
bitts – posts mounted on a ship for fastening ropes
bluepeter – blue flag with white square in centre used as ship’s signal boatswain – ship’s crewmember in charge of equipment and maintenance bobstay – rope used on ships to steady the bowsprit
bollard – short post on a wharf or ship to which ropes are tied
boltrope – strong rope stitched to edges of a sail
bosun – boatswain
bottomry – using the ship as collateral to finance a sea voyage
bow – front of a ship
bower – anchor carried at bow of a ship
bowline – rope used to keep weather edge of a sail taut
bowsprit – spar that extends at bows of a ship
brails – ropes on edge of sail for hauling up
bream – to clean a ship’s bottom by burning off seaweed
bulwark – the side of a ship above the deck
bumpkin – spar projecting from stern of ship
bunt – middle of sail, fish-net or cloth when slack
buntline – rope attached to middle of square sail to haul it up to the yard burgee – small ship’s flag used for identification or signalling
cable – heavy rope or chain for mooring a ship
cabotage – shipping and sailing between points in the same country camber – slight arch or convexity to a beam or deck of a ship
capstan – upright device for winding in heavy ropes or cables
careen – to turn a ship on its side in order to clean or repair it
cathead – projection near the bow of a ship to which anchor is secured chine – the intersection of the middle and sides of a boat
chock – metal casting with curved arms for passing ropes for mooring ship clew – corner of sail with hole to attach ropes
coaming – raised edge around ship’s hatches to keep water out
cocket – official shipping seal; customs clearance form
cofferdam – narrow vacant space between two bulkheads of a ship cog – single-masted, square-sailed ship with raised stern companionway – stairs from upper deck of ship to lower deck cordage – ropes in the rigging of a ship
cringle – loop at corner of sail to which a line is attached
crosstrees – horizontal crosspieces at a masthead used to support ship’s mast davit – device for hoisting and lowering a boat
deadeye – rounded wooden block with hole used to set up ship’s stays deadwood – timbers built into ends of ship when too narrow to permit framing demurrage – delay of vessel’s departure or loading with cargo
dodger – shield against rain or spray on a ship’s bridge
dogwatch – a short, evening period of watch duty on a ship
downhaul – rope for holding down or hauling down a sail or spar
dromond – large single-sailed ship powered by rowers
dyogram – ship’s chart indicating compass deflection due to ship’s iron
earing – line for fastening corner of a sail to the gaff or yard
ensign – large naval flag
escutcheon – part of ship’s stern where name is displayed
fairlead – ring through which rope is led to change its direction without friction fardage – wood placed in bottom of ship to keep cargo dry
fiddley – iron framework around hatchway opening
figurehead – ornament or (usually female) bust attached to the bow of a ship flagstaff – flag pole at stern of a ship
fluke – part of an anchor that fastens in the ground
forebitt – post for fastening cables at a ship’s foremast
forecabin – cabin in fore part of ship
forecastle – short raised deck at fore end of ship; fore of ship under main deck forefoot – foremost end of ship’s keel
foremast – mast nearest the bow of a ship
foresail – lowest sail set on the foremast of square-rigged ship
forestay – stay leading from the foremast to the bow of a ship frap – to draw a sail tight with ropes or cables
freeboard – distance between waterline and main deck of a ship futtock – rib of a ship
gaff – spar on which head of fore-and-aft sail is extended
gaff-topsail – triangular topsail with its foot extended upon the gaff
gangway – either of the sides of the upper deck of a ship
garboard – plank on a ship’s bottom next to the keel
genoa – large jib that overlaps the mainsail
grapnel – small anchor used for dragging or grappling
groundage – a charge on a ship in port
gudgeon – metal socket into which the pintle of a boat’s rudder fits
gunnage – number of guns carried on a warship
gunwale – upper edge of the side of a ship
gybe – to swing a sail from one side to another
halyard – rope or tackle for hoisting and lowering sails
hank – series of rings or clips for attaching a jib or staysail to a stay
hawse – distance between ship’s bow and its anchor
hawsehole – hole for ship’s cable
hawser – large rope for mooring or towing a ship
headsail – sail set forward of the foremast of a ship
helm – ship’s steering wheel
holystone – sandstone material used to scrape ships’ decks
inboard – inside the line of a ship’s bulwarks or hull
jack – ship’s flag flown from jack-staff at bow of vessel
jack-block – pulley system for raising topgallant masts
jack-cross-tree single iron cross-tree at head of a topgallant mast
jackstaff – short staff at ship’s bow from which the jack is hoisted
jackstay – iron or wooden bar running along yard of ship to which sails fastened jackyard – spar used to spread the foot of a gaff-topsail
jib – small triangular sail extending from the head of the foremast
jibboom – spar forming an extension of the bowsprit
jibe – to change a ship’s course to make the boom shift sides
jurymast – mast erected on ship in place of one lost
kedge – small anchor to keep a ship steady
keelhaul – to punish by dragging under keel of ship
keelson – lengthwise wooden or steel beam in ship for bearing stress
kentledge – pig-iron used as ballast in ship’s hold
lagan – cargo jettisoned from ship but marked by buoys for recovery
lanyard – rope or line for fastening something in a ship
larboard – left side of a ship
lastage – room for stowing goods in a ship
lateen – triangular sail rigged on ship’s spar
laveer – to sail against the wind
lazaret – space in ship between decks used for storage
leeboard – wood or metal planes attached to hull to prevent leeway
leech – a vertical edge of a square sail
loxodograph – device used to record ship’s travels
luff – windward side of a ship; forward edge of fore-and-aft sail
lugsail – four-sided sail bent to an obliquely hanging yard
lutchet – fitting on ship’s deck to allow mast to pivot to pass under bridges mainmast – sailing ship’s principal mast
mainsail – principal sail on a ship’s mainmast
mainsheet – rope by which mainsail is trimmed and secured
mainstay – stay that extends from the main-top to the foot of the foremast manrope – rope used as a handrail on a ship
martingale – lower stay of rope used to sustain strain of the forestays
mizzen – three-masted vessel; aft sail of such a vessel
mizzenmast – mast aft or next aft of the mainmast in a ship
moonraker – topmost sail of a ship, above the skyscraper
oakum – old ropes untwisted for caulking the seams of ships
orlop – lowest deck in a ship having four or more decks
outhaul – rope used to haul a sail taut along a spar
outrigger – spar extended from side of ship to help secure mast
painter – rope attached to bow of a boat to attach it to a ship or a post pallograph – instrument measuring ship’s vibration
parrel – band by which a yard is fastened to a mast
patroon – captain of a ship; coxswain of a longboat
poop – enclosed structure at stern of ship above main deck
port – when facing forward, the left side of a shift
primage – fee paid to loaders for loading ship
purser – ship’s officer in charge of finances and passengers
quarterdeck – part of ship’s deck set aside by captain for ceremonial functions quartering – sailing nearly before the wind
rake – the inclination of a mast or another part of a ship
ratline – small rope forming a rung of a rope ladder on a ship
reef – to reduce area of a sail by rolling or folding part of it
reeve – to pass a rope through a ring
roach – curved cut in edge of sail for preventing chafing
roband – piece of yarn used to fasten a sail to a spar
rostrum – spike on prow of warship for ramming
rowlock – contrivance serving as a fulcrum for an oar
royal – small sail on royal mast just above topgallant sail
scud – to sail swiftly before a gale
scupper – hole allowing water to drain from ship’s deck
scuttlebutt – cask of drinking water aboard a ship; rumour, idle gossip scuttles – portholes on a ship
sheer – fore-and-aft curvature of a ship from bow to stern
shrouds – ropes supporting the mast of a ship
sidelight – coloured lights on side of a ship under way at night
skeg – part of ship connecting the keel with the bottom of the rudderpost skysail – sail above the royal sail
skyscraper – triangular sail on a ship above the royal
slipway – ramp sloping into water for supporting a ship
snotty – naval midshipman
spanker – sail on the mast nearest the stern of a square-rigged ship
spar – any ship’s mast, boom, yard, or gaff
spinnaker – large triangular sail opposite the mainsail
spirketting – inside planking between ports and waterways of a ship sponson – platform jutting from ship’s deck for gun or wheel
sprit – spar crossing a fore-and-aft sail diagonally
spritsail – sail extended by a sprit
starboard – when facing forward, the right side of a ship
starbolins – sailors of the starboard watch
stay – large rope used to support a mast
staysail – fore-and-aft sail hoisted on a stay
steeve – to set a ship’s bowsprit at an upward inclination
stemson – supporting timber of a ship
stern – back part of a ship
sternpost – main member at stern of a ship extending from keel to deck sternway – movement of a ship backwards
stevedore – dock worker who loads and unloads ships
stokehold – ship’s furnace chamber
strake – continuous band of plates on side of a ship
stunsail – light auxiliary sail to the side of principal sails
supercargo – ship’s official in charge of business affairs
taffrail – rail round the stern of a ship
thole – pin in the side of a boat to keep oar in place
tiller – handle or lever for turning a ship’s rudder
timberhead – top end of ship’s timber used above the gunwale
timenoguy – rope stretched from place to place in a ship
topgallant – mast or sail above the topmast and below the royal mast
topmast – ship’s mast above the lower mast
topsail – ship’s sail above the lowermost sail
tranship – to transfer from one ship to another
transire – ship’s customs warrant for clearing goods
transom – transverse timbers attached to ship’s sternpost
treenail – long wooden pin used to fix planks of ship to the timbers
trice – to haul in and lash secure a sail with a small rope
trunnel – wooden shipbuilding peg used for fastening timbers
trysail – ship’s sail bent to a gaff and hoisted on a lower mast
tuck – part of ship where ends of lower planks meet under the stern
turtleback – structure over ship’s bows or stern
unreeve – to withdraw a rope from an opening
walty – inclined to tip over or lean
wardroom – quarters for ship’s officers
washboard – broad thin plank along ship’s gunwale to keep out sea water watching – fully afloat
waveson – goods floating on the sea after a shipwreck
wear – to turn a ship’s stern to windward to alter its course
weatherboard – weather side of a ship
weatherly – able to sail close to the wind with little leeway
wheelhouse – shelter where ship’s steering wheel kept
whipstaff – vertical lever controlling ship’s rudder
windbound – hindered from sailing by contrary winds
windlass – winch used to raise a ship’s anchor
xebec – small three-masted pirate ship
yard – tapering spar attached to ship’s mast to spread the head of a square sai yardarm – either end of the yard of a square-rigged ship
yawl – ship’s small boat; sailboat carrying mainsail and one or more jibs
zabra – small Spanish sailing vesse
Foul weather flags
Queen Mary ship
Buoys
Sites in the Harbor
Harbor Masters headquarters
Coast Guard Headquarters
Channel markers red and green
Piers
Breakwater
Quaranteen area
Parts of the Water Taxi
Bow
Stern
Starboard
Port
Keel
rudder
propeller
helm
galley
poopdeck
midship
fore
aft
SAILBOATS
schooner
ketch
sloop
Britain
France
Japan
Ships sighted
1-US Coast Guard Cutter
2- Tanker- housing at the rear
3- Cargo Ship-housing in the middle
4- Flags of foreign ships
USA
Panama
Day-

Grunion fish run at night. Staff checks out the fish.

Water taxi and Disney World mountain

Point Fermin Lighthouse and the 300 foot clifts

My son Dean Michael Mead at age two at the Point Fermin Camp

Jeri Mead walking away from skippers unloading camper trunks

Food came from heater stacks cooked at a local Elementary School. Skippers served the Campers first. Other pictures of weekend staff trips to Disney World in LA.

Arrows in bullseye of target

Aero Long, Shapeshifter


By Dr. Pelham Mead (2020)

ACT ONE- KITSUNE JAPANESE FOLKLORE Scene 1-Ext.-Mount Fuji, Japan-Day.

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

The scene opens with a Fox in the snow on Mount Fuji, Japan. The red fox is curled up in the snow sleeping. Foxes are consider sacred in Japanese mythology. The Kitsune fox has magical properties and can live for hundreds of years. As he ages, he can grow up to nine tails. The more tails a Kitsune has the more magical abilities the fox has. he can take over the personality of a person or change their mind. This is the life long story of a Kitsune that affected the History of the American Colonies in the 1600’s and the 1700’s. Few people realize that a Kitsune may have change the history of America.

ACT TWO- WITCHCRAFT

NARRATOR

In Japanese folklore many stories depict legendary foxes or Kitsune, as intelligent beings that have paranormal abilities to turn themselves into humans and back again. As the foxes get older and wiser they develop the ability to shapeshift into humans. This is the story of one Kitsune named Aero Long Kitsune and how he blended into American Colonial history.

SCENE 1- INT. DAY- BASEMENT OF FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH.

Aero Long Kitsune is chained to a brick wall in the basement of the First Congregational Church of Salem, Mass. Water dripped down the damp wall as Aero struggled to get free. A cockroach ran across his hands which were strung high above his head. A beam of light came through the cracks in the bricks and a mouse scurried across the moldy floor.

Aero Long Kitsune is a Japanese Kitsune or fox possessing paranormal abilities that help him change his body into a human being. He had red hair and a long face like a fox and speaks in a high pitched voice. If stressed Aero can change into a red Kitsune Fox. He can also read some people’s minds or influence their mind. Kitsune foxes live for hundreds of years growing up to nine tails over two or three hundred years. When a Kitsune fox develops nine tails it is called kyubi no kitsune. Good Kitune foxes are called zenko and that is what Aero Long Kitsune Kitsune is, however bad or field foxes are called yako Kitsune tend to be mischievous or even malicious.

FADE IN:

FADE TO BLACK.

2.

AERO LONG KITSUNE (23) SHAPE SHIFTER

I don’t know how much longer I can bear this pain.

In the basement across from Aero is John Alden Jr. Jr. John is the son of Pilgrim John Alden Jr. and Priscilla Mullins.

JOHN ALDEN JR. (22) JR.

You may not have to worry much longer if these crazy witch hunters have their way. They will tie you to a chair on a pole and put you under water again and again until you drown.

AERO LONG KITSUNE How is it you were arrested for

witch craft stranger?

JOHN ALDEN JR. JR.
I was in Canada trying to get some

hostages released and when I returned a woman name Isabel told everyone I was a witch. I rejected her a few years ago when she thought she was in love with me.

AERO LONG KITSUNE
Ahh, a woman scorned. Now you have

your reward.

JOHN ALDEN JR.
I plan to escape. My family on the

outside is going to bribe someone to let me out of this church basement.

AERO LONG KITSUNE Perhaps you can take me with you

stranger?

JOHN ALDEN JR.
I will let you know when the time

is right.

When the time came for John Alden Jr. Jr. to escape his friends appeared at the stairway to the basement. Quickly they unlocked John Alden Jr. Jr. From his chains.

JOHN ALDEN JR. (CONT’D) See to the stranger on the other end of the basement. Unlock him.

3.

SAMUEL SEABURY JR. (30)

What stranger? The chains on the wall are empty, and there is no one there. Wait, there is a red fox. What the hell is a red fox doing in the basement?

JOHN ALDEN JR.
We have no time to figure it out.

Run for daylight before we are discovered.

Right behind the group of men the red fox scampered up the stairs and into the church courtyard never to be seen again.

SAMUEL SEABURY
We are free. Grab your horse John

and let us be gone.

JOHN ALDEN JR. Finally, a horse to freedom. Ride

on steed.

Running behind the men on horses a red fox scampered off into the woods, free at last.

FADE TO BLACK.

ACT TWO- DUTCH GIANA

SCENE 1-INT. DAY- JULY 14, 1763, ONE HUNDRED YEARS LATER.

Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune runs away from his physician apprentice at age 16 and sails for Dutch Giana to seek a new life.

FADE IN:

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE (17) PHYSICIAN’S APPRENTIST AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE.

Ahh the smell of the sea and the endless horizon of the ocean is the life to be.

BEN ROGERS (44) SEAMAN

It doesn’t smell so great when you have to climb them masts high in the air to drop the sails.

(MORE)

4.

BEN ROGERS (44) SEAMAN (CONT’D)

I have been a seaman all my life and I can’t smell the ocean from the deck varnish.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Well it is all new to me after

living in New England all my life.

Note: The next day a storm hit and most of the crew and passengers had to stay below because of the waves splashing over the deck and washing everything no tied down into the ocean. The ship swayed from side to side in an unnatural rocking motion. Every other wave the ship would life out of the waves and come thundering down with a loud clapping sound in the trough of another wave. Most of the passengers including Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune were all heaving their guts out.

BEN ROGERS, SEAMAN How is that ocean smell treating you matey? Ha…storms like this

make a man out of you in no time. Just hold onto the posts for dear life. The storm should be gone by tomorrow. Bear with it matey.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I think my insides are going to

turn themselves inside out. How much longer is this storm going to last?

CHARLIE PIKE (50) FIRST MATE

Here eat some of this ginger. It will settle your stomach and help you feel better during the storm.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Thank you Mr. Pike.

FADE TO BLACK.

Sometime during the storm seaman Rogers went to look for Mr Bancroft who seemed to have disappeared from below deck.

BEN ROGERS, SEAMAN
Mr. Pike have you seen Mr. Bancroft lately? I looked below and I cannot

find him. Do you know where he is?

FADE IN:

5.

CHARLIE PIKE, FIRST MATE Nope, I haven’t seen him for

several hours Mr. Rogers.

BEN ROGERS
Wait what is that over there in the

corner of the storage? It looks like a red fox. How the hell could a red fox get aboard this vessel? Pike call the Quartermaster. We have a red fox on board.

CHARLIE PIKE, FIRST MATE There are no red foxes on board

matey. You must have been drinking too much rum.

BEN ROGERS, SEAMAN
I swear it was a red fox. I saw.

Now it has disappeared. I must have imagined it. Ahhh Mr. Bancroft I have been looking for you.

FADE OUT. The storm departed after a day. Several weeks later the brig

named Success arrived in Dutch Guiana.

FADE IN:

ABRAHAM VAN PEERE (50) WHITE DUTCH

LAND OWNER

Welcome Mr. Bancroft. We don’t get many white settlers here in Dutch Guiana. What do you plan to do for a living sir?

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I am well read in medicine, and

plan to provide medical services on the plantations. I was a Physician’s apprentice for two years.

SAMUEL BILSBERRY, DUTCH PLANTATION

OWNER, (50)

We are in great need of medical services since we have no doctors on the island. I recommend you try the plantations on the Canoe river near Berbice sir.

6.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE That I will do. Than you sir.

FADE OUT.

After a short boat ride down the Canje river, Bancroft arrived at a plantation owned by Abraham Van Peere.

FADE IN:

ABRAHAM VAN PEERE (50) PLANTATION

OWNER

Well, who do we have here today? A white man? Where do you come from son, and why are you here in Dutch Guiana?

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I am a student of the medical

profession and I have come to offer my services to you and your family, and your slaves.

ABRAHAM VAN PEERE, PLANTATION OWNER. We are in need of a doctor. Malaria

and many other disease are common in the jungles of Guiana. You are welcome Mr. Bancroft. The maid will show you to your bedroom on the second floor of the manor house. When you get settled I want you to look after a dozen of my slaves who have malaria.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I have a small amount of quinine

with me , but we will need to import some more quinine to fight malaria.

ABRAHAM VAN PEERE, PLANTATION OWNER I will see to it that you get all

the quinine you need. Malaria is killing off half of my slaves.

FADE OUT.

With only two years of experience as a physician’s apprentice Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune began treating plantation slaves and Dutch colonists. The slaves could not pronounce Bancroft so they called Edward Master. He did not like being called Master so he asked the saves to call him Mr. Fox. The saves made Mr. Fox into mitta-fox.

7.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Samuel my name is Edward Bancroft

aka Aero long Kitsune and I am the doctor for Master Peere’s slaves.

SAMUEL (60) SLAVE LEADER

Yes, m-sob you Doctor. Me head man.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE You tell the other slaves that I am

here to help them. I am not master. I am doctor here to help them.

SAMUEL SLAVE LEADER Yes, M-sob. What you name?

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Bancroft is a hard English word to

say so just call me Mr. Fox.

SAMUEL, SLAVE LEADER Mitta Fox, yes small smart animal.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Yes very smart. Do you have any

slaves that are sick? I would like to cure them

SAMUEL, SLAVE LEADER Yes m-sob, mitta Fox come with me.

Samuel and Edward entered a run down shack with a palm Thatched roof, and a dirt floor. Lying on a bed sweating, and in pain

was a male slave named Jumbo. He had malaria Edward could tell from the symptoms.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Here is some medicine to mix with a

glass of water. Samuel tell him to take the medicine three times a day, and it will make him well.

SAMUEL SLAVE LEADER (50)

Yes mitta fox. I do. Jumbo you take medicine from Doctore.

FADE OUT. Two weeks later Jumbo recovered and was working in the

plantation again. Plantation owner Van Peere was impressed how efficient Edward was with the slaves. Edward also cured Van Peere’s wife of malaria.

FADE IN:

8.

ABRAHAM VAN PEERE
I am indebted to you Mr. Bancroft

for saving my wife Maria’s life. She was dying of malaria until you gave her medicine. I understand you also saved my slave Jumbo’s life too. You are welcome to join me at the dinner table when ever you wish.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Thank you Mr. Van Peere. I was just

doing my job as plantation Doctor.

MARIA VAN PEERE, (30) WIFE

Doctor Bancroft or Mr. Fox as the slaves call you. You are a God-sent with your medicine and modern knowledge of curing diseases. I too am indebted to you for saving my life from malaria.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Quinine is the cure for quinine

Mrs. Van Peere. I had your husband order more of it from America.

ABRAHAM VAN PEERE
I have more plantations further up

the Canje and Berbice rivers if you want to treat my slaves on those plantations? For now feel free to enjoy the life of a gentlemen in Dutch Guiana.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Thank you Mr Van Peere.

ABRAHAM VAN PEERE
You will be paid in sterling silver each month which you can save since

all your food and housing will be provided for by me.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I ask only that you purchase some

medical manuals for me to read while I am treating the slaves and colonists.

ABRAHAM VAN PEERE
What every medical books you want I

will have shipped directly from Britain for you.

9.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Thank you Sir.

FADE OUT. Several months later Edward came into conflict with the slave

shaman named King John.

FADE IN:

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I am glad to meet you King John. I

am doctore here to help cure sick slaves. I do not wish to interfere with your healing practices. Me heal.

KING JOHN,SHAMAN I see in dream that you have

special healing powers Doctore Fox Why do you call yourself mitta Fox? Are you really a Fox?

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Most slaves cannot say my English

name Bancroft so I chose a simple name Fox for them to use. Mitta fox is all they could pronounce.

FADE OUT. King John, being a shaman, felt that was something unusual

about this Englishman called Fox, and he was right. When stressed Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune could change he shape from a man into a red fox. It was his method of escape, and as a fox he was able to easily go undetected in the night or day. One night Edward was called out to deliver a child to a slave woman named Buela. It was a difficult birth and the slave was in much pain. The shaman King John appeared, and gave Buela some herbs that helped in the pain. Edward was upset that King John had upset his delivery of the baby. Edward was so stressed that he went outside the shack and turned into a Fox and ran away into the forest.

KING JOHN, (60) SLAVE SHAMAN

mitta-fox. I am King John, shaman for all slaves on plantation.

KING JOHN,SHAMAN Mitta Fox, we missed you last night. Buela had a healthy boy

after I gave her herbs to kill the pain. Where did you go mitta Fox?

(MORE)

FADE IN:

10.

KING JOHN,SHAMAN (CONT’D) The baby came and I had to deliver

it. It was a boy, and then named him Uriel.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I was not feeling well and had to

return to the manor house to rest. I am sorry I was not there for the birth.

KING JOHN,SHAMAN
You are strange English. There is something about you that makes me

nervous.

Edward said nothing. From that day on King John was always asking questions about Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune alias Mr. Fox.

FADE OUT.

SCENE 2-EXT. DAY- BERBICE RIVER PLANTATION.

A year after Edward began as plantation Doctor he decided to move up the Berbice river to two other plantations owned by Van Peere.

FADE IN:

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Mr. Van Peere, I have decided to

move further up the Berbice river to assist the slaves on your two plantations there.

ABRAHAM VAN PEERE
I would be most grateful for you to

treat my slaves on the Berbice river plantations. Many slaves have died of many jungle diseases, and I need you to cure them.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I will leave tomorrow then.

FADE TO BLACK. The next day Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune alias Mr

Fox took a boat headed upriver on the Berbice river to the two plantations that Mr. Van Peere owned. When He got there tension was in the air and a slave revolution was about to begin.

11.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE (CONT’D) The slaves are acting very

strangely on these Berbice plantations. They wouldn’t talk to me for some reason.

Big Tom was a big 280 pound black slave with many scars on his back from whippings. His hair was close cut and he had a huge nose and very dark skin.

BIG TOM, SLAVE (40)

English man, you go back to the coast. Bad things about to happen. Slaves unhappy here.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I bring medicine to cure jungle

disease.

BIG TOM, SLAVE
Not want medicine English. You go

back to the coast now.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Does anyone know what is going on

here on these plantations? The slaves seem like they are hiding something. They are very angry for some reason.

BIG TOM, SLAVE Many whippings English.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I have a letter of introduction to

the plantation Master to allow me to treat colonists and slaves, and to provide me room and food during my stay.

THOMAS VON HEDDING (40) PLANTATION

MASTER.

I see Mr. Von Peere sent you. Welcome Mr. Bancroft or shall I say Doctor Bancroft? We are having a situation here on the plantations which may require the military to assist us. Word is that the slaves are going to revolt. We cannot allow that.

FADE OUT.

12.

The next day a slave was tied to a pole and whipped with a leather bull whip.

FADE IN:

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Why is that slave being whipped?

THOMAS VON HEDDING He attempted to escape and we

caught him in the jungle.

SCENE 3-EXT. DAY- PLANTATION HOUSE.

FADE TO BLACK.

A week after Edward arrived at the Berbice river plantations inland, several hundred slaves raided the manor house on one of the plantations. The Plantation owner had to call in the military from neighboring counties.

FADE IN:

RICHARD VAN WATERS, PLANTATION

SUPERVISOR . (45)

Sound the alarm and break out the rifles. Several hundred slaves have walked off the plantation and are headed to the manor house. We must protect the manor house. Petre you take a boat downriver to Mr. Van Peere and tell him we need an Army of soldiers to put down this rebellion immediately.

PETRE, FIELD BOSS FOR THE PLANTATION

(50).

Yes Boss. I take the boat.

STUBBS, SLAVE (40)

The army is coming. The army is coming. Run for ya life.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE What is going on sir?

JOSIAH VON PEEBLES (50) PLANTATION

OWNER

The slaves are revoting. You need to stay indoors Mr. Bancroft.

(MORE)

13.

JOSIAH VON PEEBLES (50) PLANTATION

It isn’t safe for white folk to go out until the slaves are subdued.

FADE OUT.

Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune had a perfect view of the plantation from his bedroom window on the second floor of the manor house.

FADE IN:

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I can’t believe the army cut the

slaves down with machetes like they were cutting meat. It is a bloody revolution the slaves were losing. The slaves had only farm tools and the army had guns, cannons, swords and machetes. They cut the runaway slaves down like wooden pegs. Dead bodies of slaves were lying all over the plantation fields. It was a massacre. The slaves quarters and part of the coffee field had turned into a lake of blood. Slave body parts were everywhere. It was a scene from Hell, and beyond. Edward felt sick to his stomach. Turning into a red Fox, Edward ran to the slaves quarters to warn them an army of mercenaries was coming up the river to kill anyone who resisted. He never considered that a talking Fox would scare the wits out of the slaves. He ran as fast as he could run toward the slave huts. Run, run for your lives soldiers are coming up the river to put down the revolution. Put down your weapons and surrender or run into the jungle. You cannot win, there are too man soldiers.

Sarah was a tall thin negro slave with light brown skin and a wide African nose with a ring through it. Her hair was short and kinky and black.

SARAH, (20) SLAVE WOMAN

Look it is a Fox, and it talks. This is an omen from the Devil. We are doomed. Run for your lives.

14.

KING JOHN, SHAMAN
So you have appeared again Red Fox?

Why do you warn us? Do I know you Red Fox? We will be successful in our revolt. We outnumber the whites by ten to one. They cannot win.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE

AS THE FOX
(In the shape of a Red Fox) You are

wrong wise one. The soldiers have field cannons that can kill 50 slaves at a time. The Dutch can always replace the slaves by buying more slaves at the market. Out of fear the white man has to put down this rebellion. You can run into the jungle, and hide there or surrender with a white flag. Do you hear the cannon in the distance. The cannon balls will flatten every slave hut here, and cut down 30-50 slaves at a time. You cannot win. Surrender. I will leave you now to decide your fate.

FADE OUT. Edward returned to the manor house and when he got back to

his bedroom he changed back into his human form.

FADE IN:

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I am a Doctor, and there is nothing

I can do here in this slave rebellion. I will leave tomorrow at Sun rise.

FADE TO BLACK. The next day Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune fled back

down river from the Berbice river plantations to the coast plantations of Abraham Von Peere.

ABRAHAM VAN PEERE Welcome back Mr. Bancroft. I heard

there was a slave revolt on my plantations. I had to sent in the Army to tame the slaves.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Your army sir killed hundreds of

unarmed slaves. (MORE)

FADE IN:

15.

16.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I watched the bloody massacre from

my bedroom window.

ABRAHAM VAN PEERE
The slaves outnumber the whites ten

to one and we cannot allow the to take over or they will kill every white in Dutch Guiana. We have to come down hard on slave revolts or they will kill us all.

FADE TO BLACK.

SCENE 4-INT. EXT. -BRITISH GIANA.

Having saved several hundred British pounds, Bancroft takes a year off as a Doctor and travels around Dutch Giana observing and collecting the plant life, animals and natives. He begins writing a three volume book about his research in Dutch Giana. While traveling around Dutch Giana Bancroft comes across the Macusi tribe in the jungles of Dutch Giana. The Macusi were known to have the strongest poison for their arrows. Bancroft wanted to learn how to make the curari poison but the shaman would not reveal the plant or process.

FADE IN: In a local Macusi tribal village deep in the jungles of Dutch

Giana. Edward with a local guide enter a Macusi village. A macusi native approaches them with a head piece of beautiful bird feathers. His body is marked with many tattoos and he is wearing only a breech cloth.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I am Doctore Bancroft. I want to

meet your shaman.

SELNA WALAYZO, MACUSI SHAMAN (60)

What do you want of me white man?

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I have beads as a gift to you. I

want to learn about your tribe and it’s medicines, and the poison you use on your arrows and blow guns.

SELNA WALAYZO, MACUSI SHAMAN Macusi arrow poison is a tribal

secret that cannot be told, white man.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Perhaps if I give you some gifts

for you to tell me the secret of your arrow poison.

SELNA WALAYZO, MACUSI SHAMAN No gifts. Secret and very

dangerous. Gods of Macusi protect poison.

Jim Bob is a large black man who is half negro slave and half local indian. He has a large African nose and big lips with several scars across his face.

JIM BOB, MAROON GUIDE (40)

The shaman is not going to give you the secret to the Macusi arrow poison no matter how many gifts you give him. He wants you to sit at the fire and drink native drink masato. Be careful boss the drink is very powerful. To refuse it is considered an insult.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Thank you Jim Bob for keeping me

informed. Tell the shaman I accept his invitation to sit down with him and drink his masato.

Note: Masato is an alcoholic drink made from yuca which is chewed and then spit into a container to ferment.Many Amazon Indians drink masato.

JIM BOB, MAROON GUIDE We sit. Drink Masato.

SELNA WALAYZO, MACUSI SHAMAN Good. White man drink. We talk.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE What did he say Jim Bob?

JIM BOB, MAROON GUIDE He invites you to sit and drink

masato with him.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I will try the masato. It really

has a kick to it. Wow, I just got a rush to my head after one sip. This drink is really strong.

JIM BOB
The Macusi make the drink from

fermented yucca.
After several hours Edward felt drunk from drinking the masato.

17.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Ask the shaman if we could stay for

a few days to observe their tribe.

JIM BOB, MAROON GUIDE (In Macusi language) White man

thanks the shaman for his drink. May we stay tonight and learn the ways of the Macusi?

SELNA WALAYZO, MACUSI SHAMAN (In Macusi language) White man, and

maroon welcome to say. We have empty hut for you to sleep tonight.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE What did he say Jim Bob?

JIM BOB, MAROON GUIDE
He welcomes us and has an empty hut

for us to stay tonight.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Thank God. I am very drunk and

cannot even focus my vision. That drink was very powerful. Let’s thank the shaman and retire for the night. I feel sick.

JIM BOB, MAROON GUIDE (In Macusi language) Thank you

shaman. We accept your offer and will stay here tonight in your empty hut.

SELNA WALAYZO, MACUSI SHAMAN (In Macusi language) Come follow me

white man and maroon and I will

show you to your hut.
The next morning Edward woke up with a tremendous headache.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE My head is killing me. That macusi

drink was very powerful. I need to learn how the natives make it. Most important I need to find our what the arrow poison is made of and how to make it.

JIM BOB, MAROON GUIDE The shaman will never give up the

secret to their arrow poison.

18.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE We will see about that. I have some

magic of my own. Come let’s see what the shaman is up to today.

JIM BOB, MAROON GUIDE (In macusi language) Good morning shaman. Thank you for the lodging

last night.

SELNA WALAYZO, MACUSI SHAMAN (In Macusi language) Come maroon.
You and white man will join us in

eating. We killed a wild pig the other day and roasted it for the whole village to eat. Come, you are welcome.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE What did he say?

JIM BOB, MAROON GUIDE
He wants us to join him in eating a

wild boar they roasted.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Fine I am starved.

FADE TO BLACK.

About 40 macusi men and women sat around a huge fire spit with a wild boar being roasted. Various jungle fruits and plants were also being cooked on the fire.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO This wild pig is delicious, and I

am starved. I gave the shaman some beads and other gifts.

JIM BOB, MAROON GUIDE Gifts will not get the shaman to

give up the secret of their arrow poison. You need to do something amazing that will scare the shaman showing you have magic. More magic than the shaman has.

FADE IN: LONG KITSUNE

(CONT’D)

LONG KITSUNE After the dinner the shaman, Bancroft, and the maroon guide

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO I am going to have to think about

it. Eat up this pig is delicious.

19.

sat and talked macusi tribal life. It was then that Edward realized that the only way to get the secret arrow poison was to scare the hell out of the shaman. He would have to reveal that he was a shape-shifter who could turn into a Kitsune red fox at will and back again. Edward realized that he could not let Jim Bob see this secret, so he waited until Jim Bob went back to the hut to rest that night. It was then that Edward would reveal himself as a white man magician.

JIM BOB, MAROON GUIDE I am going to the hut to lay down

master.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I will be along shortly. I have a

few things to discuss with the shaman.

JIM BOB, MAROON GUIDE OK, Master. I will wait in the hut.

After Jim Bob left, Edward attempted to communicate with the shaman with sign language.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Shaman, I am a white man wizard

with many magical powers which I will show to you, if you promise to reveal the secret of the arrow poison.

SELNA WALAYZO, MACUSI SHAMAN Shaman cannot reveal secret of

poison.
Upon realizing the shaman was not going to change his mind Edward focused his mind and turned himself into a Kitsune red fox in front of the shaman.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE

AS THE FOX
You see shaman my magic is more

powerful than your magic. I am a fox now that can talk like a white man. As a fox I can run faster, see farther and smell 10x better.

SELNA WALAYZO, MACUSI SHAMAN Gods above, you are a devil

creature. Do not eat me.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE (A small popping sound) I will not

eat you. See I am back in the shape of a white man again. Did my magic impress you shaman?

20.

SELNA WALAYZO, MACUSI SHAMAN You have the power of black magic

white man. I will show you the secret of the arrow poison. After we make the poison from a local vine you can carry the black tar like substance in a bamboo tube safely. You cannot touch or inhale the fumes of the poison or it will kill you. There is no medicine to stop the poison.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE You have no medicine to stop the

poison?

SELNA WALAYZO, MACUSI SHAMAN We gather the bark of this vine and

it’s apples and cook it over a fire. We add some other tree bark and the crushed fangs of a snake along with ants that bite. Mixed together the poison is spread on a leaf and rubbed on an arrow. At no time can you touch the poison or you will die. Now you can keep your fox magic away from me.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE You are safe my friend. I want to

bring some bamboo tubes of poison back with me. I offer you some knives made by white men to trade for the arrow poison.

SELNA WALAYZO, MACUSI SHAMAN This is a good trade white man. Now

you must take the poison and go from this village before the Gods are angry with me for revealing the secret to our poison.

ACT THREE- SILAS DEANE IN PARIS

FADE OUT.

SCENE 1- INT. -DAY- PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, JUNE 1776.

FADE IN:

21.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (70) AMERICAN

DIPLOMAT.

Silas before you leave for Paris, France, I have a list of several men I want you to look up when you get to France to help you achieve your goals. Since you cannot speak French, I highly recommend Dr. Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune of London to help interpret any French correspondence. Arthur Lee a true Virginian is another man than can be helpful. Others friends of mine are on this list I am giving you.

SILAS DEANE
Thank you Dr. Franklin. I realize I

am taking on a great responsibility seeking credit in France for military supplies and perhaps Spain also. I am grateful for your assistance Dr. Franklin.

SCENE 2- EXT. DAY- SILAS DEANE ARRIVES IN BOURDEAUX FRANCE.

Letter to Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune

SCENE 3- INT. DAY- ARTHUR LEE ARRIVES FROM LONDON.

SCENE 4-INT. DAY- JUNE 5, 1776, EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE BECOMES ILL IN LONDON

Turns into a Fox to avoid the pain from malaria

SCENE 5- EXT. DAY- JUNE 25, 1776 EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE ARRIVES IN PARIS, FRANCE TO MEET WITH SILAS DEANE.

Gets sick again. Turns into a Fox again

SCENE 6- INT. DAY- DEANE AND BANCROFT MEET VERGENNE, MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS AT VERSAILLE.

Deane discusses needs of the colonies. Bancroft waits outside.

22.

SCENE 7- EXT. DAY- AUGUST 1776, BANCROFT RETURNS TO LONDON.

Paul Wentworth recruits Bancroft as a spy for the British. Offers payment. Bancroft sends Lord North and Lord Egan a long report on his activities with Silas Deane in Paris, France.

ACT FOUR- THE COMMITTEE OF THREE.

SCENE 1-INT. DAY- PARIS, FRANCE, 1776.

After Silas Deane was sent to France in June 1776, Congress decided to send a committee of three to represent the Colonies with a treaty with France and Spain. Benjamin Franklin was sent from Philadelphia and Arthur Lee, a Virginian, was living in London, England at the time. He was instructed to meet Deane and Franklin in Paris, France as soon as possible.

THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS,

PHILADELPHIA, PA.

It is hereby decided by Congress to send a committee of three delegates to Paris, France. Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Mr. Arthur Lee, and…. It will be their duty to secure supplies for the Continental Army and to establish credit in France, Prussia, and Spain.

Later that day in Franklin’s home.

FADE OUT.

FADE IN:

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, DIPLOMAT. Sarah, I have been called by the

Continental congress to travel to France to help direct the negotiations between France and the American Colonies. I would like to take my Grandson Temple, and your son William with me to get a good Continental education at the private schools in France and Switzerland.

(MORE)

FADE TO BLACK.

FADE IN:

23.

24.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, DIPLOMAT. (CONT’D) I hope you are agreeable to let you

six year old son accompany me to Europe. It will be an opportunity of a life-time to see Paris, and all of Europe. No school or tutoring in the Colonies with the treat of War can match the life experiences of being in France.

Sara Franklin was a beautiful young lady raised by her father to be a shining example of the rich, and wealthy in the Colonies. She wore many different wigs, and had a thin face with a long nose and stood five feet four inches tall.

SARA FRANKLIN (28) DAUGHTER OF DR.

FRANKLIN.

I am sure William would love to sail in a boat across the ocean to France with you father. I am sure you will take good care of him, and ensure a good education in France. You have my permission to take William to Paris, France, father.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN Thank you Sarah. Start packing

William. We depart tomorrow at high tide.

FADE TO BLACK.

ACT FIVE- DECEMBER 1776-BENJAMIN FRANKLIN ARRIVES IN FRANCE.

SCENE 1-EXT. DAY- FRIGATE …… ARRIVES OFF THE COAST OF FRANCE.

Delays in ship arriving. Takes a small fishing boat to port in France. Travels overland to Paris.

FADE IN:

SCENE 2-EXT. DAY- IMPATIENT FRANKLIN ARRIVES IN FRENCH PORT..?

FADE IN:

SCENE 3- EXT. DAY- FRANKLIN TRAVELS WITH GRANDSONS OVERLAND TO PARIS FRANCE. ARRIVES ON DEC. 23, 1776.

FADE IN:

SCENE 4- INT. DAY- FRANKLIN MEETS RICH FRENCH MERCHANT WHO OFFERS HOTEL DE VALENTINOIS FOR FRANKLIN TO LIVE IN DURING NEGOTIATIONS.

ACT SIX- THE TREATY OF PARIS
SCENE 1- Int.-Day- Franklin’s Office Paris.

FADE IN:

FADE IN:

ACT SEVEN THE TULLERIES GARDENS, PARIS FRANCE, JANUARY 1777.

Paul Wentworth and Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune stroll through the Tulleries gardens in Paris, France deciding how Bancroft will get his messages to Wentworth without any French or American spies knowing it.

SCENE 1-EXT. DAY-TULLERIES GARDENS, PARIS.

Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune and his spy handler Paul Wentworth were strolling in the Tulleries gardens in Paris, France deciding how Bancroft will communicate with Wentworth.

FADE IN:

PAUL WENTWORTH, BRITISH SPY (45)

Edward, I am afraid I will have to leave Paris and return to London, England. There are many French spies that might soon arrest me for spying. I am often followed by strangers who are following my every move. We need to find a way for you to communicate with me after I leave Paris.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE,

DOUBLE SPY
I am sorry to see you leave. We

made a good team spying on the Americans here in Paris. What do you suggest for a new method of communicating valuable information to you after you depart for London?

25.

PAUL WENTWORTH, BRITISH SPY Do you see that tree over there? It is hollow down toward it’s roots. I

will have a jar placed in the hollow portion of the tree and a string will be tied around the jar so you can retrieve it. When you have valuable information you are to come to the gardens and seek out this tree. Look for the string which will have a stick on the end to prevent the jar from falling to far inside the hollow tree. Pull the string up and take the jar out and put your message in the jar. Secure the lid and lower the jar back down inside the tree. My operatives will come by once a week to pick up the messages and to also leave messages from me. Use the premise of writing to your mistress in London as an excuse for the letter just in case the letter is intercepted. Use the invisible ink and write between the lines the real information about the Americans that you have. I will then use lemon juice to decipher the invisible ink in London when I get the letter. I am departing for London tomorrow on a frigate. You are on your own from this point on in Paris and you will be our only spy in France due to the recall of all British spies to London by Lord Eden.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE,

DOUBLE SPY
When will you have the jar in the

tree in place?

PAUL WENTWORTH, BRITISH SPY My secretary will place the jar in

the tree on a string tomorrow before we depart for London. Feel free to use this method of reporting, but be careful because you may be watched by French or American spies.

26.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE,

DOUBLE SPY
I wish you well on your voyage back

to London. I will remain in Paris as long as needed. Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane all trust me completely and I have made myself an important contribution to the American delegation by translating French documents into English for them and helping to secure supplies for the Continental American Army.

PAUL WENTWORTH, BRITISH SPY We need to know everything about

the Franco-American alliance, what ships are leaving French ports bound for the American Colonies, any trade between the Americans and the Caribbean islands. In addition we need to be aware of any credit the French and or Spanish give to the Americans to buy arms. Sent us any copies or summaries of Silas Deane’s letters to the Colonies or Benjamin Franklin. I must leave you now to pack my bags in preparation for my departure tomorrow to return to London. Just in case we are followed I will take another path to return to my hotel as should you.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE,

DOUBLE SPY
I will do the best I can in

reporting Silas Deane’s activities in securing credit for the Colonies to purchase artillery and guns from the French and Spanish. Have a safe voyage Paul.

At this point Bancroft and Wentworth parted ways in the park. FADE TO BLACK.

SCENE 2- EXT. NIGHT- TUILLERIES PARK, 9:00 P.M..

One week later, Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune is about to make his first letter drop into the jar in the hollow tree in Tuilleries gardens. He is paranoid about French spies seeing him leave the hotel at night. The fear of being caught and shot as a spy intensifies to the point that he changes into a kitsune red Fox and runs off into the night

27.

in the direction of the Tuilleries gardens.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I must change into a Kitsune Red

Fox to avoid being seen by any French Spies. My nerves are killing me, but I must inform Paul that Deane has received over a million livre from the French government and a million from the Spanish government to purchase canons and rifles for the Continental army. Let me see if I got everything right in my letter. Dearest beloved, I have missed you very much over these past months. I hope to return to London soon so we can meet and make love again. You are always on my mind. Love and kisses. John. I must address the envelop to M. Richards. Now for the invisible ink.(Invisible Ink between the lines of the letter) Deane has secured credit 1 mil. To purchase 100 canons and 300 rifles from the French and Spanish government. He is traveling to Holland to secure the purchases in two days. Now to become a Kitsune Red Fox. I will place the envelope in my mouth and carry it to the hollow tree. Now I must depart. It is only 3.7 Kilometers from the Valentinois hotel to the Tuilleries Gardens. I will run along the Seine river, and then cross over one of the bridges to the other side to get to the gardens. It will be a short run for a Fox.

The red fox jumps out the window onto the balcony and down to the ground and runs off into the darkness.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE

AS THE FOX
No one has noticed me and that is

good. Now to pull the string out of the hollow tree. Wait I hear something. No, it is just the wind in the trees. Taking the lid off the jar is harder than I thought.

(MORE)

FADE IN:

28.

29.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Now to put the letter in the jar

and put the lid back on and lower the jar into the tree using my mouth. Ahh it is done. Time to run back to the hotel.

Edward returns to the hotel undetected around 10:00 p.m.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE

AS THE FOX (CONT’D) And now I must return to my human

self. My mission is complete. I am exhausted now, and must rest. Tomorrow Paul’s operative will get the message and send it by boat to London.

ACT SEVEN- JOHN PAUL JONES COMES TO PARIS. SCENE 1-INT. DAY- PARIS, FRANCE.

Fill in John Paul Jones story here and the ships he was promised.

ACT EIGHT- 1778 THE TREATY OF PARIS.

SCENE 1- INT. DAY- BENJAMIN FRANKLIN’S OFFICE.

Debates over Article 11 and 12 in the draft version of the treaty with France continue.

FADE IN:

ARTHUR LEE, AMERICAN DIPLOMAT I agree Benjamin. We must protect
our territorial interests now and

after the war.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, DIPLOMAT. Articles 11 and 12 are critically

important to the American Colonies. We must hold the French to our land claims now and in the future.

FADE IN:

FADE OUT.

SILAS DEANE, DIPLOMAT I too agree, but the French

Ambassador is looking out for the interests of the French and he does not want articles 11 and 12 as part of the treaty.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, DIPLOMAT. We must push our position and not

waiver. Eventually, the French Ambassador will see it our way.

SILAS DEANE, DIPLOMAT

We must have France Pledge to honor land claims in Article 11 France pledges to honor the lands claims of both nations forever into the future with the United States guaranteeing full support of France’s current land claims, and any lands they may acquire during the war, against all other nations, and France in turn pledging support for the United States land claims and guaranteeing to help preserve the country’s “liberty, Sovereignty, and Independence absolute, and unlimited, as well in Matters of Government as commerce.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, DIPLOMAT. Sovereignty is a keyword for the

French Ambassador. He is not sure whether he can trust us.

Silas Deane, Diplomat

(MORE)

30.

31.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, DIPLOMAT. (CONT’D) As I see it, Article 12 establishes

the agreement as a conditional treaty which will only take effect upon a declaration of war between France and Britain, and further makes the land, and diplomatic guarantees laid out in the treaty dependent upon the completion of The American Revolutionary War and a peace treaty which formally establishes each nation’s land possessions. Do you agree Mr. Franklin?

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, DIPLOMAT. (CONT’D) Yes, I am in agreement. We must

protect our interests at all costs. Now to convince the French Ambassador.

Rumors About the Franco-American alliance were spreading around Paris. Vergennes the French minister realized that he could no longer keep the alliance secret so in March, 1778, he makes the treaties with the American colonies public.

FADE IN:

VERGENNES, FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER

(50)

I will announce today our treaty with the American colonies to quiet down all the gossip in Paris. This will allow me to expel the English Ambassador Stormont and his staff back to London. It gives me great pleasure to get rid of all the British spies finally.

FADE TO BLACK. Later on the British Ambassador to France, English Ambassador

Stormont receives the correspondence from Vergennes the French Minister to leave France immediately.

FADE IN:

STORMONT, ENGLISH AMBASSADOR TO FRANCE

(50)

Damm the French have signed a treaty with the American Colonies and Vergennes the French Minister is ordering us out of the country immediately. Inform the staff to pack up all our documents. We are leaving for London tomorrow on March 22, 1778. Burn any unnecessary documents immediately. It is over. I just received a formal notice from the Crown to vacate our hotel immediately.

FADE TO BLACK.

The scene switches to King Louis XVI in the Versailles castle which is twenty miles outside Paris, France.

FADE IN:

VERGENNES, FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER You majesty may I introduce the

ambassadors from the American Colonies: Mr. Benjamin Franklin, Mr. Silas Deane, Mr. Arthur Lee, Mr. William Lee, and Mr. Ralph Izard along with their entourage.

Benjamin Franklin is 70 years of age and well known in France thanks to his Electrical experiments which were published several years before. His hair is completely white and thin and balding at the top.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (70) AMERICAN

AMBASSADOR TO FRANCE.

You majesty, we thank you for granting us a private audience. We welcome and rejoice in our treaty with France and your majesty. Your support will greatly help us to defeat the British.

King Louis XVI is an young man of 23 at the time, and due to his political troubles in Paris chose to move to the country to his palace known as Versailles.

KING LOUIS XVI, KING OF FRANCE (23)

Bienvenue Americans.

COUNT VERGENNES, FRENCH MINISTER

Come and join us in a small banquet we prepared for our new American allies.

32.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Amazing how big this banquet is the

French have provided us with. Thank you Mr. Franklin for inviting me to this special occasion.

King Louis XVI had table after table of fabulous French food served for the American guests. It was a celebration beyond all imagination.

FADE TO BLACK.

SCENE 4-INT. DAY- SEPTEMBER 1778.

As France signs a treaty with the Colonies, they also declare war against the British. All British diplomats are asked to leave the country. Likewise Paul Wentworth must also leave for fear of being discovered as a spy leaving only Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune in Paris to report on the Americans.

FADE IN:

PAUL WENTWORTH, BRITISH SPY. (Sitting at a desk, writing a

letter) Dear Mr. Jones, I am forced to return to London since the French signed a treaty with the American Colonies. All British diplomats have been asked to leave the country and that leaves me in a dangerous position remaining in Paris. Thus I must depart for London. Continue to use the tree drop for messages and I will have my assistants pick up you letters. Good Luck. PW. There Bancroft will be our only spy in Paris now which makes him more valuable than ever. I will report this to Lord Egan in London.

Later that day Bancroft aka Mr. Jones gets the letter from Wentworth.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE Ahh, a letter from Wentworth. What

he is leaving Paris? That leaves only me to spy on the Americans. Damm it is going to be more dangerous than ever to get messages to Wentworth. Someday, I hope to return to London and live a normal life.

(MORE)

33.

34.

EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG KITSUNE I will drop another note tonight

regarding the Dutch and the Americans receiving unlimited credit for building ships and shipping military supplies to the Colonies.

FADE OUT. Later Paul Wentworth dispatches a letter to London to Lord

Egan who was in charge of the British secret service. FADE IN:

PAUL WENTWORTH< BRITISH SPY. Lord Egan, I am departing Paris

since the French have signed a treaty with the Americans and expelled all British Diplomats. This puts me in a risky and unusual position and I must return to London for my own safety. Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune aka Mr. Jones will be our only remaining British Spy in Paris upon my departure. He will continue to send letters in invisible ink to me via diplomatic courier out of Holland. Respectfully yours, P.W.

FADE OUT.

Several weeks later in London, England, Lord Egan receives Wentworth’s letter.

FADE IN:

LORD WILLIAM EGAN, DIRECTOR OF BRITISH

SECRET SERVICE. (40)

I am in receipt of a letter from Wentworth. He is returning to London after the French treaty with the Americans. Our only British spy in Paris is Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune now. Correspondence will be more difficult now. Damm. His majesty will not be happy to get this news.

ACT SEVEN- A SPY IN OUR MIDST.

FADE OUT.

SCENE 1-INT. DAY- FRANKLIN’S LIBRARY, JAN. 19,1777.

Benjamin Franklin begins to suspect he has a spy in his midst and writes to Julian Ritchie a woman living in a Benedictine Convent in Cambrai.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (Sitting at his desk writing a

letter) Dear madam Ritchie, I hope this letter finds you well. I am engaged in writing a treaty for the American Colonies and France to help us become independent from Britain. These have been difficult time with spies everywhere. Even my vale is suspect. I cannot trust anyone here in Paris, France. I cannot speak or read French which puts me at a disadvantage, but Sir Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune a Doctor and Scientist has been most helpful in reading French documents and writing French letters in return. Even Dr. Bancroft had been accused of being a spy due to his relations in London, England. I have invited Dr. Bancroft to Paris to continue to help me communicate with the French officials in French. I mention this to you now in the utmost confidence. How do I follow up on my suspicions I ask? Perhaps you have an opinion on my situation? I look forward to your reply. Your servant, Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Envoy to France.

SCENE 2-INT. DAY- APRIL 1778.

Arthur lee suspects Edward Bancroft aka Aero long Kitsune is a British spy. Arthur Lee writes a letter to Benjamin Franklin warning him that his continued reliance on Bancroft could turn out to be a disaster.

FADE IN:

FADE IN:

FADE TO BLACK.

35.

SCENE 1-INT.-DAY- ARTHUR LEE’S OFFICE, PARIS, FRANCE.

FADE IN:

ARTHUR LEE, AMERICAN DIPLOMAT (60)

Dear Dr. Franklin, It has come to my attention that Edward Bancroft is a British Spy. You need to be cautious in using his services for everything you do is being reported to the British.

FADE TO BLACK. Benjamin Franklin writing at his desk in the hotel Valentine.

FADE IN:

DR. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, AMERICAN

DIPLOMAT
Dear Mr. Lee, I have taken your

letter under consideration and find it wanting in facts. Mr. Bancroft has often provided his services at no charge and has moved his family to Paris to help support the American committee here. I cannot justify accusing him as a spy.

Arthur Lee at his desk.

FADE OUT.

ARTHUR LEE, AMERICAN DIPLOMAT Congress, I have evidence that on

of our colleagues in Paris is a British spy. Dr. Edward Bancroft is a criminal with regard to the United States, and I shall have him charged as such, whenever he goes within our jurisdiction. Bancroft was recruited by the British Secret service in 1776 for the sum of 200 pounds per year. I have pleaded with Dr. Franklin to stop using Dr. Bancroft as an interpreter and consultant for he truly spies for the British.

Later when Dr. Bancroft learns of Arthur Lee’s accusations.

36.

DR. EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG

KITSUNE
(Writing from his desk in London,

England) Dear Paul, I recommend you inform Lord Eden that I am being accused of spying by Arthur Lee, Diplomat for the American committee in Paris. I suggest you have the local police arrest me, and other suspects and put me in jail for a night to thrown the suspicion of my being a spy off. Benjamin Franklin will be impressed that I fled London to go to Paris after being jailed by the British. I await your response.

PAUL WENTWORTH Dr. Bancroft, I received Be ready for tonight the London police will be at

your note. local your door

and you will be arrested for spying. You will be released after one night to return to Paris to spy on the Americans. Lord North is impressed with your spying reports to date.

That night the local Police come knocking.

LONDON POLICE
(Knock, knock) Open the door in the

name of the Constable of London. Dr. Bancroft you are under arrest for spying. Tie him up gentlemen.

DR. EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG

KITSUNE
But I must protest. I am a

Scientist and Author, and not a spy. I am an American citizen, you cannot arrest me.

CONSTABLE OF LONDON (45)

Take him away and lock up this spy and make sure he gets no food tonight.

FADE TO BLACK.

FADE IN:

37.

The next day.

CONSTABLE OF LONDON (CONT’D) Dr. Bancroft, prisoner 3440, you

are to be released on the orders by Lord Eden. Take your coat and be gone with you.

DR. EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG

KITSUNE
Thank you Constable. You will not

see me again.
Bancroft boards a ship and flees to Paris, France.

FADE TO BLACK.

SCENE 2-INT. DAY- ON BOARD THE SHIP VENTURE BOUND FOR PARIS, FRANCE.

Edward Bancroft arrives in Paris, France and takes a horse and carriage to Benjamin Franklin’s office in Hotel Valentine.

FADE IN:

DR. EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG

KITSUNE
Dr. Franklin, I have fled to Paris

to help support you and the American committee. Edward Lees charges are of course false. I was arrested as a spy in London, but manage to escape by paying off the jailer. I will not be permitted to return to London, now that I am a criminal on the run from the British.

DR BENJAMIN FRANKLIN You are welcome as always Dr.

Bancroft. Come sit down, and have some tea with me and tell me about the prisons in London.

DR. EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG

KITSUNE
Thank you Dr. Franklin, you are

most kind. I will be writing my wife and requesting that she and my children come to Paris to live with me.

(MORE)

38.

DR. EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG If you would I am short of funds at

this time, may I borrow a small amount to pay for ship passage for my family?

DR. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, AMERICAN

DIPLOMAT
Of course, by all means. I will

extend you credit to purchase ships passage for your wife and family to come to Paris. They can stay at the Hotel de Valentois.

DR. EDWARD BANCROFT AKA AERO LONG

KITSUNE
Thank you Dr. Franklin. You are

most gracious.

ACT NINE-THE END OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR. SCENE 1-INT. DAY-

Add final ending here…..

FADE OUT.

39.

A Roman Centurian to Remember-Marcus Cassius Scaeva.

During the Roman Civil wars Pompey brought an Army of 6,000 to defeat Caesar in Gaul. Caesar left his fort in Gaul with 500 Soldiers and Centurian to defend it should Pompey attack. Meanwhile, Caesar too the fight to Pompey chasing his larger army around Gaul. While Caesar was seeking Pompey elsewhere, Pompey’s army of 6,000 soldiers and cavalry attacked Caesars fort protected by only 500 soldiers. The Centurians were in the front line and all of them were either killed or wounded. Marcus Scaeva seeking that all of his fellow Centurians were eight dead or wounded stepped up to the front line and led his fellow soldiers against the overwhelming numbers of Pompey’s army. More than 230 arrows hit or stuck in Marcus’ shield. He was hit in the eye with an arrow which he pulled out with his hand and shouted to his comrades to keep fighting. A javelin hit him in his shoulder and an arrow hit him in the knee. Finally from a loss of blood he collapsed to one knee behind his shield. He held his hand high when he went down and Pompey’s Centurians seeing the Centurian Scaeva finally collapse thought that he was signaling the he wanted to surrender. Two Centurians from Pompey’s army rode out to meet Marcus. When they asked him if he wanted to surrender he responded by stabbing on Centurian in the throat with his sword and cutting the other Centurian’s arm off. Immediately afterward hostilities commenced once again. Finally, Pompey’s army was driven back and could not take Caesar’s fort. Late Caesar returned to find all 500 soldiers in the fort wounded. Many Centurians were shot in the eye, and many died. The soldiers brought to Caesar the shield of Marcus with 230 holes and arrows stuck in it. They told Caesar of the bravery of Marcus fighting at the front of the army and never giving up. Caesar was so impressed that he rewarded Marcus many copper coins and promoted him from 8th level Centurian to 1st Level and put him in charge of the Tenth Legion.

The Summer of ’67

The Summer of ‘67

By Dr. Pelham K. Mead III

Chapter one- Departure from Springfield College, Springfield, Mass.

It was June 11967, a Thursday, and I was trying to finish grading the final exam for the four Botany lab sections I was responsible for. It was a blisteringly humid day in Springfield, Massachusetts, however the cool basement air in the Botany labs that were under Alumni Hall helped make the weather more bearable. Dr. Brainerd the Director of the Botany program at Springfield College had given a particularly hard final exam to the freshman taking, “Introduction to Botany,” for the spring tri-semester. I was a graduate teaching fellow in the Biology department at the time making $2,000 a year and receiving free tuition toward my Masters Degree in Outdoor Education. Dr. Brainerd liked to give lectures using 35mm slides from the thousands he had stored in his office and at his home. If a student missed a Botany lecture, then it would have been extremely difficult to recognize the same slide during the final exam when Dr. Brainerd repeated some of his favorite slides and asked the standard question. “What does this slide represent?  Or he might ask, “The burrow holes in the sides of this clay river wall were caused by what animal?  As I checked off the right and wrong answers on each answer sheet my mind began to wander off to my big summer adventure. Dr. Charles Weckwerth, my advisor and Department Chairperson for Recreation had arranged for me to do my Masters Field work in Los Angeles board of education School camps in Clear Creek camp, high in the Los Angeles mountains, and the Point Fermin Lighthouse Camp on the palisades of the Pacific ocean in San Pedro, California. Fortunately for me, Dr. Weckwerth had a personal friend who just happened to be the Superintendent of the Los Angeles Board of Education.  As a favor for me, Dr. Weckwerth called his friend in Los Angeles and asked if he could do him a favor by allowing me to serve my master’s field experience at Clear Creek School Camp, and Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp. The deal was made, and I was to report to Clear Creek on June 12, 1967, Monday. It was only 3500 miles away from Springfield, Mass.   

In anticipation of having to drive to California with my wife Jeri and my two-year-old son Dean Michael I decided to trade in my Chevy Corvair that was not running at the time anyway. Jeri and I had looked at a brand-new Volkswagen Camper in the dealer on Worthington Street in downtown Springfield. The dealer offered me a few thousand for my used Chevy Corvair sight unseen if I put down $500 deposit to purchase the brand new 1967 VW Camper. The camper was white and had stick shift. The inside of the camper had a bunk for sleeping two adults, a ice box refrigerator, a small sink with a small water tank and cabinets all around the top and bottom of the camper. For my son, a canvas hammock stretched over the front two seats. Curtains could be pulled across the inside of the front windshield. The side windows had curtains also with louver opening windows with screens to keep out the bugs. The camper was expected to get 30-35 miles to a gallon that cost $.28 a gallon. We were picking up the camper this Saturday June 3rd and I was already getting excited to have my first new car. Being a graduate student at Springfield College gave me potential credit that was good enough for the Volkswagen dealer. I had already signed for a full-time position as a Physical Education teacher in the East Ramapo School District in Spring Valley, New York (exit 14 on the New York State thruway). With the guarantee of a full-time job and the reputation of Springfield College in the community my credit was good.

I finished grading all the final exams that afternoon and turned them into the Botany office secretary for Dr. Brainerd to review and got on my 50cc Yamaha motorcycle and headed home. I live in a four-story walkup apartment on Worthington Street in downtown Springfield Mass. It was cheap at $135 dollars a month with a balcony and large bedrooms, living room, Kitchen and bathroom. My two-year old son Dean Michael had his own bedroom that was 15 feet long by 12 feet wide. His room was filled with toys and a child’s crib bed. The kitchen was very room and had a table to eat in the kitchen. The pantry was walk in size with plenty of room for storage. Walking up the four floors of steps was very tiring,  but I was in the best physical shape of my life at the time at the ripe old age of 23 turning 24 the end of the month. Jeri was cooking spaghetti and meatballs one of our family favorites. I collapsed on the couch in the living room and looked at the brochure showing pictures of the VW camper. I could not wait until Saturday.

I yelled to my wife from the living room that I had to go into work tomorrow on Friday to pick up my final paycheck for my graduate teaching fellow position and have Dr. Brainerd sign off on my graduate teaching fellow duties. My office was cleaned out already and I had packed up my files and put them in storage until I had time to have them sent to Spring Valley New York next fall. We watched television that evening and packed clothes into boxes for the trip to California. I made sure we had trip insurance with the Automobile Association of American and a trip-tek book and a map of the southern route to Los Angeles from Springfield Mass.

Friday came quickly and I met with Dr. Brainerd that day and he signed off on my final exam grades and my lab grades for the four sections I was assigned. I told him I would be leaving for Los Angeles the following Monday since I had to be in California at Clear Creek camp on June 12th. He wished me well and told me some of the stories he often repeated of his trips around the USA. My greenhouse duties were all completed, and the greenhouse was clean enough to pass his rigorous standards. Dr. Brainerd thanked me for the work I had done in the Biology and Botany departments in the last two years and shook my hand and wished me well. I felt a twinge of sadness when I left the underground labs in the Alumni Hall dormitory that day.

I headed for the administration building after meeting with Dr. Brainerd to pick up my final teaching fellow paycheck.  After getting the check I would take it to our bank in downtown Springfield and deposit it so that we would be able to withdraw a large amount on Monday when we were planning to leave.  I sold the trusty 1966 50cc Yamaha motorcycle to another Springfield College student and he would be coming by on Sunday to pay $400 for the motorcycle.

When I got back to my apartment on Worthington Street, I parked my motorcycle next to my Chevy Corvair and got in it and tried to start it. The motor turned over and then died. I tried several times and succeeded in flooding the engine. I guess getting the car to the VW dealer was going to be a problem tomorrow when I was supposed to pick up the VW camper and trade in the Corvair. Luckily, the VW dealer was at the bottom of Worthington Street and if I rolled the car down the hill in neutral, I could probably make it to the dealer’s parking lot.  I hope to hell he doesn’t demand to check out the car at the last minute. He told me he was selling the car to a wholesaler as soon as I trade it in, so the chances of him caring what condition the engine was in might not matter?

The next morning, I had an appointment at 11:00 in the morning to pick up the VW Camper, and trade in the Corvair, and sign all the final papers. I was nervous, because I wasn’t sure if I could get the car to roll safely down Worthington Street to the dealer at the bottom of the hill. I got in the car and tried to start it, but it was still not turning over. I put on the emergency blinkers and released the hand brake and slowly the car began to move down the hill to the dealer’s parking lot at the bottom. I made it halfway up the driveway to the parking lot and had to leave the Corvair there where it came to a stop.  I walked inside the dealer’s office and there he was standing next to the VW Camper in the giant showroom. It was a tan color and it looked great under the showroom lights. Wow, I remarked it looks better than I had imagined. The dealer had just gotten the VW Camper from another dealer in Connecticut a few days before and had the mechanics change the oil and set the car up, ready to go. I signed the final loan papers and pointed to the Corvair sitting in the driveway of the parking lot. The dealer didn’t even look out the showroom windows at the Corvair. He handed me the keys to the VW Camper and wished me good luck. A mechanic slid the glass showroom doors apart and before I knew it I was driving the camper out of the showroom and up Worthington Street to my apartment at the top of the hill.  When I got home, I ran up the stairs to get my wife Jeri and son Dean to give them a ride in our new family car or camper.

Shifting with a floor shifter takes some getting used to but I managed to adjust to clutching and easing on the gas pedal. Jeri sat in the other front seat and Dean sat on the couch in the back of the camper. We were all excited as I drove the camper out of Springfield toward Wilbraham out in the country. The engine was noisy but pulled up the hills easily. We drove around for a few hours, and then headed home for Dean’s afternoon nap. Two-year-olds must have their rest.

The weekend went by fast and on Monday morning we were at the bank at 9:00 withdrawing enough money to get through the summer in California. I had saved money all year for this trip across the country and the stay in Los Angeles for the summer. As soon as we left the bank we gassed up the VW camper and we were off on our big journey.

I took route 91 down to Hartford and then route 95 south to New York City. We made it to New York City and the George Washington Bridge in just three hours which is amazing because the VW camper does not travel that fast. Before we knew it we were on the New Jersey turnpike headed for Delaware. We stopped for lunch and to get gas at one of the rest stops on the turnpike. By late afternoon we were crossing Delaware entering Maryland. We stopped again for dinner and more gas and continues onto Washington, D.C.. We went around D.C. to avoid the traffic and entered Virginia. Our destination was Wheeling West Virginia. We took the turn suggested on the map and headed across Virginia to West Virginia. It was dark now and getting late. We got to Wheeling, West Virginia around midnight and got lost in the many hills that dotted the geography. Feeling to tired to continue we pulled over on the side of the road and went to sleep. About 4:00 am that morning there was a tapping sound on the side of the camper. I woke up and looked out the window to see a State Trooper standing there. It was still dark and he had a flashlight shining on the camper. I got up and went out to talk to the State Trooper. He informed me that I was right in the middle of an off-ramp on the highway and had to move the camper immediately. I complied and got in the camp and drove for the horizon. Eventually we reached the wooden bridge in Wheeling that crosses the Ohio river. It seemed like the bridge would fall into the river at any moment. I drove very slow over the wooden planks of the ancient bridge, holding my breath the entire way.

Finally, we made it into Ohio and stopped for breakfast sometime in the morning. Dean was keeping busy looking at the cows in the fields as we drove by. It was as if he had never seen so many cattle before. I was exhausted having driven since 4:00 am that day. We were headed toward Columbus, Ohio where we would connect with route 70 which would eventually take us south to connect with route 66. Once we got off the interstate highway in Ohio and headed south on route 71 south, the trip slowed down due to single lane roads with speed traps everywhere. We stopped at some burger places and ate a burger for breakfast. Bathroom stops were far and few between, so it was good to stop occasionally. That night we stayed at a State roadside rest area which was full of RVs and campers. We left the next morning headed for Cincinnati, Ohio. The sun glare on the flat dash of the Camper was so bad we had to stop at a Convenience store and buy some dark cloth to tape to the inside of the windshield to absorb the bright reflection off the white dash. Not having air-conditioning in the camper made it difficult when it got hot. We had all the windows open in the camper to cool it off when driving.  Several hours later we went by Cincinnati and headed for Memphis, Tenn. on route 71 south. We stopped at another rest stop that evening and cooked our first dinner of hotdogs over a portable charcoal grill we brought with us. Dean was thrilled to be cooking outdoors and sitting at a picnic bench in the middle of nowhere.

The next morning, we reached Memphis, Tenn. and continued around it to Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.  It was getting very windy on the open flat plains of Oklahoma, so we stopped to get a soda and some soft ice cream. I got out of the camper and when to order three sodas for us and three soft ice cream cones. It was so windy that the wind blew the soda out of the cups, and I had to go back and ask for a refill. Wow I thought to myself, it was windy here in Oklahoma. Next, I got the soft ice cream cones, and half the ice cream blew off before I could get back to the camper. I turned on the radio to the local AM stations to hear that a tornado had just hit the area where we were 20 minutes before we got there. No wonder it was so windy? Trucks and RVs were laying on their sides as we drove down the road. It was a scary looking aftermath of a tornado. I drove as fast as I could to put the tornados behind us. We drove late into the night headed for Amarillo, Texas. We stopped and rested for the night and left early the following morning after eating some dry cheerio oats cereal. We were out of milk at the time. We stopped at the next gas station to get more ice for the ice box and a quart of milk for cereal. We were supposed to stop in a Canyon Park for campers somewhere near Amarillo. As we approached the turnoff for the campgrounds, I noticed we were on empty with the gas gauge. Feeling very nervous we drove down into the canyon with no gasoline feeling we would stall at any minute. Fortunately, we got to the bottom and found a campsite for the night. The next morning, I told Jeri to pray that we make it back up to the rim of the canyon and find a gas station somewhere. We creeped up the steep canyon road in second gear until we reached the top and headed west. Twenty miles down the road we pulled into a gas station and filled up the tank. Apparently, there was some reserve gas that didn’t show on the gas gauge that the VW camper had. We stopped at a Texas breakfast place where I had hash browns, steak , and eggs for the first time in my life. I had never had hash browns before or steak with my eggs, so it was a big treat for me.

We traveled on toward Albuquerque, New Mexico slowly traveling down the single lane route 66. It was impossible to pass the big 18-wheeler trucks because the camper did not have the horsepower to pass them. We drove behind some trucks for hundreds of miles sometimes until they finally pulled off for gas. By the fourth day we had reached Flagstaff, Arizona where I had a gas station change the oil on the air-cooled VW engine. After that one-hour break, we headed for Grand Canyon on rt. 180 north. We arrived several hours later at the south rim of the Grand Canyon and took many pictures. Being that it was getting late we drove down to south to the desert view stone tower where there was a camping area. We camped out there for the night at this beautiful site where we could see the painted desert in the distance.  Early the next morning we were awakened by the sound of dirt bikes starting up. I looked out the door of the camper to see many people on dirt bikes (motorcycles) headed out into the desert. Off they went in a cloud of dust not to return until later that morning. We rested and took pictures and planned our return to Flagstaff and then onto Kingman, Arizona.

We arrived at Kingman late that afternoon and headed north toward Las Vegas where we would pick up rt. 15 to cross over the mountains into California.  We had to stop at a rest stop in the Mohave desert that night. It was freezing cold that night but when the sun came up the temperature jumped into the 90’s quickly. We arrived at Las Vegas later that day where I had my first burrito. The lady asked me whether I wanted red or green sauce and since I was not familiar with Mexican sauces, I choose the green chili sauce. I took one bike, and it was so hot I had to spit it out in the parking lot. So much for my first real Mexican food.  I guess I had much to learn.

By the seventh day of our journey, we were crawling up route 15 over the mountains heading toward Los Angeles. Everyone passed us climbing up the mountains. VW campers had no hill climbing ability whatsoever. When we finally reached the top of the interstate road, we flew down the other side at 70 miles an hour.  Los Angeles county was in the distance, and we were finally nearing our goal. I must make some turns to get to the road into the Los Angeles mountains where at 5500 feet above sea level the Clear Creek School camp was situated. The Los Angeles Board of Education sponsored this year-round School camp for their students in grades 4-8. They also had a marine theme School called the Point Fermin Lighthouse camp in San Pedro, California right on the palisades of the Pacific Ocean. After climbing back into the mountains for another hour or so we saw the sign for the LA Clear Creek School Camp. We turned off at that point and drove up a dusty dirt and asphalt road to the cabins high on a hill in the mountains. Finally, we had arrived.

Chapter two- Clear Creek School Camp, Los Angeles mountains 5,000 feet above sea leve.

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(The approach road to Clear Creek)        (The Hawks cages at Clear Creek)

The approach road to Clear Creek School Camp in the Los Angeles Mountains at 5500 feet above sea level.

As we approached the Clear Creek School Camp the director came out to meet us and welcomed us. He showed us a log cabin that we would be staying in for the next two weeks. My first impression as well as my wife’s was, “God it is hot here.”  For the most part there were some trees to provide shade, however the majority of the campgrounds was exposed to the elements and the sun. Nearby on another mountaintop a beekeeper was raising bees that flew over to the camp area and alloyed the Hawks that were in cages. 

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In the picture above my wife Jeri and son Dean, n the background are seeking shelter from the broiling sun in the cabin. A view of the mess hall from the back of the building is in the next photo.

After we had unpacked and settled in we joined the Director and the staff in the mess hall where they were serving dinner. The Director and I talked about the philosophy of School Camps and about my major in Outdoor Education at Springfield College. My advisor, Dr. Charles Dr. Charles Weckwerth was well known nationally in the field of Recreation because he was the President of the National Recreation Association that accredits day and resident camps around the U.S.A. We talked about the Curriculum that was to integrate different academic subjects together. Combining Science and history together or Math and Outdoor survival skills. At night since the sky was so clear the camp offered Astronomy for lots of School groups. The overall theme at the camp was Ecology of natural resources. Unlike the Point Fermin Lighthouse School camp, Clear Creek had established permanent buildings and operated year-round. The Point Fermin Lighthouse Camp was only open in the summer for 8 weeks. Clear Creek also kept Hawks in captivity and many other local animals in cages for the campers to see. Point Fermin had no animals in cages at all. Clear Creek in addition to the camper log cabins had staff cabins, a mess hall, a classroom building and an outdoor pool.

The second day at Clear Creek the Director invited me to take a hike in the canyon with him and a camper group. He told me to wear high boots and pants because of the threat of rattlesnakes along the trail. I thought to myself, “rattle snakes,” I guess I will not be bringing my son or wife along the hike. We met after breakfast the following morning, and the Director and two staff members explained the rules for hiking into the canyon and the danger of rattle snakes. Campers were forbidden to bother the rattlesnakes or provoke them in any manner. If they saw a rattler, they were to yell SNAKE loud enough for everyone to hear. Then remain in place until a staff member did something about the snake. The side of the trail was surrounded by chaparral that is a woody bush that grew as high as four to six feet and was extremely dry in the summer months that caused a fire hazard.  The director explained to the camper group that it only took a small spark or a streak of lightening to ignite a forest fire in a matter of minutes. We were five minutes down the trail when the first rattlesnake was spotted. SNAKE someone yelled and a staff member with a hiking stick that had a curled wire on one end came back to inspect the snake. He felt the snake was out of range and the entire group of campers slowly gave the snake a wide birth and continued down into the canyon where the stream ran through the mountains. We spotted twelve more rattlesnakes that day and I was a nervous wreck. Four of the snakes had to be removed from the hiking trail by a staff member using a snake stick which had a loop on one end that could ensnare the snake around the head and lift it and drop it some where away from the camper group. The chaparral was sharp and could cut you easily you so long sleeves were a form of protection.

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(Reforestation of trees on the slopes)                (Stone amphitheater at Clear Creek Camp)

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(Stream coming down the mountain)  (The outdoor Pool at Clear Creek)

The stream running down the mountain in the canyon. The photo on the fight is actually a white glare of a wide-open outdoor pool area. Over the past 40 years when this photo was taken the silver nitrate in the photo has faded making the picture look greenish. 

While in the canyon the director and one of his interpretative staff members explain the ecology of the mountains and the importance of preventing erosion and fires. The stream ran down some steep rocks and often froze in the cold winter months of January and February. She shade from the trees was a welcome break. When we finished with the hike, we started back up the hill to the camp and of course spotted several more rattle snakes.

When I got back to my cabin, I informed my wife that are was infested with rattle snakes and to be careful about her and Dean. Wearing high ankle boots was a safety measure that we would have to abide by. Fortunately, we had brought high ankle hiking boots for all of us. I instructed Jeri and Dean to wear only high ankle boots at the camp because there were a lot of rattle snakes.

In the afternoon we went to look at the Hawks that were kept in cages on the campgrounds. Most of the Hawks had been injured at one time or another and were recovering or had been raised from chicks in abandoned nests. When it got real hot the staff would hose the Hawks down to cool them down from the high 90’s heat.  I noticed that several Eagles were soaring overhead looking for prey. 

At dinner that night staff members introduced some songs after eating and short skits about nature.  It was standard procedure to have a pre-hike session in a classroom to introduce the campers as what they should be looking for in terms of plants and animals. The classroom building was another well-constructed log cabin building that could hold fifty campers at a time. Most groups were ten or so at a time. 

When the groups were not doing Astronomy there were campfire activities, singing, skits and lots of fun for the staff and campers. By 10:00 pm each night was lights out time. There was no television at the camp or radios except an emergency weather and fire radio the Director kept in his cabin. Basically, the camp was as primitive and free from modern conveniences as possible. Oil lanterns were used at night and flashlights to navigate the paths from building to building. The campers were warned not to bring any food to camp or leave any papers or food outside their building because many animals came through the camp at night in search of food. Skunks, raccoons, possums, porcupines, wildcats, and sometimes bears had been known to tear apart garbage cans that were locked up in woodsheds. 

After a week of the excessive heat and the fear of rattle snakes my wife had enough of our stay at Clear Creek and wanted to leave early. She was afraid Dean would be bitten by a snake and die.

I tried to calm her fears but spoke to the Director the second week asking him if we could leave early because my wife was very uncomfortable at the altitude, heat, and fear of snakes. He agreed since I had to report to Point Fermin Lighthouse camp the next weekend on Sunday anyway. We agreed to let me leave early on Thursday and I would take my wife and son and visit my aunt 

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(Clear Creek Weather facility sign)                 (Weather Station at Clear Creek)

Penny who lived in Apple Valley, California.

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(Camp Hi-Hill belonging to the Long Beach      (Camp Hi-Hill Modern Mess Hall)

School District outdoor education association)

On Monday of the second week, I was invited to travel to Hi-Camp School Camp for the Long Beach School District outdoor education program.  The Director of Clear Creek had a staff member drive us over to the Long Beach camp after breakfast. I took Jeri and Dean with me to keep them busy. The buildings at Hi-Camp were more modern than Clear Creek and the whole campsite was newer with a good size mess hall and many modern cabins for the staff and campers. We had lunch at the mess hall of Camp Hi-Hill, and I had an opportunity to talk with the Director. He was very impressed that I was completing a Master’s Degree in Outdoor Education and that I and my family drove from Springfield, Mass.  To do my field work at the LA Board of Education School Camps. He was so impressed that he offered me a job after I finished my summer field experience. I was very excited about the offer, but I had already signed a contract with the East Ramapo Central School district in Spring Valley to work full-time at Kakiat Junior High School as a Physical Education Teacher and Health Education Teacher. I had a dual degree in both areas when I received my Bachelor of Science degree from Springfield College. The Director at Camp Hi-Hill was most impressed with the fact that I was an Eagle scout when I was in the Boy Scouts of America. I told him about the many interesting camping experiences I had in the Boy Scouts in Winter and Summer camping. I spent one summer when I was 16 at a Boy Scout Camp called Onterora in the Catskills mountains of New York as a Nature and Survival Counselor. I had to take Boy Scout troops for a three-day survival trip on weekends at the camp where all we had to survive was a knife and a survival kit.

After lunch we returned to Clear Creek camp, and I told my wife about the offer for a full-time position as Director of the Hi-hill camp for the Long Beach school district in the fall. My wife’s response was that I could take the job if I wanted it but she would be returning with my son Dean to her home in Freeport, New York without me. She would then send me the divorce papers from New York. I got the message which was a definitive NO. I was disappointed but realized that she did not sign on to live in the mountains of the Los Angeles mountains with me when she married me. I dropped the issue after that discussion.

The Clear Creek Director asked me how I liked the Hi-Camp School Camp and I told him I was most impressed with their modern buildings and shady environment. I told me that Clear Creek had been around a lot longer than Hi-Camp and that the Long Beach school district floated a bond issue to build the camp from scratch just a few years ago. I figured that the Hi-Camp was newer because all the buildings and facilities were much more modern and larger than Clear Creek Camp. I did not tell the Clear Creek Director that I was offered a director’s position at Hi-Camp in the fall. I figured it was a personal matter and would do no good to mention it since I was a dead issue as far as my wife Jeri was concerned.

We departed the Thursday of the second week to stay at my Aunt Penny’s ranch in Apple Valley for a few days and then continue onto Point Fermin Lighthouse camp on that weekend on Sunday when I was supposed to arrive and meet with the Camp Director of the Point Fermin School Camp.

The stay at my Aunt Penny’s was great. We had an opportunity to ride horses and visit Roy Rogers Museum down the road and personally meet Roy Rogers and Dale Evans at an Episcopalian church service in which my aunt and uncle were parishioners. Roy was a lot shorter in person than I had imagined but he was a real gentlemen and leader of the church parish in Apple Valley. Sunday morning came faster than we had imagined and after checking the map and getting directions from my Aunt Penny and Uncle Johnny, we departed for Point Fermin School camp in San Pedro, California. San Pedro was down on the ocean next to Long Beach Harbor. In fact we took the Long Beach harbor freeway down from Los Angeles to get to San Pedro. It took us several hours and we stopped for lunch at a Taco shop to sample some real Mexican food. Eating Tacos and burritos was a real treat for us Easterners.

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(Rocky trail down into the canyon)        (Our cabin at Clear Creek Camp)

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(Field trip by campers into the canyon         (My son Dean entering the cabin)

where the stream was located)

Chapter THREE- Arrival at Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp in San Pedro, California

After leaving my Aunt Penny’s ranch in Apple Valley we headed to San Pedro, California to meet the Camp director of the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp. After several hours driving we finally arrived at San Pedro. I checked the map and it appeared that the Lighthouse Park was a public park on the palisades of the Pacific Ocean.  Finally, we arrived at the park and drove in looking for the camp buildings. All I noticed were picnic benches and a playground in a nicely shaded park where you could see Catalina out in the ocean. As we drove around the park, I noticed a maintenance man cutting grass and I stopped and asked him where the School Camp was. He pointed to an area near the base of the Victorian style Lighthouse on the edge of the ocean. As we drove into the driveway, I noticed there were three garages and a mobile trailer. I still did not see any classrooms or permanent building like they had in Clear Creek. After I parked the Camper and got out, I noticed a man getting out of the mobile home parked in the circular driveway. I introduce myself and realize I was talking to the Director of the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp. The director was Chris Lambu, and he was living in the mobile home with his wife Jenny. He welcomed me to the camp and gave me a tour of the facilities. He explained that the Point Fermin Lighthouse Camp was much different than the Clear Creek camp because the land did not belong to the LA Board of Education. It was leased from the California State Parks Association and everything on the public parks grounds was temporary and set up only for the summer and then removed after the summer season. The only thing permanent was the three garages that became storage areas for the army tents when the season was over. Needless to say, I was very disappointed in the appearance and lack of permanent facilities. I tried to hide my displeasure with the lack of permanent structures. Chris the Camp director sensed my displeasure. “I guess you are in shock after visiting Clear Creek,” he said. “Yes, quite a bit,” I responded.  “Well this camp is all about location, location, location, “he said. It was the only way the LA Board of Education could get a Marine Camp concept on the ocean. The partnership with the US Coast Guard and the California State Department of Parks made this camp all possible.  Chris showed me what was in the three garages. The first garage was the camp store. The second garage was a classroom setup and the staff lounge. The third garage was a storage area for equipment, supplies, etc. Behind the garages were a dozen or so large green Army tents that had 10 metal cots with mattresses in each tent. He showed me to one smaller tent was to be my home for the next eight weeks. I could tell from the look on my wife’s face that she was not happy, but she said nothing as we toured the camp. Chris explained that each week a different area of Los Angeles County would come to the camp, 80 campers in all with 10 to a tent. The uniqueness of this camp he explained was the dedication to marine life and the ecology of marine life. We walked over to the edge of the fence with warning signs that the public was prohibited from going beyond the fence and down the sandy trails to the ocean below.  Chris told me that only the camp staff with campers were permitted to use the eroded trails and that they had special permission from the Coast Guard and the State of California to use the trails. Special care had to be exercised using the trails because it was washed out in many sections and the campers had to be careful not to fall or damage the trails. “We do tide pooling twice a week,” Chris said. “It is one of our favorite camp activities,” he explained. Pointing over to a small restaurant in the middle of the park he explained that the local school that provided us with heater-stacks of food did not provide coffee because the menu is designed for children and not adults. If we wanted coffee in the morning we would have to go to the restaurant and buy our own cup of coffee before the campers got up at 8:00 in the morning. I was shocked that there was no coffee. They did not even have a coffee machine in the camp store or staff lounge. Chris pointed out that there were no showers in the camp except for the staff at the back of the restaurant in an outdoor enclosure. Women had Tuesdays and Thursdays to use the shower and Men had Wednesday and Fridays. The campers had to shower at the local public beach when on beach trips. The only place the campers could eat was on the public benches right in the middle of the park. I asked what happened if it rained? Chris told me it never rains in LA. I doubted that statement, but after eight weeks at the camp I learned he was right, “it never rains in LA in the summer.”  It did, however, have fog in the morning or a marine layer as it was called. The campers came in each Monday morning sometime between 9:00 and 11:00 depending on how far away their school district was located from the park. The staffs were called Skippers or Mates would unload the luggage that came in trucks in advance of the busses by 30 minutes. When the campers arrived the Camp Director would assign each Skipper to a group of campers for the entire week. There would be four female Skippers and four male Skippers, all college students from local colleges. Chris and I were the only Directors or administration of the camp. There was no camp Nurse or Doctor or custodian on the staff. Chris also mentioned that for the entire summer the Skippers and Directors were to assume a marine style name that fit the theme of the camp. He told me he had chosen the name Captain Flogg and his wife Jen would be called Mrs. Flogg to the campers and staff. I thought about it and decided I would choose a name like Sharkie. I would be Captain Sharkie for the entire summer and Jeri; my wife would be Mrs. Sharkie. Dean would be the camp mascot as it turned out and he used just his name, Dean. The skippers would be reporting to camp around 6:00 pm that evening for an orientation session and to receive their camper group assignments and learn the rules and policies of the camp. The schedule for the week was flexible as follows:

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That night when Jeri, Dean and I were eating at Jack in the box nearby we talked about the camp and it’s lack of permanent facilities. I explained that this was my master’s degree fieldwork worth ten credits toward my degree and mandated by the master’s degree Program. I explained we would have to make it work no matter how primitive the camp appeared to be.

The camp director explained that I had some very specific duties to do each week because he was responsible for the weekly staff evaluations and all the camp paperwork. I was to take all the groups to the beach-on-beach days. I was to also learn the harbor tour talk and give that talk once a week when the camp went on the harbor tour on Wednesdays. I would also assist in evaluating the Skippers and fill the Camp Director in on situations where he was not present. The effort as he explained was a team effort and everyone pitched in on feeding the campers at meals, unloading, and loading suitcases, and supervising campers on field trips in and out of camp.

The lack of privacy was difficult to get use to at the camp. The only thing that separated the camp from the public was a ten-foot-high hedge that hid the tents from view of the public in the park. During the week we had reserved signs on the ten tables we needed to feed the campers and staff. On the weekends the signs were removed, and the park filled up with adults and children. On the weekends the camp closed however, Chris or Capt. Flogg, and I were responsible to watch out for anyone from the park going through the tents or trying to access one of the garages. As it turned out I had to lock up my stuff in my camper on the weekends because there was no security in leaving stuff in our tent.

I had some concerns about the 300-foot-high cliffs and keeping my two-year old son Dean away from those cliffs. We did not take the campers down the steep cliffs fortunately. We used a sandy trail off to the side of the park where there were no rocky cliffs and only a sandy eroded dirt cliff to the tide pooling area.

6:00 that night the staff/Skippers began to arrive, and Capt. Flogg had everyone meet and sit down in the staff lounge where we could have an orientation meeting. He explained all the rules and policies that he told me and had each staff member select their marine theme name for the summer. The names selected were:

Rip

Windy

Jimmer

Splutz

Kip

Sandy

Ketch

Mrs. Flogg (Jen)

Captain Sharkie

Captain Flogg

Mrs. Sharkie (Jeri)

Each of the Skippers explained what college they were attending and what their major was at that school. They also explained why they choose to work at the Point Fermin Lighthouse camp for the summer. Most of the counselors were in Teacher education, Biology, Marine Biology and Communications. We did a survey of personal skills, and we had some surfers, guitar players, singers, painters, and storytellers on the staff.  After the formal orientation the Skippers set up their tents and bunks and came back to the staff lounge to chat and relax the rest of the evening. Captain Flogg posted the schedule for the entire week and the Camper group assignments. He pointed out the team effort concept with serving food to the Campers before eating themselves. Unloading the suitcases of the campers before they arrived and giving a general orientation of the rules and policies and tent assignments when the campers arrived. It looked like we had a really motivated and talented group of Skippers for that summer, and everything seemed positive. None of the Skippers had every been a Skipper before but a few had come to the camp when they were in elementary school many years before.

And so the sun went down over the pacific and the view of Catalina Island faded in the fog. We sat around the lounge telling stories and jokes. Dean amused himself with some of the toys that were lying around the staff lounge while we talked and laughed. Captain Flogg explained that he was a professor at UCLA and that Jenny was one of his graduate students whom he married the spring before the summer of 1967.  What a honeymoon at the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp.  Paychecks were discussed and Capt. Flogg explained that the checks would be delivered every other week. My paycheck situation he explained was not clear since I was doing fieldwork for my degree. I informed him that my advisor arranges for me to get the standard assistant Director paycheck because I assumed all the travel expenses driving across the country with my family in my own vehicle. The LA Board of Education was supposed to pay me on the same schedule as the Skippers. That however, as time went, by never happened.

Chapter 4- The First Week of Camp, July 1967.

The first Monday began bright and early at the Point Fermin Lighthouse camp. Everyone on the staff was nervous since this was the first time, they had a camp group arrive. The orientation yesterday on Sunday covered a lot of rules and policies and the counselors or Skippers as they would now be called had a lot to absorb and memorize. Captain Flogg was up early and his wife Jen, Mrs. Flogg camp out of their mobile home and headed directly to the coffee shack in the middle of the park.  Jeri, Dean, and I joined them since there would be no breakfast delivered on the first Monday of each week. I sat down and ordered some coffee and a donut for Jeri and I, and a bowl of milk and shredded wheat for Dean. We talked about the first day and how we were going to organize it. Capt. Flogg had made up a schedule of Skipper assignments for each of our counselors to one of the eight groups of ten campers arriving this morning. The schools had already tagged the campers with a number to indicate what tent they will be assigned to and what Skipper they will report to when they arrive. The first thing we had to do this morning was unloading the trunks and suitcases that will arrive an hour earlier than the campers around 9:00 am that morning. This would give us time to arrange the suitcases according to the predetermined number code of 1-8. By the time the campers arrived in busses we would be able to line them up by group number and show them where their luggage was located and introduce them to their assigned Skipper for the week. Capt. Flogg would introduce all the skippers and me first thing and then we would have each Skipper get their assigned group together with their luggage. The next thing would be the raising of the American flag by two Skippers appointed by Capt. Flogg. Skippers Kip and Windy would raise the flag this morning. Capt. Flogg gave me a checklist he prepared to make sure we cover all the rules and regulations before we sent the campers to their tents. He said we would share telling the rules to the campers so that they realize him, and I will be working together as directors of the camp. The coffee never tasted so good that morning. Dean and Jeri were anxious to see how the morning kicked off with the campers since they would be observers and nothing more. This was all new for Dean, like a big adventure. For Jeri it was just something new since she had never been to a camp as a child.

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(Captain Flogg assigning the Campers to the Skippers) ( Skippers unloading the suitcases)

9:00 are that morning the trucks with the luggage arrived on time and all the Skippers and myself began unloading the luggage. Once we got the luggage off the trucks they left and we sorted the baggage according to the number code. Numbers 1-4 were the first four girls’ groups and Numbers 5-8 were the boys groups.  Captain Flogg announced the Windy had group             1; Jimmer group 2; Sandy group 3 and Jen or Mrs. Flogg had group 4. For the boys, Kip had group 5; Splutz had group 6; Kip had group 7 and Ketch had group 8.

A few minutes after 10:00 the school busses rolled into camp. The morning fog or marine layer was beginning to burn off and the sun was starting to come out. The campers began pouring out of their busses excited to be at the seashore and at a camp dedicated to Marine shore ecology. This week’s group was from Lincoln School District in the Los Angeles Board of Education system. Camp Flogg had a portable bullhorn that he used to project his voice over the excited noise of the campers. “Welcome to the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp. My name is Captain Flogg, and I am the camp director here at the camp. To my right is the Assistant Camp director, Captain Sharkie. Shortly, I will call out your pre-assigned group number and the Skipper or counselor you will be assigned to for the entire week. All the counselors are called Skippers at the camp and all of them have a seaworthy nickname they will use the entire summer. Let me introduce Skipper Rip from UCLA, Skipper Windy from USC, Skipper Jimmer from Long Beach City College, Skipper Splatz from Long Beach City College, Skipper Kip for Los Angeles College of Technology, Skipper Sandy from California State at Northridge, Skipper Ketch from USC and finally Skipper Jen or Mrs. Flogg from UCLA.

Now when I call your number you will line up behind the Skipper that has a cardboard number that they are holding. After you find your assigned group, we will raise the American flag. Following that each Skipper will take their group to get their baggage and trunks and carry their trunks to their assigned tent. While at the assigned tent your Skipper will go over the schedule for the day and week and review some of the camp rules and policies.

So, the roll call went smoothly, and campers lined up behind their Skipper.  Let’s all sit down for a few minutes while Capt. Sharkie and I review the camp rules and policies you must while attending this camp.  First and foremost, no one should have any money or candy on them. We have a credit system already set up at the Camp store for you to buy candy, popcorn or treats. As for food, please do not store or take any food to your tent because it will attract animals at night such as possums and mice. Secondly, all boys are to remain in their tent area and not to visit any of the girls’ tents. If you violate this rule or any other rules you may be sent home to your parents. The Coffee shop in the middle of the park is off-limits to any Campers. We are on the edge of a 300-foot cliff above the ocean that could be very dangerous. Do not go over the fence near the cliff at any time. When we go tide pooling, we will guide you down the sandy trail on the side of the park away from the steep cliffs. The public is not allowed to use these trails; however, we have special permission to use the trails to go tide pooling. When you are tide pooling you may see and touch the animals and shells but no shells, starfish, crab or any animal is to be brought back to camp. Rotting starfish, live shells or any animals can stink up an entire tent and make it unbearable for anyone in the tent to sleep at night. Also ants are attracted to these shells or animals and will come by the thousands to eat the specimen you brought up from the sea. We go to Cabrillo beach in the afternoon when the sun comes out and you must wear your Point Fermin t-shirt and Hat and your Skipper will put zinc oxide on your nose to prevent you from burning and to make it easy for us to identify you at the crowded public beach. Out food is delivered right here to the park beginning today at noon for lunch and ending on Friday at noon lunch. The Skippers will serve every camper and each group 1-8 will sit together with their Skipper and fellow campers or Mates as we call them. After the meals each group will clean up its table and surrounding area and throw the trash in the garbage cans provided. We are using a public park by permission and must leave the park nice and clean after our meals just the way we found it.

Regarding cuts or scratches or any illnesses at Point Fermin Lighthouse camp. We do not have a Nurse on duty. Skippers will take care of cuts and scratches and upset stomachs. If you are really sick we will call an ambulance and have you taken to the emergency room of a nearby hospital. Do not hide your illnesses or injuries and report them immediately to your Skipper so that they can provide the proper care.

The Camp Store is open on Monday, Wed., and Thursday nights after dinner from 6:00-8:00 pm. No money is used, only credit accounts. Every camper has five dollars in their account and can buy whatever they want with the five dollars all week. Any balances left over after your departure on Friday will be erased and returned to the general fund. No refunds in real money will be allowed at any time.

Now I am going to dismiss each group that will go with their Skipper to get their luggage and take the luggage to their assigned tent for the week. So each of the Skippers and their groups were called out and went and got their luggage and carried their bags to their tents. In the tents were ten army metal frame beds and cots. With each bed came a pillow and pillowcase and one sheet to cover the cots. Each camper was to store their luggage under their bed or at the foot of the bed. Skippers reminded each Mate that they must keep their luggage or trunks always locked.  Skippers asked if everyone understood the rules and if they had any questions. 

The Skippers then walked the Mates around the park for a tour. They were shown the Camp Store which was garage number one and the classroom which was garage number two which also doubled as a staff lounge at night or when it was not being used by Mates. The Lighthouse was manned by the US Coast Guard and was off-limits. The Mates were then shown the fence along the sea wall and warned not to go over the fence at any time. As they walked south along the sea wall fence the groups came to a large sign Warning, No Public us of Trails permitted. Here is where the camp would access the tide pooling ledges along the ocean edge at low tides. No public people were allowed down the trails because they were eroded, sandy and dangerous enough for someone to trip and fall. Cabrillo beach was a mile away from the entrance to the beach and the water taxi was two miles away at the San Pedro docks. School busses would come to the park and pick up all the mates and take them to the Harbor tour that was on Wednesdays and on beach days.

All the tours were completed by 12:00 and the heater-stack truck arrived at the park for the Skippers to unload and setup for lunch. Once the food and drinks were set up the Skippers served the mates the lunch meal and drink. Once they had their meals they went and sat down at their group table. Sometimes one of the Skippers would lead the camp in a song or story while they were waiting to be fed. After all the mates were fed the Skippers were allowed to get their lunches and sit down with their assigned groups. After lunch each group policed the area or cleaned up their tables. In the afternoon from 1:00 to 4:00 there would be a pre-tide pool discussion in the classroom garage for each assigned group. Skipper Jen would lead the pre-tide pool discussion regarding the ecology of marine life and what to look for when tide pooling. The camp had a shell identification board that was helpful in identifying different shells. Mates were reminded not to pick up or bring back any live or dead shells, starfish, crabs, or animals to their tents.  While some of the groups were in the pre-tide pool classes other groups were introduced to camp songs that would be sung at night at the campfires. Almost all of the Skippers could play a guitar or sing well enough to lead a group. Some Skippers like Splutz had special story songs to teach that all the mates got to act out as they all went Walrus hunting. Skipper Windy had her own guitar and a whole list of camp songs she could play. Every Skipper had their own set of skills, stories and songs that made every campfire at night a fun event.

5:00 rolled around quickly and the entire camp assembled to take the flag down. Soon after that the heater-stacks truck pulled in and the Skippers unloaded the heater-stacks onto the picnic tables and set up the serving trays for the hot meal for dinner and the drinks. The header-stacks were pressurized under steam to keep the food warm from the Elementary school several miles away and when the food was delivered to the park. Milk containers and cool aide were always available for drinks.  The Skippers dished out the food to each mate as they went down the line with their paper plates.  After dinner Capt. Flogg announced the schedule for the evening that was a Campfire in the middle of the park at 8:30 when it got dark. Until then, the groups could go to the Camp store and buy something from their credit account. The Camp Store was open from 6:00 to 8:00 pm on Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday nights only.

On days when the camp was going to Cabrillo beach, box lunches were provided, and each Mate took his or her box lunch and drink to the beach when they got picked up on the school busses to go to the beach. It was my job to supervise the loading and unloading of the busses and to go and stay the entire afternoon with the groups at the beach.  Tuesday and Thursday were tide pooling days if we could match the low tide to our schedule. Every Wednesday was the Harbor cruise in which all 80 campers got to go on a water taxi for a two-hour tour of the Long Beach harbor.  Forty campers went on a trip at one time, and it was my job to do the speaker talk about parts of a boat, types of ships in the harbor, maritime terms, flags of foreign countries and special places around the harbor. At first, I had to work off a list Capt. Flogg gave me and after the second harbor tour the first week I was much more proficient at the two-hour harbor tour. After eight weeks of two tours every Wednesday I was an expert at the Harbor tour. We went over the bow and stern of the water taxi, the fore and aft terms, the head, the galley, starboard side and port side of the ship and many other terms. I showed the mates how to determine if a ship was full of cargo or oil or not by looking on how low they were in the water. We searched for US Coast guard cutters and boats and pointed out the Harbor Master’s house and his job in the Long Beach harbor. We talked about the international quarantine area for ships to remain at anchor until cleared by the Coast Guard and the difference between the Coast Guard and the Navy. Each week as I got better and better with the dialogue the two-hour tour got easier. The key to success was keeping the mates involved with answering questions and keeping alert for certain types of ships and vessels.

The harbor tours by Water Taxi  Every Wednesday

People on a boat

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(Here is the actual Captain of the Water Taxi)

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(I learned to do the Harbor cruise the first Wednesday of camp for two trips and every Wednesday after that for eight weeks. By the time the summer was over I had become an expert on Long Beach harbor. That is my two year old son Dean Mead sitting behind me.)

When the first group camp back from the Harbor tour the second 40 mates got aboard the water taxi for their tour. The group that just finished the tour went back to the camp where Capt. Flogg was waiting for them, and lunch would be served. The second group would eat their lunches before they departed for the San Pedro docks for their Harbor tour. The excitement of the harbor tours and the exposure to sun burn on the boats usually tired the mates out and they had some free time when returning to camp with their Skippers. Tuesday night was mates’ skit night and their skippers would teach them the skit to perform after or before the Harbor tour.

Dinner was at 5:00 again with the heater-stacks coming in on time and the Skippers unloading the stacks and serving the mates. The flag ceremony was just after dinner after which the mates returned to their tents to practice their skits one more time before they got to perform at the campfire that night. A special treat was to occur that night after the campfire. The camp was all taking school busses down to Cabrillo beach to witness the Grunion fish run. The Grunion fish come up on the beach by the thousands around 11:00 pm and the Mates get to see and touch the fish during this incredible event. Needless to say the following morning many Mates were so tired they found it difficult getting out of bed.

Sometimes if the schedule permitted, we ran half the camp down the trail for tide pooling at low tide while the other half were engaged in another activity or the Harbor tour. Everything depended on when low tide occurred, and we had to stay flexible to work around when low tide occurred to access the tide pool area. The weather was always a marine layer of fog until 10:00 or so and then out came the sun for a hot day. The beach trips were always scheduled for the afternoons after lunch or with a box lunch to take because it was always sunny and warmer at the beach at the afternoon.  When the campers got back from Cabrillo beach they relaxed for a while in their tents until flag time and then dinner.

Some nights some Astronomy was planned when it got dark before the nightly campfire. One or more of the Skippers who were acquainted with the stars and planets would do a presentation. Other Skippers learned from the first talks and eventually got to do their own introduction to the stars. We had a few charts and books in the classroom garage for them to study from in their free time. 

A group of people sitting around a fire

Description automatically generated with medium confidence(Camp Fire at Cabrillo beach. Notice the sailboats in the bay)

The Typical Weekly Schedule of the Point Fermin Lighthouse Camp 1967

MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridayWeekend survival
Arrival of Camper bussesStaff wakeup 7:00 am- coffee at coffee shack (public) Wakeup time 8:00 amWashup at faucet in campsite Staff wakeup7:00 am-shower optional behind coffee shack-female day- coffee at shack Wakeup time campers 8:00 am, washup at faucet in campsiteStaff wakeup-7:00 am- Men shower day-coffee in shack Wakeup time campers8:00 amWashupStaff wakeup=7:00 am No showers; coffee in shack Wakeup time campers 8:00 am; washup, Wakeup optional for Capt. Flogg and Capt. Sharkie, etc.
Mates unpack luggageBreakfast-9:00 am outdoors on picnic benches- Mates serve breakfastBreakfast9:00 amoutdoors on picnic benches. Mates serve foodBreakfast9:00 amOutdoors on picnic benches. Mates serve food.Breakfast9:00 am Outdoors on picnic benches in the park. Mates serve foodBreakfast not provided by camp on Sat. or Sun. Eat foods saved in refrig or buy breakfast out.
Boys orientation and Girls orientation separatelyPre-trip Orientation for Tide Pooling with Sandy or Skipper assigned that week10:00 Depart busses for Water Taxi tour of Long Beach harbor10:15 arrive docks for water taxi tour given by Capt. Sharkie10:00 amTidepooling or Beach day depending on low tide schedule. If low tide, then tidepooling10:00- Operation cleanup the tents, take out all mattress and stack in the sun, Pack all camp bags, Move camp bags to one central locationMonday Breakfast not provided by camp. Provide own breakfast or eat out before campers arrive at 10:00 am.
12:30 -Lunch-Heater stacks- Mates serve lunch to campers and then eat12:30-Lunch-Heater Stacks-Mates serve LunchReturn for Lunch 12:30Mates serve lunchReturn for Lunch 12:30.Mates serve lunch11:00- Mates load Truch with camp bags before lunch 
Assigned tents and Skippers to each groupTide Pooling if low tide in the afternoon. Alternate activity shell crafts1:30- Beach day at Cabrillo beach, swimming, all campers must wear camp t-shirts, camp hat and white zinc oxide on their nose for ID purposes1:30 Tidepooling or beach day depending on low tide.12:00- Lunch early- Final assembly..Good bye songs. Final inspection of all camper tents. Busses arrive 2:00 Campers depart 2:30-3:00 pmLunch not provided Sat. or Sun. Eat out Jack in the box or Taco Bell.Some milk in the refrigerator in camp.
Camper setup time4:00-5:00 Rest period4:00-5:00 return from beach day4:00-5:00 Follow-up Ecology talk for tide pooling. Identifying specimens.3:30 Skippers meeting, Evaluation of Skippers weekly evaluation by Capt. Flogg and Capt. Sharkie. 
5:00-Dinner-Heater Stacks- Mates serve dinner Monday night Camp Store open Monday Night Campfire- songs, guitar, skits, funny stories, marshmellow roast5:00-Dinner Heater Stacks-Mates serve dinnerCamp Store closed Tuesday night Table games, checkers, chess, cards Tuesday Night Campfire Late night Grunnion run (fish laying eggs on beach)5:00-Dinner-heater stacks. Mates serve dinner. 6:00-Camp outdoor movies 8:30-Darkness-Camp fire activities 10:00 pm-All campers lights out in their tents5:00 Dinner heater stacks. Mates serve dinner Camp Store Open 6:00-8:00 pm 8:30 Darkness Last Night Mates Night campfire, special events, awards, summary of week10:00 pm lights outReview problems and solutions and make corrections for the next camper group. 4:00 Skippers leave camp for home 5:00 No Heater stacks dinner 5:00 pm Camp Closed except for Capt. Flogg and Jen who live in Mobile trailer and Capt. Sharkie and Mrs. Sharkie and Dean MeadDinner not provided by Camp Sat. and Sun. Eat off campus.

Chapter 5- The Second Week of Camp

Monday morning

The second week things began to run more smoothly. The Skippers were getting used to the routine and knew what to expect. At 9:00 a.m. the trucks arrived with the suitcases and the Skippers eagerly began unloading the suitcases and organizing them by assigned groups 1-8. Everything was neat and ready for the campers from the Watts School District to arrive. At 10:05 the school busses arrived and the excited campers got off the buses and waited to see what was going to happen. Capt. Flogg got on the portable bull horn and had the entire group sit down while he explained the names of the Skippers and what number tent they would be supervising. When he finished the Skippers held up their numbers and the campers all headed toward their assigned tent number. 

Captain Flogg selected two campers/mates at random and two skippers to help raise the flag of the United States of America. Right after the salute to the flag each skipper took their group to get their suitcases and then took them to their tent. I remember commenting to Captain Flogg how well the first morning went and he agreed.

This time each Skipper explained the rules and policies to their own group in their tent after they set up their bunks with new sheets and pillows. This more personal approach allowed for questions and answers. By 12:00 the lunch heater-stack truck had arrived, and the Skippers marched their groups out of the tents to the picnic tables set aside for the camp in the middle of the park. The Skippers all pitched in and served the food to the mates and rejoined their groups after dishing out all the food. Cleanup followed lunch and the mates were most helpful. Each Skipper then took their groups on a tour of the park, the Camp Store, the pre-trip classroom, the lighthouse, the 300 foot cliff and restrictive railing and stay off sign, the sandy trail down to the tide pooling, the bathrooms, and the view of Long Beach harbor from the south end of the park.

That night around 5:00 the heater-stack food truck arrived again and the Skippers organized their group at the picnic tables and the Skippers began serving food to the mates. By know every Skipper knew the other Skipper’s marine theme nickname and real names were no longer used.

The Camp store opened at 6:00 p.m. that evening and the Skippers took their groups to line up for buying candy and other snacks at the store. While the mates were waiting on the line for the Camp Store, some of the Skippers took some wood and carried it to the concrete campfire circle in the park for the Monday night campfire. Some of the Skippers had brought guitars the second week and a few were practicing new songs and skits for the campfire. I personally learned how to finger pick a guitar from Skipper Windy who was an excellent musician. I played guitar a little in High School but lost interest in taking lessons. Now I had an opportunity to relearn the cords on the guitar so that I could contribute at the nightly campfires. Some of the Skippers taught the other Skippers short little skits and mate participation games. The Monday night campfire for the second week was one of the best campfires we had since camp began the week before. The Skippers learned at night in their free time to work on their music, routines and group presentations for the campfires to improve the experience for the mates and to get a better evaluation from Captain Flogg at the end of the week. Each week for all eight weeks of the summer Captain Flogg had to do the Skipper evaluations which were important for being rehired the next year or using as a reference for school or a job. Captain Flogg asked me on Tuesday to take notes on the Skipper’s performance levels especially at field activities where Captain Flogg was not in attendance. At the beach and the Harbor Tour I had to take notes on how well Skippers controlled their groups and whether there were any problems or not. When Thursday night came around Captain Flogg told me it took forever to do the Skipper evaluations and asked if I would help him for the rest of the summer. I agreed to help not realizing how difficult the process was on an evaluation form set up by administrators from the L.A. Board of Education. Carbon copies of all the evaluations had to be kept and sent to the main office at the L.A. Board of Education each week by Friday morning. Every Friday afternoon after the last mates bus left Captain Flogg handed out the Skipper evaluations and then spent two hours discussing each evaluation for five minutes or so with each of the eight Skippers. Some Skippers did not take the evaluations easily and sometimes a few of them did not agree with the evaluation. We tried not to give to high an evaluation grade in the first few weeks so they did not get to confident in their duties. Sometimes a low evaluation was a way in motivating a Skipper to improve and not sit back and do the minimum. We also wanted “Team” workers so that things went smoothly and if a problem or emergency occurred a team effort could resolve it better than a one-person attempt.

Tuesday morning of the second week low tide was late in the morning which meant we had to give pre-trip talks right after breakfast and then save time to go tide-pooling before lunch. It made the schedule a little rushed but we managed to pull it off. One mate was caught stuffing a Starfish in his pocket. He was warned and the Starfish was released back into the ocean. The rest of the day went well. Heater-stacks arrived on time and lunch was served. In the afternoon the entire camp when to Cabrillo beach by school busses Captain Flogg called up and ordered. The mates always loved being at the beach and it made for an easy afternoon for the Skippers also.

Wednesday the busses arrived for the first group to go on the Harbor tour and off they went. I had prepared notes I researched after giving last week’s Harbor Tour. Two Harbor Tours in one day was tiring and difficult but I felt much more confident the second week when I gave my guide talk about the Long Beach harbor.

Wednesday night we prepared for a new format for the Campfire by having it at Cabrillo beach. We had permission from the Parks department to set a campfire in a concrete fire pit for our entire camp. It was breezy and cool that evening, yet we had the greatest time. I sang a duet with Windy as she played the guitar about a French folk song. We taught the song to the mates and had them sing along with us.

Better organization of Skippers

Improved Campfire activities

Improved Harbor Tour

Camp Store better equipped

Daily routine better organized

Keeping up the morale of the staff

End of the Week Staff Evaluation

Thursday night Staff Evaluations with Capt. Flogg

Diagram of Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp 1967

Text Box: Staff shower
Text Box: Coffee shop

(Picnic benches)

Text Box: Privacy Hedge
Text Box: Road to Cabrillo
Beach and Docks for
Harbor Tour.
Campfires on beach.
Text Box: Mates Tents
Text Box: Pacific Ocean
Text Box: Tide pooling trails
Text Box: 300 foot vertical cliff
Text Box: Lighthouse
Text Box: Driveway
Text Box: Storage
Text Box: Classroom & staff 
lounge
Text Box: Camp
Store

CHAPTER 6- Looking back 50 years later at the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Marine Ecology Summer Camp

In looking back at the summer of 1967 and comparing it to where the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp should be today, I would make the following recommendations:

1-Safety must come first regardless of rationalizations. If the tide-pooling trail ever became unsafe for children to walk down to the ocean at any time then the trail must remained unused. Conversely, the trails should be repaired by putting in stone barriers to prevent erosion and wooden railroad ties as path guides by the State Park Association. The tide pooling was the main ecological opportunity for the students/mates to experience live and Dead Sea animals, plants and fish firsthand. I can still remember 40 years later the excitement the mates had every trip we made down to the tide-pooling area each week.

2-Health- the single public bathroom for 40 males and another for 40 females was a Health hazard then and still is today. Portable bathrooms should be rented by the week and be cleaned out each week. The risk of students meeting the public in the bathrooms is great and there is always the risk of perverted adults using the bathrooms as their place of refuge.

3-Technology- in the summer of 1967 portable tape recorders had just come on the market. A portable tape recorder was most helpful in recording the sounds of the waves and ocean for the marine diorama that was created in the basement of the lighthouse. Fast speed forward, today at lease one laptop computer with internet access and a compact project would be a great education took for showing PowerPoint slide shows of ecology themes daytime or nighttime.

4-Weather protection- There is no weather protection if it breaks the mold and rains despite many summers without rain in the past. A large tarp could be permanently set up for the summer over the picnic tables to shade the students or protect them against the rain. This did not exist in the summer of 1967 and there was always a risk and a chance that rain could easily ruin the day since there were no places for the students to hide from the rain except in their tents.

5- Assessment follow-up and marketing- In the summer of 1967 the assessment was all about the Skippers and their function as a Camp Leader. There was no assessment of the curriculum or the summer program to support future funding for continuing the program for many years to come. Fast forward to today, cameras should be provided to the staff of temporary loaner cellphones to continually take digital pictures of all the aspects of the camp experience to use for PowerPoint Marketing promotions at all of the participating School districts during the off season.

6-Movies of Point Fermin lighthouse School camp- along the theme of using PowerPoint slide presentations for marketing the curriculum and school camp experience at Point Fermin Lighthouse school camp, which is so unique, digital movies can provide an even more exciting opportunity for potential students and parents to see the opportunities offered at the Point Fermin Lighthouse School Camp.

7- Archival after 40 years- I have tried to tie together 2014 and the summer of 1967 and bring forward the valuable experience that all LA Board of Education students should have at least once in a lifetime.  Recently, I read on the Internet that the funding for the Point Fermin Lighthouse camp was in jeopardy and that was a sad moment because anyone who has ever experienced this program firsthand would support keeping it well funded for all time.

8-The lighthouse as a major resource- 40 years ago in the summer of 1967 the lighthouse was owned and operated by the US Coast Guard who had no interaction with the Camp program. Students were not allowed to tour or view the inside of the lighthouse at any time. Several years later in the early 1970’s I have read that the Lighthouse was abandoned or closed by the US Coast Guard that is typical of their mission in the 21st Century. A private group has taken over the Lighthouse and preserved it as a historical site. If campers were allowed to tour the inside of the Lighthouse and use it for educational purposes in learning navigation, marine ecology, Astronomy, and other academic subjects, it would greatly improve the curriculum of the LA Board of Education School Camp at Point Fermin Park. Had we had the opportunity to tour the Lighthouse back in 1967 that would have been one of the highlights of the camp with the same interest level as tide pooling? I would strongly recommend that the LA Board of Education supervisors of the School Camp program at Point Fermin Park work in cooperation with the private preservation group that now owns the Lighthouse to provide expanded educational opportunities for the summer campers. A similar lighthouse located on the Hudson River was slated to be destroyed after the US Coast Guard abandoned using it until the local private citizens, as in the Point Fermin park, stepped in and saved the little lighthouse on the Hudson river in Sleepy Hollow, Westchester county, New York. Schools now visit the lighthouse museum on a regular basis during the school season and Earth science students get to examine Marine Ecology and Navigation on the Hudson River as well as other Social Studies classes and Science classes. The little lighthouse is in the shadow of the Tappan Zee Bridge by the way and can be seen from the bridge by the thousands of cars that travel across the bridge everyday.

Nautical terms-Harbor Cruise Long Beach 

Word Definition 

abaft – toward or at the stern of a ship; further aft affreightment – hiring of a vessel 

afterdeck – deck behind a ship’s bridge
afterguard – men who work the aft sails on the quarterdeck and poop deck ahull – with sails furled and helm lashed to the lee-side
amidships – midway between the bow and stern of a ship
astern – at the stern of a ship
backstay – stay extending from ship’s mastheads to the side of the ship ballaster – one who supplies ships with ballast
bargemaster – owner of a barge
bee – hardwood on either side of bowsprit through which forestays are reeved belay – to secure a rope by winding on a pin or cleat
bilge – lower point of inner hull of a ship
binnacle – case in which a ship’s compass is kept
bitts – posts mounted on a ship for fastening ropes
bluepeter – blue flag with white square in centre used as ship’s signal boatswain – ship’s crewmember in charge of equipment and maintenance bobstay – rope used on ships to steady the bowsprit
bollard – short post on a wharf or ship to which ropes are tied
boltrope – strong rope stitched to edges of a sail
bosun – boatswain
bottomry – using the ship as collateral to finance a sea voyage
bow – front of a ship
bower – anchor carried at bow of a ship
bowline – rope used to keep weather edge of a sail taut
bowsprit – spar that extends at bows of a ship
brails – ropes on edge of sail for hauling up
bream – to clean a ship’s bottom by burning off seaweed
bulwark – the side of a ship above the deck
bumpkin – spar projecting from stern of ship
bunt – middle of sail, fish-net or cloth when slack
buntline – rope attached to middle of square sail to haul it up to the yard burgee – small ship’s flag used for identification or signalling
cable – heavy rope or chain for mooring a ship 

cabotage – shipping and sailing between points in the same country camber – slight arch or convexity to a beam or deck of a ship
capstan – upright device for winding in heavy ropes or cables
careen – to turn a ship on its side in order to clean or repair it
cathead – projection near the bow of a ship to which anchor is secured chine – the intersection of the middle and sides of a boat 

chock – metal casting with curved arms for passing ropes for mooring ship clew – corner of sail with hole to attach ropes
coaming – raised edge around ship’s hatches to keep water out
cocket – official shipping seal; customs clearance form 

cofferdam – narrow vacant space between two bulkheads of a ship cog – single-masted, square-sailed ship with raised stern companionway – stairs from upper deck of ship to lower deck cordage – ropes in the rigging of a ship 

cringle – loop at corner of sail to which a line is attached
crosstrees – horizontal crosspieces at a masthead used to support ship’s mast davit – device for hoisting and lowering a boat
deadeye – rounded wooden block with hole used to set up ship’s stays deadwood – timbers built into ends of ship when too narrow to permit framing demurrage – delay of vessel’s departure or loading with cargo
dodger – shield against rain or spray on a ship’s bridge
dogwatch – a short, evening period of watch duty on a ship
downhaul – rope for holding down or hauling down a sail or spar
dromond – large single-sailed ship powered by rowers
dyogram – ship’s chart indicating compass deflection due to ship’s iron
earing – line for fastening corner of a sail to the gaff or yard
ensign – large naval flag
escutcheon – part of ship’s stern where name is displayed
fairlead – ring through which rope is led to change its direction without friction fardage – wood placed in bottom of ship to keep cargo dry
fiddley – iron framework around hatchway opening
figurehead – ornament or (usually female) bust attached to the bow of a ship flagstaff – flag pole at stern of a ship
fluke – part of an anchor that fastens in the ground
forebitt – post for fastening cables at a ship’s foremast
forecabin – cabin in fore part of ship
forecastle – short raised deck at fore end of ship; fore of ship under main deck forefoot – foremost end of ship’s keel
foremast – mast nearest the bow of a ship
foresail – lowest sail set on the foremast of square-rigged ship 

forestay – stay leading from the foremast to the bow of a ship frap – to draw a sail tight with ropes or cables
freeboard – distance between waterline and main deck of a ship futtock – rib of a ship 

gaff – spar on which head of fore-and-aft sail is extended
gaff-topsail – triangular topsail with its foot extended upon the gaff
gangway – either of the sides of the upper deck of a ship
garboard – plank on a ship’s bottom next to the keel
genoa – large jib that overlaps the mainsail
grapnel – small anchor used for dragging or grappling
groundage – a charge on a ship in port
gudgeon – metal socket into which the pintle of a boat’s rudder fits
gunnage – number of guns carried on a warship
gunwale – upper edge of the side of a ship
gybe – to swing a sail from one side to another
halyard – rope or tackle for hoisting and lowering sails
hank – series of rings or clips for attaching a jib or staysail to a stay
hawse – distance between ship’s bow and its anchor
hawsehole – hole for ship’s cable
hawser – large rope for mooring or towing a ship
headsail – sail set forward of the foremast of a ship
helm – ship’s steering wheel
holystone – sandstone material used to scrape ships’ decks
inboard – inside the line of a ship’s bulwarks or hull
jack – ship’s flag flown from jack-staff at bow of vessel
jack-block – pulley system for raising topgallant masts
jack-cross-tree single iron cross-tree at head of a topgallant mast
jackstaff – short staff at ship’s bow from which the jack is hoisted
jackstay – iron or wooden bar running along yard of ship to which sails fastened jackyard – spar used to spread the foot of a gaff-topsail
jib – small triangular sail extending from the head of the foremast
jibboom – spar forming an extension of the bowsprit
jibe – to change a ship’s course to make the boom shift sides
jurymast – mast erected on ship in place of one lost
kedge – small anchor to keep a ship steady
keelhaul – to punish by dragging under keel of ship
keelson – lengthwise wooden or steel beam in ship for bearing stress
kentledge – pig-iron used as ballast in ship’s hold
lagan – cargo jettisoned from ship but marked by buoys for recovery
lanyard – rope or line for fastening something in a ship 

larboard – left side of a ship
lastage – room for stowing goods in a ship
lateen – triangular sail rigged on ship’s spar
laveer – to sail against the wind
lazaret – space in ship between decks used for storage
leeboard – wood or metal planes attached to hull to prevent leeway
leech – a vertical edge of a square sail
loxodograph – device used to record ship’s travels
luff – windward side of a ship; forward edge of fore-and-aft sail
lugsail – four-sided sail bent to an obliquely hanging yard
lutchet – fitting on ship’s deck to allow mast to pivot to pass under bridges mainmast – sailing ship’s principal mast
mainsail – principal sail on a ship’s mainmast
mainsheet – rope by which mainsail is trimmed and secured
mainstay – stay that extends from the main-top to the foot of the foremast manrope – rope used as a handrail on a ship
martingale – lower stay of rope used to sustain strain of the forestays
mizzen – three-masted vessel; aft sail of such a vessel
mizzenmast – mast aft or next aft of the mainmast in a ship
moonraker – topmost sail of a ship, above the skyscraper
oakum – old ropes untwisted for caulking the seams of ships
orlop – lowest deck in a ship having four or more decks
outhaul – rope used to haul a sail taut along a spar
outrigger – spar extended from side of ship to help secure mast
painter – rope attached to bow of a boat to attach it to a ship or a post pallograph – instrument measuring ship’s vibration
parrel – band by which a yard is fastened to a mast
patroon – captain of a ship; coxswain of a longboat
poop – enclosed structure at stern of ship above main deck
port – when facing forward, the left side of a shift
primage – fee paid to loaders for loading ship
purser – ship’s officer in charge of finances and passengers
quarterdeck – part of ship’s deck set aside by captain for ceremonial functions quartering – sailing nearly before the wind
rake – the inclination of a mast or another part of a ship
ratline – small rope forming a rung of a rope ladder on a ship
reef – to reduce area of a sail by rolling or folding part of it
reeve – to pass a rope through a ring
roach – curved cut in edge of sail for preventing chafing
roband – piece of yarn used to fasten a sail to a spar 

rostrum – spike on prow of warship for ramming
rowlock – contrivance serving as a fulcrum for an oar
royal – small sail on royal mast just above topgallant sail
scud – to sail swiftly before a gale
scupper – hole allowing water to drain from ship’s deck
scuttlebutt – cask of drinking water aboard a ship; rumour, idle gossip scuttles – portholes on a ship
sheer – fore-and-aft curvature of a ship from bow to stern
shrouds – ropes supporting the mast of a ship
sidelight – coloured lights on side of a ship under way at night
skeg – part of ship connecting the keel with the bottom of the rudderpost skysail – sail above the royal sail
skyscraper – triangular sail on a ship above the royal
slipway – ramp sloping into water for supporting a ship
snotty – naval midshipman
spanker – sail on the mast nearest the stern of a square-rigged ship
spar – any ship’s mast, boom, yard, or gaff
spinnaker – large triangular sail opposite the mainsail
spirketting – inside planking between ports and waterways of a ship sponson – platform jutting from ship’s deck for gun or wheel
sprit – spar crossing a fore-and-aft sail diagonally
spritsail – sail extended by a sprit
starboard – when facing forward, the right side of a ship
starbolins – sailors of the starboard watch
stay – large rope used to support a mast
staysail – fore-and-aft sail hoisted on a stay
steeve – to set a ship’s bowsprit at an upward inclination
stemson – supporting timber of a ship
stern – back part of a ship
sternpost – main member at stern of a ship extending from keel to deck sternway – movement of a ship backwards
stevedore – dock worker who loads and unloads ships
stokehold – ship’s furnace chamber
strake – continuous band of plates on side of a ship
stunsail – light auxiliary sail to the side of principal sails
supercargo – ship’s official in charge of business affairs
taffrail – rail round the stern of a ship
thole – pin in the side of a boat to keep oar in place
tiller – handle or lever for turning a ship’s rudder
timberhead – top end of ship’s timber used above the gunwale 

timenoguy – rope stretched from place to place in a ship
topgallant – mast or sail above the topmast and below the royal mast
topmast – ship’s mast above the lower mast
topsail – ship’s sail above the lowermost sail
tranship – to transfer from one ship to another
transire – ship’s customs warrant for clearing goods
transom – transverse timbers attached to ship’s sternpost
treenail – long wooden pin used to fix planks of ship to the timbers
trice – to haul in and lash secure a sail with a small rope
trunnel – wooden shipbuilding peg used for fastening timbers
trysail – ship’s sail bent to a gaff and hoisted on a lower mast
tuck – part of ship where ends of lower planks meet under the stern
turtleback – structure over ship’s bows or stern
unreeve – to withdraw a rope from an opening
walty – inclined to tip over or lean
wardroom – quarters for ship’s officers
washboard – broad thin plank along ship’s gunwale to keep out sea water watching – fully afloat
waveson – goods floating on the sea after a shipwreck
wear – to turn a ship’s stern to windward to alter its course
weatherboard – weather side of a ship
weatherly – able to sail close to the wind with little leeway
wheelhouse – shelter where ship’s steering wheel kept
whipstaff – vertical lever controlling ship’s rudder
windbound – hindered from sailing by contrary winds
windlass – winch used to raise a ship’s anchor
xebec – small three-masted pirate ship
yard – tapering spar attached to ship’s mast to spread the head of a square sai yardarm – either end of the yard of a square-rigged ship
yawl – ship’s small boat; sailboat carrying mainsail and one or more jibs
zabra – small Spanish sailing vesse 

Foul weather flags 

Queen Mary ship 

Buoys

Sites in the Harbor 

Harbor Masters headquarters 

Coast Guard Headquarters 

Channel markers red and green 

Piers

Breakwater

Quaranteen area 

Parts of the Water Taxi 

Bow

Stern

Starboard

Port

Keel

rudder

propeller

helm

galley

poopdeck 

midship 

fore 

aft 

SAILBOATS 

schooner 

ketch 

sloop 

Britain 

France 

Japan 

Ships sighted 

1-US Coast Guard Cutter 

2- Tanker- housing at the rear 

3- Cargo Ship-housing in the middle 

4- Flags of foreign ships 

USA 

Panama 

Day-

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Grunion fish run at night. Staff checks out the fish.

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Water taxi and Disney World mountain

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Point Fermin Lighthouse and the 300 foot clifts

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My son Dean Michael Mead at age two at the Point Fermin Camp

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Jeri Mead walking away from skippers unloading camper trunks

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Food came from heater stacks cooked at a local Elementary School. Skippers served the Campers first. Other pictures of weekend staff trips to Disney World in LA. 

cccCou Text Box: Jenny was the Director, Captain FLogg’s wife and a past graduate student of his. They lived in a very small RV trailer all summer, while my wife and I lived in an Army tent with three army cots and no lights or electricity or chairs.Text Box: My wife Jeri Mead and skipper Rick working the Camp Store after dinner.Text Box: The LA Board of Education Supervisor that came to visit when I complained that weren’t paid for services yet, and I was running out of money for food on the weekends. He met with my wife Jeri who chewed him out for not paying me on a regular weekly basis. After the meeting he agreed that Jeri was right and that they had dropped the ball. He gave Jeri a paid job in the camp store as manager and paid me for ½ the summer salary. Here the Supervisor is waiting to board the Water Taxi tour which I did twice a day every Wednesday for 8 weeks. I got better every week.Text Box:  Text Box: Each Camper was given an allowance to spend in the Camp store for the week. Many bought gifts and candy. The Camp store was the most popular activity at camp.Text Box: This is one of the many camp fire outings at Cabrillo beach not far from the Lighthouse. That is Long Beach harbor in the background. All the campers wore the same camp hat. We cooked marshmellows, sung songs and listened to camp stories. Skipper Splutz was one of the best and most dramatic story tellers.Text Box: Every staff member or skipper has a sea nickname they chose for themselves for the summer. We never used our regular names all summer. This is Skipper Windy telling a story at campfire.Text Box: This is Skipper Splutz who was one of the best campfire story tellers. The campers loved him.Text Box: Cabrillo beach night camp fires. The kids loved the songs and stories the staff put on for them.Text Box: Clear Creek School Camp was in the Los Angeles mountains at 5,000 feet above sea level. I spent two weeks there while it was not in session yet for summer. This is some of the visiting students going down into a canyon. The area was full of rattle snakes and everyone had to wear high boots for safety. The weather was always hot in the mountains and the chaperal bushes were a constant fire hazard. This permanent year-round LA School camp had log cabins, a café and many classroom buildings as well as a Hawk cage zoo. It was way more equipped than the Point Fermin Lighthouse camp which was just a temporary Summer situation.Text Box: The Skippers did all the manual labor and the campers bags arrived before their busses and we had to unload all the bags and line them up for campers to find in the parking lot.Text Box: Captain Flogg was a college professor and the Director of the Camp. I was the assistant Director of the camp for eight weeks. Here Captain FLogg is taling to Skipper Ketch about campers arriving in the bus behind them. Eighty campers girls and boys arrived from different LA school districts each week  for Monday to Friday. The emphasis in the camp was Marine Ecology.Text Box: One of the many beautiful cabins at the LA Clear Creek School Camp in the Los Angeles mountains.Text Box: The Clear Creek pool out in the open sun, 5,000 feet above sea level. This was a lap pool which was narrow to save water and allow campers to swim laps from one end to the other.Text Box: A typical mountain trail at Clear Creek school camp. Campers had to be careful of their footing and the steepness of the trails. Rattle Snakes were everywhere. We saw 12 snakes on one hike alone.Text Box: The wooden sign at the Clear Creek outdoor weather station. They kept track of the rain fall, temperature, wind and other weather considerations with many expensive instruments.Text Box: Skippers fooling around at the campfire with shaving cream.Text Box: We got our food and the campers in heater stacks which were pressurized cans with many sections inside held under steam pressure to keep the food hot. We never got coffee because the menu was for children. We had to buy our own coffee from a vendor in the park. Here the Skippers are line up serving the campers from the heater stacks.Text Box: Skipper Carl known as Skipper Hatch doing a lecture on a tide pool trip down the side of the cliffs at Point Fermin Park. The trail down was closed to the public. Only our camp had permission to us the trail for tide pooling. Above another picture of the skippers serving food to the campers in the middle of a public park on picnic tables.Text Box: We raised the flag every morning with different Campers picked to help.Text Box: Jenny, Skipper Windy and Skipper Ketch having fun in Point Fermin Park.Text Box: The weekly schedule for the Point Fermin Marine School Camp in 1967. We repeated the same schedule every week for eight weeks. It never rained once.Text Box: Captain Sharkie, Me, and Mrs. Sharkie, Jeri at the dinner or picnic table eating dinner. Notice the small milk containers for drinks. The food was school food and not always good.Text Box: Jenny, aka Mrs. Flogg tide pooling with campers using a shell identification chart.Text Box: Front view of Clear Creek log cabins.Text Box: My wife Jeri and son Dean seen running away in the background at Clear Creek School camp. Jeri hated the hot weather and threat of rattle snakes at the Camp.Text Box: Jenny aka Mrs. Flogg sitting with the campers at a park picnic table.Text Box: Skipper Hatch, aka Carl at a tide pool trip. Carl was one of the smartest counselors we had. He was always well informed on marine life.Text Box: Skipper and camper work to remove barnacles and shells from rocks during a tide pooling trip.Text Box: Jenny aka Skipper Jenny aka Mrs. Flogg teaching a classroom of campers in one of our garages. The three garages were the only permanent sheltered sites we had. Another garage was the staff lounge and the third garage was the Camp Store. Jenny is covering Marine Biology with the Campers.Text Box: Skipper Splutz holding up a lost bag lunch for a camper to claim.Text Box: Skipper Splutz always got the whole camp involved with his stories.Text Box: Camp fire at Cabrillo beach at night with Skipper Splutz telling a camp story.Text Box: Boys coming out of the public bathroom.Text Box: Skipper Windy hit with a shaving cream pie during the fun at the beach fire camping.

Part II- Don’t Be Square

a TV Pilot movie script about the good old days 1960-1970’s at Kakiat Junior High, Spring Valley, New York. East Ramapo Central School District.

Disclaimer: The follow people are fictions despite any similarity to real people. The names are purely fictional. This is two scenes from the TV pilot movie script from Don’t Be Square.

ACT THREE- A MAJOR DRUG PROBLEM

SCENE 1- INT.-DAY -DRUGS AT KAKIAT JUNIOR HIGH.

FADE IN:

Note: Mark Katz, Physical Education and PELHAM MEAD, Physical Education, go out for lunch at the local Jewish Deli in Hillcrest, NY, to have a corn-beef sandwich. Mark is a large muscular man six feet tall with dark brown hair. Pelham is also tall and thin with light brown hair.

MARK KATZ, (24) PHYSICAL EDUCATION

They make a great corn-beef sandwich here. So how is your wife and son doing? 

PELHAM MEAD (23) PHYSICAL EDUCATION

We’re fine. Money is a little tight since JEANINE isn’t working. She wants to be home when little DEAN comes home from pre-school.

MARK KATZ, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

My wife is feels the same way about our daughter LAUREN. She is home all day with the cat and Lauren.

PELHAM MEAD, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

It is not easy being a teacher with such low pay. I am at Masters level, plus one year salary level, and I still cannot make ends meet. We drink Cool-aide on a regular basis. My son gets the milk. My wife even puts rice in the hamburgers to fill us up. Can you imagine that?

MARK KATZ, PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHER

I am an only child and my father is a retired barber, and we have to borrow money from him all the time for my daughter Lauren’s toddler clothes, and furniture for the apartment.

PELHAM MEAD, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Some day it will get easier I hope. It is getting late, let’s go or we will be late for the next class.

MARK KATZ, PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHER

OK, You drive.

FADE OUT.

Note: Pelham Mead and Mark Katz, return to school and enter through the side door of the building.

FADE IN:

PELHAM MEAD, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Hey, RICHARD what are you doing, sharing your lunch?

What is in the bag RICHARD?

RICHARD FLYNN(12) STUDENT

None of your business COACH MEAD.

PELHAM MEAD, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Really, give me that bag. 

RICHARD FLYNN, STUDENT

No it’s mine. Run DAVID.

Note: RICHARD FLYNN and his friend DAVID HALLAS attempt to run, but Mark Katz grabs both of them before they could get down the hallway.

PELHAM MEAD, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

What the hell is going on here? (Talking to RICHARD FLYNN’s friend) What is your name son?

DAVID HALLAS(12), STUDENT

My name is David Hallas.

MARK KATZ, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

I think we have a problem here, (He quickly picks up the paper bag on the floor. Looking in the bag he sees what he thinks is tobacco, until he smells it.) 

Phew, what an odor. I think this stuff is marijuana. Take a whiff BILL.

PELHAM MEAD , PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Wow, what a smell. JOHN you hold onto DAVID HALLAS, and I will take RICHARD FLYNN with us down to the main office.

MARK KATZ, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

(Talking to the Secretary, Mrs. GREY). Can you get Principal SHAW for me please? Thanks you.

PELHAM MEAD, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

(Talking to the two students) You two sit down, and glue yourself to the chairs.

BOB SHAW, PRINCIPAL

Pel and Mark, What do we have here?

MARK KATZ, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Pel, and I caught RICHARD FLYNN, and DAVID HALLAS in possession of a bag of marijuana in the school in what appeared to be cash transaction between the two of them. We surprised them when we entered the school by the side door. They were hiding behind the door at the time with the paper bag of marijuana. 

BOB SHAW, PRINCIPAL

Really, let me see this paper bag.

(Examining the paper bag of marijuana) 

Well you may well be right Mark. Take this student into my office. Mrs. GREY and call the Ramapo police please.

Mark and Pel, I will need a written copy of this incident right away. Go back to your offices and I will have someone cover your classes. As soon as you write your incident report bring it to me immediately so that I can make a copy for the Police.

Thank you Gentlemen 

FADE TO BLACK.

FADE IN:

PELHAM MEAD, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Can you believe it coach?  We actually caught two kids in the process of selling marijuana in the school?”

 MARK KATZ, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

I am not surprised, since there seems to be a lot of pot heads in our classes these days.

FADE OUT.

SCENE 2- INT. DAY -ONE WEEK LATER IN THE TEACHER CAFETERIA.

FADE IN:

Note: JOHN CARUCCI, MARK KATZ, PELHAM MEAD, and RICK KNAPP are having lunch together and the discussion switches to RICHARD FLYNN.

PELHAM MEAD, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

What ever happened to that kid you and Mark caught selling drugs Pel?

MARK KATZ, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

You are never going to believe this. They never suspended him because the psychologist felt it would affect his midterm grades. The other kid got off when his parents came into Mr. Shaw’s office with their lawyer. They placed all the blame on RICHARD FLYNN, and threatened  to sue Mr. Shaw and the School District. Their son got off with a warning.

PELHAM MEAD, PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Incredible, no wonder they cannot control drug abuse in this school? I am disgusted with this crap.

RICK KNAPP, SCIENCE TEACHER

(Hearing the name RICHARD FLYNN) Rick says, that little punk. I had a run in with him a month ago. Yeah, ADRIANNE WASSERMAN came to me a month ago to warn me about this kid RICHARD FLYNN. He is a real trouble maker.

FADE OUT.

Dr. Pelham Mead
Dr. Pelham Mead